# CHAOS 2007

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```					CHAOS 2007

Singapore River will be dammed up and the Marina Bay will become a
freshwater lagoon. As a consultant company with a team of multidisciplinary
experts, you are to address the following issues:

(A) Mathematical problems:
1. Explain clearly and precisely the following terms: topography,
bathymetry, contour map, geographical information system. Use
geometric reasoning to determine exactly what information, related to
these terms, is required to compute the volume of water in the
Singapore River-Marina Bay system as a function of the height of
water in the system [example: if the system were a cylinder with
horizontal sectional area A then Volume = A * height (measured with
respect to the bottom of the system). Likewise determine exactly what
information, related to these terms, is required to compute the region
covered by the water as a function of height. Find out where this data
is available.

2   Explain clearly and precisely the following terms: catchment area,
dynamic model. Determine the geographical and weather factors that
determine the rate at which water enters the Singapore River-Marina
Bay system, compute the resulting flow rates through certain „channels‟
in the system, and describe the engineering requirements that these
flow rates impose on the construction of the dam. Also discuss some
methods for measuring the flow rates.

(B) Biology problems:
1. What would be the impact on the biodiversity in Singapore River when
it is dammed?

2.   How would you ensure that the freshwater lagoon will not become a
stagnant pool filled with algae? What would be your proposed strategy
to make the lagoon water clean and clear teaming with suitable aquatic
inhabitants?

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(C) Chemistry problems:
How would you effectively manage and treat the potential pollutants or waste
coming from the drainage system joining the river that passes through
housing and urban areas? Would you propose membrane filtration
technology or biofilm treatment?

Specific questions:

i.         Elaborate on how you would carry out quantitative survey of the
amount of pollutants before and after the setting up of the dam. Which
types/classes of pollutants would you focus on in order to provide a
useful feedback on the effectiveness of the pollutant management
programme you have set in place?

ii.        Explain the physical and chemical processes involved during a water
purification process, such as those used in extraction of pure water
from sewage water. Could the same technology be applied to the
water management programme before and after the building of the
dam? Elaborate further with suggestions on the logistics and details
when applying relevant water purification processes in this large scale
project.

(D) Physic problems:
1. How high and how wide would the dam be in order to have a single
lane road and a pedestrian walkway on it?

2.   What physical property would you consider for the materials used? The
height will have to take into consideration the tidal changes in the sea
and also the need to prevent flooding upstream of the river during the
Monsoon season.

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Potentially useful web resources:

1. “Besides its involvement in the centre of excellence for water knowledge,
Delft Hydraulics will also be working on a \$4.8 million consultancy project
for Marina Reservoir. Over the next three years, the company will carry
out full dynamic modeling to monitor and predict the water behaviour in
the upcoming Marina Reservoir, and develop operational tools to enhance
the management of the reservoir.”
http://www.pub.gov.sg/info_center/press_release26062006.aspx

2. Tropical Marine Science Institute http://www.tmsi.nus.edu.sg/

3. Centre for Remote Imagining, Sensing, and Processing
http://www.crisp.nus.edu.sg/

4. Map of Singapore River-Marina Bay
http://www.streetdirectory.com/asia_travel/travel/travel.php?buildingid=297
06&masterid=1&x=29874.6126&y=29965.3872&star=1&starmode=1&level
=3

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