CHAOS 2007

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					CHAOS 2007

Scenario and tasks:

Singapore River will be dammed up and the Marina Bay will become a
freshwater lagoon. As a consultant company with a team of multidisciplinary
experts, you are to address the following issues:

   (A) Mathematical problems:
       1. Explain clearly and precisely the following terms: topography,
          bathymetry, contour map, geographical information system. Use
          geometric reasoning to determine exactly what information, related to
          these terms, is required to compute the volume of water in the
          Singapore River-Marina Bay system as a function of the height of
          water in the system [example: if the system were a cylinder with
          horizontal sectional area A then Volume = A * height (measured with
          respect to the bottom of the system). Likewise determine exactly what
          information, related to these terms, is required to compute the region
          covered by the water as a function of height. Find out where this data
          is available.

     2   Explain clearly and precisely the following terms: catchment area,
         dynamic model. Determine the geographical and weather factors that
         determine the rate at which water enters the Singapore River-Marina
         Bay system, compute the resulting flow rates through certain „channels‟
         in the system, and describe the engineering requirements that these
         flow rates impose on the construction of the dam. Also discuss some
         methods for measuring the flow rates.

         (Restrict your answers to both tasks to a maximum of 5 pages)

   (B) Biology problems:
     1. What would be the impact on the biodiversity in Singapore River when
          it is dammed?

    2.   How would you ensure that the freshwater lagoon will not become a
         stagnant pool filled with algae? What would be your proposed strategy
         to make the lagoon water clean and clear teaming with suitable aquatic

         (Restrict your answers to both tasks to a maximum of 5 pages)

   (C) Chemistry problems:
   How would you effectively manage and treat the potential pollutants or waste
   coming from the drainage system joining the river that passes through
   housing and urban areas? Would you propose membrane filtration
   technology or biofilm treatment?

Specific questions:

   i.         Elaborate on how you would carry out quantitative survey of the
              amount of pollutants before and after the setting up of the dam. Which
              types/classes of pollutants would you focus on in order to provide a
              useful feedback on the effectiveness of the pollutant management
              programme you have set in place?

   ii.        Explain the physical and chemical processes involved during a water
              purification process, such as those used in extraction of pure water
              from sewage water. Could the same technology be applied to the
              water management programme before and after the building of the
              dam? Elaborate further with suggestions on the logistics and details
              when applying relevant water purification processes in this large scale

              (Restrict your answer to both tasks to a maximum of 5 pages)

   (D) Physic problems:
     1. How high and how wide would the dam be in order to have a single
         lane road and a pedestrian walkway on it?

         2.   What physical property would you consider for the materials used? The
              height will have to take into consideration the tidal changes in the sea
              and also the need to prevent flooding upstream of the river during the
              Monsoon season.

              (Restrict your answer to both tasks to a maximum of 5 pages)

Potentially useful web resources:

   1. “Besides its involvement in the centre of excellence for water knowledge,
      Delft Hydraulics will also be working on a $4.8 million consultancy project
      for Marina Reservoir. Over the next three years, the company will carry
      out full dynamic modeling to monitor and predict the water behaviour in
      the upcoming Marina Reservoir, and develop operational tools to enhance
      the management of the reservoir.”

   2. Tropical Marine Science Institute

   3. Centre for Remote Imagining, Sensing, and Processing

   4. Map of Singapore River-Marina Bay