Learn English Grammar: Adjectives

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Learn English Grammar: Adjectives Powered By Docstoc
					    About this learning material

Using this learning material or „Programme‟ you can
learn the following four topics related to English
grammar:
Adjectives: definition, meaning, types of adjectives
Degree     of     Comparisons:      Positive    Degree,
Comparative        Degree and Superlative Degree
,transformation of degrees
Change the Voice: Active voice, Passive voice, their
rules applied in the different types of sentences
Direct-Indirect Speech:
• You may think that this is just another textbook on
  „English Grammar‟. No, it is not just a textbook or
  Series of Question Answers.
• By reading this programme carefully, you learn about
  English Grammar‟ yourself. You do not require a teacher to
  teach you.

• Every one of you has a copy of the programme, you would
  read and learn at your own speed.

• When a teacher teaches you or when you try to learn by
  reading textbooks, it is possible that after much has been
  covered you realize that you have not understood anything.
  However, such a situation never arises in this programme
  .As after each step you come to know whether you have
  understood the point or not.
• The programme contains a number of small
  units called ‘frames’. Each frame presents
  some information and includes a question,
  which you have to answer. The correct
  answer to each question is given
  immediately below it.
• Although there are questions and answers,
  the programme is „not a test‟. Through
  question & answer, the material has been
  organized in logical steps so that it is easy
  for you to learn by yourself.
  HOW TO LEARN USING THIS
       PROGRAMME:
• Read the programme at your own speed.
• Read each frame carefully & thoroughly so
  that you properly understand the question
  asked in it.
• While reading the programme, you will come
  across certain words underlined. Study these
  words carefully as they may help you in
  answering the questions that come afterwards.
• Do not write anything in the programme.
  Write the answers for the frames in the answer
  sheet.
• Since you have to answer a question in every
  frame, you would naturally be interested in
  knowing whether your answer is correct or not.
  Therefore, the correct answer is given
  immediately below the frame. You should keep
  the correct answer covered with the card
  provided for this purpose until you have
  written your own answer to the frame in the
  answer sheet.

• After writing your answer, you move the card
  & compare your answer with the correct
  answer. You will find that you are right almost
  all the time. If your answer is wrong, read the
  frame again & understand why you are wrong,
  & then go to the next frame.
• Now you may start reading the programme.
ADJECTIVES
     You are familiar with the word Noun. Your name, your
      father‟s name, your mother‟s name, your friend‟s name,
      all is the examples of noun. For e.g. Bhavika, Gunjan’
      Riya Survesh, and Mayank these all are nouns. These
      all are names of particular boy & girl. These are Proper
      Nouns.
• Asoka was a great king. In this sentence, the
  word ‘Asoka’ is a P--------------Noun.
                       Proper
• 2) You know that the words such as- girl, boy,
  school, pen, pencil, chair, table, and bottle are
  nouns. These nouns are used commonly to the
  members of that class. For e.g. pen
    It may be red, blue, black, or ball or ink pen.
  If I say you, “give me a pen”.
  You will give me any type of pen. It means that
  a pen is a common noun. Asoka was a great
  king. In this sentence Asoka is a proper noun&
  king is a c-------
             common        noun.
•   4 ) Examine the following sentences:
•   This is a house.
•   This is an old men house.
•   Now answer the question:
•   Whose house is it?


                Old men
5) The sentence „This is a house.‟ does not give
  any information about the noun house. But in
  second sentence word “old men” describes the
  house. We may say that the word, which
  describes the noun, is an --------------
6) Pick out the adjectives
• This is an interesting book.
    interesting
• These flowers are beautiful.
   beautiful,
• This is a drawing paper.
    drawing
• There is little time for preparation.

    little
7) Examine the following sentences :
• Riya has cousins.

• Riya has five cousins.

• Answer the question: How many cousins
  have Riya?
• Answer is -----------
              five
• 8) The word “five” shows the number of
  cousins. It also describes the noun cousins. We
  may say that the word, which tells number of
  the nouns, is as an adjective. In the above
  sentence, Riya has five cousins. In this
  sentence the “five” is an ----------
                           adjective
• 9) Pick out the adjectives:
• I ate some rice.
                        some
• Sunday is the first day of the week.
                                         first,
• He ate two cutlets.     two

• Her weight is 90 k.g.
                          90
10) Examine the following sentences:
• Mayank does not like toy.

• Mayank does not like that toy.

• Which toy does Mayank not like?

  Answer is --------------
               that
• 11) Mayank does not like that toy. In this,
  sentence that points out which girl is meant.

• We may say that the word, which point out the
  noun is as an adjective. In above sentence that
  is an -----------.
         adjective
12)Thus, we may define:
 A word used with a noun to describe,
  or to point out, the person or to tell the
  number or quantity, is called as an
  adjective.
13) Examine the following sentences:
• Survesh likes a cat.
• Survesh likes a pussycat.
• Now answer the question: Which cat does
  survesh like?
•     Answer is -------------------------.
                     pussycat
14 ) Survesh likes a pussycat.
• In this example “pussy” is used for a cat .Cat
  is an     (animal / human)

    animal
• 15) The word P ussy is used to describe the
  quality of a cat. So the word P ussy is known
  as an-----
        adjective
• 16) Read the following sentence:
• Riya has five puppies.
• Answer the question: How many puppies
  have Riya?
                    five
• Your answer is -------------
17 ) The word five tells the number of puppies.
  The word five is known as an ------
                                 adjective
18)From above examples we may say that an
adjective is used to describe ------------

    ( animal / inanimate)
   animal
• 19) Examine the following sentences.
• Bhopal is a city.
  Bhopal is a city of Lakes.
• Answer the question:
• What kind of city Bhopal is ?
• Answer is Lakes
            -----------------
• 20) Read the following sentence.
• Bhopal is a City of Lakes. In this sentence
  Bhopal is a (place/ animal)

      place
• 21) Our school has visited five villages. In
  this sentence, Five shows the number of
  villages. It means it is used to tell the number
  of noun village. Village is a (   place /
  animal)
                   place
We may say that the
adjective is use to describe
places.
22) Examine the following sentences.
• He has little Intelligence.
• He has no sense.
• Intelligence & Sense is NOUN OR
  PRONOUN.

NOUN
23) Beauty, sweetness, childhood, love, justice
  are nouns. They are the name of some
  qualities. Therefore, they have no material
  form. They cannot seen or touch. We can know
  of them only through our mind. These nouns
  are -----------------
       ABSTRCT NOUNS
                               ABSTRCT NOUNS
24) Intelligence& sense are ---------------------
  nouns.
 We may say that an
25)

 adjective is used to
describe an abstract
        noun.
26) Examine the following sentences:
• He has lost ALL his wealth.
• Bhavika ate NO bread.
• Underlined adjectives describe :
  (abstract/ material) nouns.

    material
27) THUS, WE MAY DEFINIE: “A
 WORD USED WITH NOUN TO
DESCRIBE OR POINT OUT, THE
 PERSON, ANIMAL, PLACE OR
   THING WHICH THE NOUN
    NAMES OR TO TELL THE
NUMBER IS CALLLED -- --- ------
           -----------.
           an adjective
•   28) Let us Examine following examples-
•   A brave boy,
•    An intelligent child,
•   A poor man, An ink pen,
•   A clever girl.
•    A meritorious student
•   In above sentence the words -brave, poor,
    clever, intelligent, ink & meritorious are
    known as an -----------------
                    adjectives
• 29) If you ask the question „what kind of’?’ to
  the above examples, you will get the answer.
  For e.g. What kind of student is he? Answer
  is meritorious. It shows the quality of
  students.
30) Brave, poor, clever & ink show the quality
  of nouns. So these types of adjective are
  known as adjectives of Q------------
                          Quality
•   31) Let us Examine following examples:
•   A large city ,
•    A metropolitan city ,
•    The beautiful garden ,
•    A crowded area
•   These adjectives describe the quality of (places
    / person).
                   places
• 32) In the above examples, adjectives such as
  beautiful, marvelous, muddy, crowded
  &dangerous describe the quality of places.
  Therefore, these adjectives are
• adjectives of ---------
                  Quality
•   33) Let us Examine following examples:
•    BLACK belt ,
•    WHITE paper,
•    CURLY hairs,
•    FAIR complexion
•   You know that these CAPATALISED words
    are adjectives. These adjectives describe
    things/person. (Choose the correct one)

     things
• 34) In above example adjectives such as black,
  white, curly& fair describe the quality of
  things. So these adjectives are also called
  adjectives of -----------------
                  Quality
       WE MAY DEFINIE THAT
35) THUS,
ADJECTIVES OF QUALITY SHOW THE
KIND OR QUALITY OF PERSONS OR
THINGS OR PLACES. ADJECTIVES OF
QUALITY ANSWER THE QUESTION “OF
WHAT KIND?”
  36) Let us Examine following examples:
Radhika eats much sugar.
 How much sugar does Radhika eat? much
•
  37)Bhavika eats little sugar.
How much sugar does Bhavika eat? little

38)Madhulika eats some sugar.
How much sugar does Madhulika eat?   some
39) Monika eats no sugar.
How much sugar does Monika eat?      no
40) The words MUCH, LITTLE, SOME, NO,
 & ALL show the (quality of noun / quantity
 of noun.)
                quality of noun
41) From above examples, we come to know
 that if we ask the question ‘HOW MUCH‟ to
 the noun & if we get the answer than it is a
 (quantitative/ qualitative) adjective.

  quantitative
42) THUS, WE MAY DEFINE THAT
  QUANTITATIVE ADJECTIVE SHOWS
 QUANTITY OF A THING
Q-----------
 43) Read the following sentences:
• Sushi ate some RICE
• Prachi ate no BREAD.
• Rushi has lost all his WEALTH.

• CAPATALISED nouns are       singular /
  plural.

                   singular
44)Rice, bread ,wealth & sugar are known as
( material noun / non material noun)

    material noun
• 45) Examine following examples:
• Rushi showed much PATIENCE.
• Ruchi has little INTELLIGENCE.
Capitalized nouns are called
(abstract nouns/material nouns.)
  abstract nouns
• 46) Thus, we can conclude :
 a) Adjectives of quantity follow by
  (singular/plural) nouns.      singular
b) Adjectives of quantity follow by (material /
   non-material) nouns.           material
  c) Adjectives of quantity follow by (abstract/
   proper) nouns.        abstract
47) Now read the following sentence and PICK
   OUT THE ADJECTIVE and write whether
   they are QUALITATIVE or
   QUANTITATIVE adjective:
 a) This is a difficult problem.
 b) She was the former prime minister.
c) There are not enough sugar.
 d) Are there any mango trees in this garden?
 e) Some boys are clever.
•   1) difficult –qualitative
•   2) former- qualitative
•   3) enough-quantitative
•   4)any - quantitative
•   5) some- quantitative, clever – qualitative
48) Examine following examples:
• The hand has FIVE fingers.
• Abijeet sings TWO songs.
The adjectives five, two, show
  (number/quantity.)
                        number
• It is morning now, & the train takes TWELVE
  hours to arrive in Bhopal.
• Amar works SEVEN hours a day. The
  adjectives twelve, seven show
  (number/quantity.)
                          number
• 50) Read the following sentences and write
  the answers .
• a))The hand has five fingers.
 How many fingers does hand has?         five
   b)Abhijeet sings two songs.
 How many songs does Abhijeet sing? two
  c)It is morning now, & the train takes twelve
  hours to arrive in Bhopal.
 How many hours does train take to arrive? twelve
   d)Amar works seven hours a day.
How many hours does Amar work? seven
51) You know that adjective FIVE, TWO,
 TWELVE &, SEVEN, shows number. So these
 adjectives are known as adjective of N---------.
                                      Number

52) Adjective of Number gives the answer of the
 question :
              How many
• 53) Look at the following sentences:
• Abdul won the SECOND prize.
• My uncle lives in the NEXT house.
  CAPITALISED words show the position or
  order of things in a series.
 The words first, second, third, next, etc... Are
  known as ---------------- adjectives
             Numerical
54) Read the following sentences.
• All men are mortal.
• SEVERAL students came.
• SOME children die in there childhood.
These capitalized words are also called -----------
                                         Numerical
  adjective.
55) They show number of people. However, it is
  not show an exact figure but give the answer
  of „how many?‟ therefore these words are
  called NUMARICAL ADJECTIVES.
• 56) Read the following sentences and state type of
  adjectives.
 i) I ate some rice. (Adjective of Quantity /
  Adjective of Number)        Adjective of Quantity

• ii) Some boys are clever. (Adjective of Quantity
  / Adjective of Number) Adjective of Number

•    -iii) He has lost all his wealth. (Adjective of
    Quantity / Adjective of Number)
                               Adjective of Quantity
• iv) All men must die. (Adjective of Quantity /
  Adjective of Number)
                             Adjective of Number
 57) Read the following sentences.
• THIS boy stood first in our class.
• THAT tree is a Christmas tree.
Look at this underline words „This &that’. This
  & That point out which person or thing is
  meant.
• 58) Read the following sentences.
 THESE trees are useful for medicine.
 THOSE boys must be punished.
  The words THESE & THOSE also point out
  which person or thing is meant. Synonymous
  for „pointing out‟ is „Demonstrative.‟
• 59) From above examples, you may
                    This, that, these           those
  understand that --------, --------, --------&-------
  pointed the noun exactly.
60) Thus, you may define, when a person or a
  thing is point out exactly, the adjective is
  called Definite D-----------------
                  Demonstrative
61).He repeated SAME thing two or three times.
   In above sentences „SAME‟, used to point out thing but
  this word do not point out exact person or thing. Therefore,
  this adjective is Indefinite D-----------------
                              Demonstrative
 b) He gave me the choice of CERTAIN books.
  In above sentences „CERTAIN‟, used to point out noun
  but this word do not point out exact person or thing.
  Therefore, this adjective is Indefinite D-----------------
                                         Demonstrative
  c) SUCH a man should be admired.
   In above sentences „SUCH‟, used to point out noun but this
  word do not point out exact person or thing. Therefore, this
  adjective is Indefinite -------------------
                            Demonstrative
62) From above examples, you understand that
  there are two types of Demonstrative
  adjectives.
• They are 1) ------------
                 Definite Demonstrative,

            2) ------------------
                Indefinite demonstrative
63) Choose the correct alternative
  a) This is a book.
 (DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVE or DEMONSTRATIVE
   PRONOUN
   b)This book is mine.
(DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVE or DEMONSTRATIVE
   PRONOUN)
c) This is a girl.
  (DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVE or DEMONSTRATIVE
   PRONOUN
 d) This girl is very smart.
 (DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVE or DEMONSTRATIVE
   PRONOUN
•   1) DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN
•   2) DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVE
•   3)DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN
•   4)DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVE
• 64) Read the following sentences
Which FLOWER do you like best?
 What TIME is it?
Whose SHIRT is this?
CAPITALIZED words are Noun/ Adjective

 Noun
65) WHICH, WHAT & WHOSE are
  Interrogative words. These words are use
  before noun to make inquiry about noun.
  When these words are used before noun to ask
                           I-------------------
  question is known as an Interrogative
  adjective.
66) a) Read the following sentences carefully
  and state is it an Interrogative adjective?

What time is it?   (yes/No)    yes

Which is your pen? (yes/No)      No

Which pen do you prefer? (yes/No) yes
67) Pick out adjective in the following sentence
   & write their type.
 a) All the teachers are wise.
 b) We are three brothers.
c) What factors make small children watch T.V.
   ads?
d) There is not much milk left in the pot.
e) Thank you for your warm welcome.
f) These mangoes are sweet.
a) All - Numerical adjective,
b) b) three –Numerical adjective
 c) What –Interrogative adjective, small -
    Qualitative ,T.V.- Qualitative
d) much – Quantitative,
 e) warm- Qualitative ,
f) These - Demonstrative

				
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