FACULTY OF ENGINEERING ABSTRACTS CAPSTONE PROJECT PRESENTATIONS

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					   FACULTY OF ENGINEERING




          ABSTRACTS

CAPSTONE PROJECT PRESENTATIONS

     AUTUMN SEMESTER 2007




      BROADWAY CAMPUS
     THURSDAY 28TH JUNE 2007
         9:00AM – 5:30PM
Capstone Project D/HD Presentation Day                                                   Autumn 2007


CONFIGURABLE CASE-STUDY ENGINE (12cp)
Youssef Abawi - S06-164

Supervisor : David Lowe
Assessor : Zenon Chaczko
Major: Software Engineering

An online case-study can be an excellent mechanism, by which students are able
to learn by way of practical means, the underlying theme of study. The problems many case-
studies have are that they are not delivered in a systematic way. The crux of the capstone project
looks at how the information contained within a case study can be delivered so that it allows
users to browse through content in a structured way; the deliverable will be a web-based case-
study engine that will be configurable to all case-studies.

Apart from delivering a case-study engine, the capstone also looks at several areas of web
engineering. The capstone will look at the advantages and disadvantages of eXtreme
programming and assess its effectiveness in managing the deliverable and the software process.
The capstone will look at the benefits of AJAX in developing rich internet applications and how
it has been applied to this project. And finally, the capstone looks at the power XML based
configurations have in web development.

The intent of the capstone is that it be applied to a real-life case-study. Associate Dean of
Engineering at UTS, Professor David Lowe, is currently working with acclaimed Software
Engineering author Roger Pressman on new book titled "Web Engineering– a Practitioner's
Approach" which uses a case-study example to illustrate how a web system can be engineered.
The case-study will be hosted at www.safehomeassured.com.




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Capstone Project D/HD Presentation Day                                                 Autumn 2007


COMPACT FLASH MP3 PLAYER (12cp)
Juan Aguero - S06-149

Supervisor : Peter McLean
Assessor : Venkat Ramaswamy
Major: Electrical Engineering

Due to the rapid increase of digitalised music, the industry has been inundated with handheld
portable devices. As the market for products and services within the audio entertainment grows
and the popularity of MPEG-1 Layer III (MP3) audio files increases, this capstone project
endeavours to provide the industry with an alternative.

This capstone project explores the idea of an MP3 player designed to be permanently installed
within either the home or car. It involves the design of both hardware and software, from the
initial concept design stage to a working prototype.

During the first stage of this project, research into component selection and hardware design
was conducted. This included reviewing all possible component options and selecting the most
appropriate prototyping hardware. The outcomes of this stage were detailed schematics and
printed circuit board files ready to send for manufacturing.

In the second stage of the project, construction and testing began on the manufactured hardware.
During the testing stages modifications had to be carried out to the hardware to ensure a stable
platform. This included changes to the components used and also to printed circuit board
routing.

A software solution to control the embedded system was also developed in line with the
hardware testing stages. The software has been designed to read the compact flash card for a
FAT16 partition, control the data sent to the MP3 decoder and interact with the user through
push buttons and an LCD.

Technologies used to implement the solution include –
   • PIC Micro-controller
   • MP3 Decoding hardware
   • Compact Flash Storage Card
   • USB Protocol devices

The result of this capstone project is a functional proof of concept prototype that enables the
user to listen to audio files stored within a Windows compatible compact flash card. Software
functionalities for a basic user interface have also been established to demonstrate some of the
potential features of the MP3 player.




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Capstone Project D/HD Presentation Day                                                  Autumn 2007


PROJECT MANAGERS, CONFLICT AND ITS RESOLUTION (12cp)
Andrei Angelin - A07-020

Supervisor : David Eager
Assessor : Catherine Killen
Major: Electrical Engineering

Project Management is a discipline of organising and managing limited human, capital and
physical resources in such a way that they used to deliver all work required to complete a
specific project. The human resources are used to manage, and create an environment and
culture, whereby they feel their comfortable spending countless hours in their workplace. A
culture where there is trust, no overbearing bosses that push in overbearing manner, or set a bad
example. It is a project manager’s duty to ensure that their employees are happy because
without their employees the business is nothing. When an employee is happy efficiency is up,
and the work environment has a culture by which employees are happy to work in.
This capstone aims to investigate how project managers create a balance of work and the right
amount of leisure to keep their employees happy and working at a high efficiency through areas
of workplace culture, communication methods, trust, leadership, relationships and employee
surveillance.
Conflict is a common problem in the professional workplace, and if left unresolved can cause
damage to a company’s operation. This capstone further defines conflict, and explores methods
where project management is the vital element in solving the puzzle of conflict.
Primary research was used to collect information through via workplace surveys that were
distributed out amongst a variety of professional disciplines. The primary research linked the
theory of workplace conflict and the practice-based findings.
This capstone shall form the basis for future investigation which can be undertaken by future
Capstone students. Any further study should aim to further investigate the implication of project
managers in relation to their employees and workplace culture.




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Capstone Project D/HD Presentation Day                                                  Autumn 2007


SALES FUNNEL CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (12cp)
Nathan Banks - A07-53

Supervisor : David Davis
Assessor : Zenon Chaczko
Major: Computer Systems Engineering

A sales funnel is a metaphor for a type of process used to convert sales prospects into clients.
An organisation will input any potential clients who may have a use for their product or service
into the top of the funnel. Once a prospect is in the funnel the organisation uses various sales
processes to convert them into clients, such as, product demonstrations, phone calls and
meetings. Some prospects will decline the organisation’s services, but the remainder filter
through to the bottom of the funnel and become clients. The basic premise is to select a wide
range of prospects and filter them through the funnel to maximise the number of conversions.

Due to the large numbers of prospects that may enter a sales funnel, data management can
become an issue. The Sales Funnel CRM Software System aims to model a sales funnel through
the implementation of a web based management system. It provides all necessary information a
sales person needs to contact prospects and track them, as they progress through the sales
funnel. This system features contact management, lead analysis, activity planning for employees
and robust reporting that includes detailed reports and forecasting. Other features include
intelligent lead assigning and sales process customisation.

This capstone report details the development life cycle of the Sales Funnel CRM System, from
project planning to requirements analysis, architecture, design, implementation, and testing. All
aspects of the project have been diligently calculated and documented to ensure a high quality,
easily maintainable software product.




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Capstone Project D/HD Presentation Day                                                    Autumn 2007


DEMAND DEPENDENT ACTIVE SUSPENSION – SYSTEM CONFIGURATION AND
PROTOTYPING (12cp)
Michael Behrens - S06-109

Supervisor : Nong Zhang
Assessor : Chris Chapman
Major: Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering

Studies have shown that the severity of injuries sustained during motor vehicle accidents
increases significantly if one or more of the vehicles roll. A variety of active systems for
improving vehicle roll resistance are currently available to car manufacturers, however, due to
high component or manufacturing costs many of these systems are not widely utilised. The aim
of this capstone project is to investigate and develop an effective and economical system to
increase the roll resistance of a motor vehicle subject to extreme conditions. If this project is
successful it will provide a great benefit to the community through an increase in vehicle safety
and a corresponding reduction in road trauma and associated financial and social costs.

A functional proof of concept prototype has been developed and installed on a test vehicle for
the purpose of concept validation. It improves roll resistance by applying a restoring moment to
the sprung mass of the vehicle via pairs of double acting hydraulic cylinders. Hydraulic power
is controlled using a closed loop controller and innovative valving network. The valving is
designed to allow future expansion to include both pitch and bounce control. The prototype
utilises standard double acting cylinders installed in parallel with the existing spring and damper
assembly. If the concept proves feasible, these double acting cylinders will be incorporated with
the existing damper to form a hybrid damper-actuator.

Initial results are promising and suggest that further investigation be undertaken to reduce
manufacturing costs to acceptable levels. If this is successful then the DDAS system will prove
to be an attractive option for improving roll resistance in mainstream motor vehicles.




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Capstone Project D/HD Presentation Day                                                    Autumn 2007


POP-UP CAMPER FOR TRAY BACK UTILITY (12cp)
Michael Butler - S06-053


Supervisor : Terry Brown
Assessor : John Dartnell
Major: Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering

Self-sufficient camping is a very popular pastime for many Australians and it is rapidly
increasing in popularity. With this has evolved many different ways to make camping more
comfortable and easy. One such way is a utility back pop-up camper. This style of camper has
many advantages over others such as caravans or camper trailers, particularly where 4 Wheel
Driving is involved and traveling to remote areas of Australia.

There are currently about 6 manufacturers of pop-up utility back campers in Australia and none
of these manufacturers make a camper that meets my needs and applications (there are probably
many others with this same problem). They also are very expensive. I did a lot of research into
the current market and came to the conclusion that designing and building my own utility back
camper would be the ideal project for my Capstone.

I believe I have designed a camper that is superior to the currently available models in many
ways. The camper compares to the most up market campers currently available and it contains
only the latest and best products available to make it a leading design in utility back campers. It
is designed to suit me, and probably many others that have similar interests to me.

Along with the design of the camper, a very detailed “building of the camper” documentation is
included and could possibly be marketed as a “Build your own utility back camper” DIY book.




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Capstone Project D/HD Presentation Day                                                 Autumn 2007


OBJECT RELATIONAL MAPPING FRAMEWORK (12cp)
Nigel Castelino - S06-161

Supervisor : David Davis
Assessor : Zenon Chaczko
Major: Software Engineering

Facilitation of storage and data transfer is central to most software intensive applications.
Handling the transfer of data between an application and an SQL-enabled data storage unit often
involves cumbersome, expensive development of a data access layer, commonly called a
wrapper. Wrappers utilizing SQL become application specific, which reduces the vaunted
feature of reusability imposing unnecessary costs to future applications. An alternate to using
SQL-enabled relational databases is an object oriented database or a hybrid which combines
both features (Post-Relational Database). Because of dependencies on legacy, SQL-Dependent
relational databases means, object and/or hybrid databases are not considered to be viable
alternatives. To resolve this, the next best alternative is to use an Object-Relational Mapping
(ORM) framework which allows for object oriented access as a reusable wrapper to any SQL-
enabled relational database.

This capstone outlines and details theoretical aspects of data access with a particular focus on
Object Relational Mapping by reviewing known techniques for mapping objects to tables,
caching strategies, background information on standard database interfaces and data providers;
and object-based query languages.

This capstone shows that one of the main problems of Object Relational Frameworks is failing
to provide the flexibility to completely specify a database implementation of object-table
mappings (e.g. inheritance). This capstone provides a new ORM framework which addresses
three major issues:
                  • Flexibility in specifying an object-table mapping pattern to use in
                     circumstances where multiple database implementations exist.
                  • Ability to extend the framework to support any SQL data organisation.
                  • Provide object filtering utilising an Object-based Query Language
                  • Provide a simple structure for mapping class properties to table columns
                     (As opposed to utilising complex XML mapping files).

This capstone applies this new ORM framework to a case study, with results conclusively
addressing the four main issues shown above.




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Capstone Project D/HD Presentation Day                                                     Autumn 2007


DESIGN OF A STEERING GEAR FOR A FORMULA SAE CAR (12cp)
David Cauchi - S06-084

Supervisor : Terry Brown
Assessor : Nong Zhang
Major: Mechanical & Mechatronic Engineering

A rack and pinion steering gear was designed for the 2007 UTS Formula SAE race car. The
steering gear plays a critical role to the performance of the race car as all inputs from the driver
at the steering wheel act through the steering gear and rotate the front wheels about their king
pin axis. It is also important that the steering gear provides feedback from the road wheels to the
drive so that the driver can feel the grip level of the circuit and utilise the maximum grip
available from the tyres.

The rack and pinion gear set incorporates variable ratio rack teeth, which has continuously
changing pressure and skews angles resulting in the rack gain in mm per pinion revolution,
increasing as the pinion moves away from the on centre position. One of the main advantages
for using variable ratio in this design was to reduce the amount of steering lock required to
manoeuvre the car around the smaller radius turns that can be seen in the Formula SAE
competition.

Having variable ratio rack teeth means that advanced milling processes need to be used during
manufacturing which requires significant expertise and process control. This design fully
utilises the world class manufacturing know how of Bishop Manufacturing Technology and
Bishop Innovation Limited.

Milling of the rack teeth enables Titanium to be used so that the weight of the steering gear can
be kept to a minimum which is a key design requirement. Other light weight materials such as
Aluminium are used throughout the design.

Advanced computer aided mechanical design tools are extensively used to ensure that all design
requirements are met and the steering gear will perform to a very high standard.

Complete engineering drawings of each component of the steering gear as well as assembly
drawing are included.




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Capstone Project D/HD Presentation Day                                                   Autumn 2007


SELF RELIANCE – THE SECRET TO QUENCHING CHINA’S OIL DEPENDENCE
(12cp)
Trent Jin-Yat Chan - S06-018

Supervisor : Deepak Sharma
Assessor : Ravind Bagia
Major: General

China’s insatiable thirst for oil has forced it to become increasingly dependent on the global
economy. In recent times, it has forged foreign relationships to secure much needed oil
supplies.      This, and China’s recent initiatives to integrate into the world economy – argue
some – suggests that China has abandoned its traditional cultural tenet of self reliance. This
thesis questions this viewpoint. This questioning is assisted by a review of two of China’s
recently adopted strategies, namely, entering into tactical partnerships with oil supplying
nations in the Middle East, Africa, Central Asia and Russia; and increased levels of investments
in oil exploration domestically, and the acquisition of oil assets globally. These initiatives are
expected to provide China with a greater certainty over oil supply. The review conducted in
this project suggests that self-reliance remains a ‘core’ strategic tenet underpinning Chinese’
government policy thinking. By pursuing the strategic initiatives noted above, China aims to
become an oil secure nation, not an oil independent nation. This is indeed a reinforcement of its
faith in the tenet of self-reliance!




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Capstone Project D/HD Presentation Day                                                    Autumn 2007


SUITABILITY OF TWO-DIMENSIONAL HYDRAULIC MODELS FOR RAINFALL
RUNOFF ROUTING (6cp)
Kristen Clark - A07-128

Supervisor : James Ball
Assessor : Jaya Kandasamy
Major: Civil & Environmental Engineering

Prediction of direct runoff flow hydrographs through rainfall-runoff routing techniques in
Australia traditionally has been undertaken using lumped rainfall-runoff hydrologic modelling
software; an example of lumped rainfall-runoff hydrologic modelling software is the Watershed
Bounded Network Model (WBNM) (Boyd, 2007). Recently, however, there has been an
increase in the availability of two-dimensional (2D) hydraulic modelling software and hence
there has been a desire to apply this software for the task of direct runoff hydrograph prediction.
While the application of these 2D hydraulic models has the potential to provide a more detailed
representation of the development of direct runoff, there has been limited research to-date
enabling an assessment of the robustness and reliability of these models for this purpose.
Investigated in this project is the performance of 2D hydraulic models when used for prediction
of the direct runoff.

The traditional approach applied with hydrologic models is the representation of the catchment
as a series of conceptual storages with the rainfall being routed through these storages to the
catchment outlet. This approach requires input of only a limited number of parameters with the
majority of these parameters not being directly measurable. In comparison, 2D hydraulic
models endeavour to route rainfall from the point where it falls on the catchment to the
catchment outlet using the physical characteristics of the catchment together with hydraulic
theory relevant to the motion of water. This 2D approach requires a greater volume of input
data and the estimation of significantly more parameters with a significant number of these
parameters being directly measurable from the local catchment characteristics. Importantly, the
2D hydraulic modelling approach relies on various assumptions regarding runoff behaviour at a
localised level.

For this project, two 2D hydraulic models (TUFLOW (WBM Pty Ltd, 2006) and SOBEK (Delft
Hydraulics, 2007)) and a traditional rainfall runoff model (WBNM) were applied to the problem
of predicting the direct runoff from a catchment. The performance of each of the 2D models is
compared to the performance of the WBNM model of the catchment through a comparison of
the corresponding predictions. As part of this comparison, the effect of different parameters on
the 2D model predictions were examined; parameters investigated included the timestep, the
value of the Manning’s ‘n’ roughness coefficient, the grid cell resolution and the wetting
threshold depth.

It was found that the predicted direct runoff flow hydrographs from both TUFLOW and
SOBEK were highly sensitive to parameter values and that the predicted direct runoff flow
hydrographs from both of the models varied significantly from those predicted using WBNM.
Consideration of these results suggests that further work is needed before models of the type of
TUFLOW and SOBEK can be used reliably for prediction of the catchment response to storm
bursts through rainfall-runoff routing. This is particularly the case for design flood hydrology.




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Capstone Project D/HD Presentation Day                                                   Autumn 2007


ENABLING COLLABORATION IN AN ENTERPRISE MODELLING TOOL (6cp)
Peter Collins - S06-081

Supervisor : Tim O’Neill
Assessor : John Leaney
Major: Software Engineering

Many modelling tools that are available to help organisations record and keep track of their
infrastructure, people and processes are geared towards single user operation (be it for initial
model population, maintenance, or evaluation). Often the enterprise being modelled is
sufficiently large such that no single person is able to populate and then maintain the entire
model.

This project is concerned with enabling the collaboration of multiple users in an enterprise
modelling tool, in this case Avolution’s “ABACUS” software. Currently ABACUS supports a
single user working on a file at a given time. An “Enterprise Edition” of ABACUS will enable
collaboration by allowing multiple users to work on the same file at the same time, thereby
having the most appropriate people working on the part of the model relevant to them.

A prototype will be constructed in order to fulfil some of the functionality and initial
requirements of an Enterprise Edition, but with the primary function of providing feedback and
enabling the elicitation of requirements for the ABACUS Enterprise Edition. As a result, only a
subset of requirements for the Enterprise Edition will be needed in the prototype.

The Enterprise Edition will attempt to address the requirements for effective and efficient multi-
user collaboration with ABACUS. This will involve an accurate recording of changes made by
users, the propagation of changes to other users, and prevention or resolution of conflicts
between the changes made by different users.

The engineering community can benefit from the work undertaken in this project by being
shown the value of collaboration in the workplace, and an example of how a typical single-user
application can be converted to support multiple users.




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Capstone Project D/HD Presentation Day                                                  Autumn 2007


PROCEDURE FOR THE ANALYSIS OF A CARBON FIBRE YACHT MAST (6cp)
Mark Elphinston - A07-052

Supervisor : Terry Brown
Assessor : Garry Marks
Major: Mechanical Engineering

This project develops a procedure for the analysis of the structural integrity and performance of
a carbon fibre yacht mast and it’s rigging. The procedure aims to provide users with the
background knowledge of mast design and manufacture. Further, it guides users through the
steps involved in a detailed analysis of a carbon fibre rig. The need for such a procedure is due
to the complex nature of designing a yacht mast, where many loads are assumed, and the
operating conditions are difficult to accurately quantify and model.

The analysis details the four general stages of the procedure:
   1. Measurement of the rigging loads whilst sailing.
   2. Modelling the mast and its rigging in a Finite Element Analysis package.
   3. Assessing the solved model to determine the mast’s integrity and performance level
   4. Performing a fatigue analysis of the rigging.

This procedure focuses primarily on the analysis of a carbon fibre mast, however many of the
principles could be applied to Aluminium masts. The analysis contained within this project is
based on the mast of the Swan 45 Tulip, located at the Cruising Yacht Club of Australia. The
analysis makes assumptions on the mast’s materials, dimensions and load state, which were not
released by the manufacturer. With this in mind, the procedure would best be used when
approached by a mast designer or manufacturer with access to detailed data on a mast’s
dimensions, materials and specifications.

With the aid of a rig design code, a decision can be made if the mast or rigging is under
designed and unsafe, or over designed at the expense of performance. This judgement would of
course depend on function of the yacht.




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Capstone Project D/HD Presentation Day                                                  Autumn 2007


EDUCATION AND COMMUNICATION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES THROUGH
A DIGITAL MEDIUM (6cp)
Guy Havenstein - A07-037

Supervisor : Keith Willey
Assessor : Tim Aubrey
Major: General

This Capstone discusses the issues in regards to the delivery of education and the provision of
worldwide near real time two-way communication to developing countries via the internet. The
implementation issues, including technical and socio-economic factors, are explored to give an
all encompassing view of the difficulties faced when delivering such services to remote and
rural communities. The need and practicality of such implementations are also explored,
drawing a link between education, technology and poverty reduction.

A practical case study has been partaken to provide further insight into the implementation
issues faced with such projects. The case study reports the establishment of an education
centre, consisting of a computer room and satellite internet connection, in Tanzania. This
implementation is a remote village called Hanga, situated in the south west of Tanzania. This
site provides a great incite into the challenges faced by developing countries in establishing an
education centre and the difficulties to break the poverty cycle.

The report delivers a detailed implementation analysis, discusses issues faced in the reported
case study implementation and suggests possible solutions. This information should prove of
great benefit to other projects intending to provide communications similar to that discussed in
the Hanga case study. This analysis will not only improve the development and efficiency of
future installations, but help to address concerns and reservations people may have as to
whether such installations can be provided successfully.




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Capstone Project D/HD Presentation Day                                                  Autumn 2007


THE COMPETITIVE NATURAL ADVANTAGE: SUSTAINABILITY REPORTING
A BUSINESS IMPERATIVE (6cp)
Anntonette Joseph - A07-118

Supervisor : Peter Pastars
Assessor : David Eager
Major: Civil & Environmental Engineering

Sustainable development is about meeting the needs of the present without compromising the
ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Climate change, water shortages and
energy are important environmental issues that have a significant impact on society, and in
which businesses play a strategic role, now and into the future.

Key stakeholders such as shareholders, employees and financial institutions want businesses to
be responsible, accountable and transparent. Sustainable development reporting – the evaluation
of corporate performance in environmental, social and economic terms can assist organisations
achieve this in a manner that makes ‘good business sense’.

Competitive advantage and sustainability are not mutually exclusive. There is a strong link
between corporate environmental governance and financial performance. Organisations realise
that resource inefficiencies in their businesses are often indicators of a much greater waste
occurring in areas from product design to overall plant design and operation. Financial savings
can be made through becoming more eco-efficient such as reduction in energy and water usage,
which can result in lower greenhouse emissions and reduced waste to landfill.

Sustainability reporting has become the new complete health check of a business. The
advantages go beyond financial incentives and include sound risk management, the attraction
and retention of talented human capital and the creation of brand equity. It unlocks doors to
innovation, prompting opportunities for market capitalisation.

Government programs and incentives available today are indicators of future regulation.
Businesses need to stay abreast of these changes to ensure long-term survival. To complement
this, there are a number of reporting frameworks available to assist a business towards a path of
sustainable development.

The new business paradigm places a premium on good corporate governance. For a business to
have a competitive advantage, sustainability reporting is a business imperative.




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Capstone Project D/HD Presentation Day                                                  Autumn 2007


DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION AND TESTING OF A SQUID-BASED FLUX-LOCKED
LOOP, USING A HYBRID ANALOGUE/DIGITAL FEEDBACK STRUCTURE. (12cp)
Christopher Lewis - A07-104

Supervisor : Hung Nguyen
Assessor : Ben Rodanski
Major: Electrical Engineering

This thesis describes the development of a new, more flexible, flux-locked loop (FLL)
architecture for d.c. superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometers
based on a digital/analogue hybrid feedback system. This architecture is intended to be used as
a flexible platform for evaluating various signal processing and feedback schemes that cannot
be easily implemented in purely analogue electronics. This will provide an enabling technology
for several CSIRO scientific and commercial projects.

Macroscopic quantum mechanical effects are very sensitive to disturbance and extremely low
r.f. noise levels will suppress the quantum interference signal generated by a SQUID device.
The incorporation of high speed digital signal processing elements into the design therefore
requires particular attention in the design phase to ensure that digital noise does not enter the
SQUID device.

The completed design integrates several subsystems including a very low noise amplifier to
measure the SQUID signal, a fast A/D converter (10 bits and 80 MS/s), a digital loop controller
(incorporating all the needed modulation and demodulation functions) and an extremely high
dynamic range D/A converter to drive the feedback coil. The digital loop controller is
implemented on a field programmable gate array (FPGA) which allows the entire signal
processing chain to be reconfigured simply by reprogramming the FPGA’s memory. To
achieve the required dynamic range for the feedback coil (~120 dB and 100 kHz bandwidth) a
digital / analogue hybrid was developed where a high speed DAC (14 bits and 10 MS/s) drives
an integrator which in turn drives the feedback coil.

Initial performance tests indicate the system performance goals are achievable. The amplifier
has a noise performance of better than 500 pVrms/√Hz over a bandwidth of 2 MHz. The full
scale range of the amplifier and 10 bit analogue to digital converter is 50 µVp-p. The digital
signal processing chain, including the analogue to digital and the digital to analogue
conversions, has a latency of 400 ns. Testing of the system using a d.c. SQUID device yielded
similar results to a commercially developed analogue system using the same SQUID. Unlike
conventional systems the new system can easily be reprogrammed to measure other Josephson
junction based devices.




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Capstone Project D/HD Presentation Day                                                   Autumn 2007


24-HOUR CONTINUOUS SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT: A FRAMEWORK FOR USE
IN EDUCATION (12cp)
Michael James Lucas - S06-103

Supervisor : Zenon Chaczko
Assessor : Stephen Murray
Major: Software Engineering

In globalised economies, we have seen a huge increase in communication capacity made
possible through standardisation of communication networks and huge investments in
communications infrastructure. The challenge now is to use this capacity to increase
productivity. One way to do this is to leverage human resources more effectively through
distributing project work across the globe to temporally and geographically spaced sites. The
process, called continuous collaborative development (or chase-the-sun engineering) is designed
to reap the obvious advantages of working twenty-four hours each day rather than eight.

Education is one sector where project collaboration has historically been limited to small groups
working within a single geographic location. To effectively prepare our students to work in
global 24/7 corporate environments, the principles of continuous collaborative development
needs to be taught and practiced within the curriculum. Software projects are ideal for
demonstrating collaborative development due to the non physical nature of the intermediate and
end products.

A collaborative framework has been developed to support project management between
geographically dispersed teams working across multiple time zones. It is specifically tailored to
use in educational institutions. The framework addresses such issues as projects being time
limited to a teaching semester or trimester and where semester session times vary between
regions and countries. The processes are lightweight so that they do not impact on the true focus
of a given educational project.

There is a shortage of useful tools geared towards supporting such 24-hour processes and none
of these are lightweight enough to be utilised effectively in an educational project. The software
system, Global Project, was developed as part of this Capstone and implements the
collaborative framework. It is aimed at having minimal training requirements and will only add
a low overhead to the teaching process.




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Capstone Project D/HD Presentation Day                                                    Autumn 2007


TYPE 2 FUZZY CLASSIFICATION & CORRELATION OF BLOOD PRESSURE
PARAMETERS. (12CP)
Usman Mahmood - A07-117

Supervisor : Dr Adel Al-Jumaily
Assessor : Dr Ahmed Al-Ani
Major: Electrical

In treatment of various diseases, doctors need continuous monitor of patient’s blood pressure, so
they suggest patients to measure blood pressure at home at various times in a day. Available self
measurement devices give only crisp readings of blood pressure parameters, which are hard to
understand by patients. Though crisp values convey accurate information, but linguistic
information can convey more understandable information to general public than would a crisp
value. For example, the use of linguistic word “Normal” about blood pressure of any individual
creates much better understanding, compared to describing a crisp value.
The classification of blood pressure with respect to bivalent set theory is not appropriate due to
its limiting feature of having mutually exclusive set membership. The opinion whether blood
pressure reading of 99/59 is low or normal is highly controversial, because change in one
millimeter of mercury will cause transition of blood pressure from 'Low' to 'Normal' or vice
versa. Fuzzy set theory successfully overcomes such issues by offering partial set memberships.
Accurate measurement of blood pressure is a highly sensitive task, because even breathing can
cause variation as high as 10Hgmm in accurate reading of blood pressure. Due to presence of
high level of uncertainty, linear model for blood pressure classification is not appropriate. Fuzzy
logic systems are capable of producing precise solutions from vague, incomplete, or
approximate information just like human brain, by accommodating the ambiguities of real-
world, human language and logic.
This project aimed to design a fuzzy logic system which can output crisp values of blood
pressure parameters along with their appropriate linguistic description. In first stage of this
project, a type-2 fuzzy logic system for the classification and correlation of blood pressure
parameters was used. In second stage of the project, proposed model was implemented in
Matlab. Matlab testing verified that designed fuzzy model for the classification of blood
pressure parameters gives more realistic results than its linear model.
The outcome of this project is a Matlab based graphic user interface which takes crisp value of
heart rate as an input and generates crisp reading of blood pressure along with its appropriate
classification, e.g., normal, low, or high etc. Linguistic classification of blood pressure along
with its crisp reading would provide more clear information to the general public about their
cardiac health. The system has been tested and provides encouraging results.




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Capstone Project D/HD Presentation Day                                                  Autumn 2007


AN ALTERNATIVE AIRCRAFT WIRING ARCHITECTURE (12cp)
Marton Andrejs Marosszeky - S06-047

Supervisor : Tim Aubrey
Assessor : David Davis
Major: Electrical Engineering

Aircraft wiring systems, or Electrical Wiring Interconnect Systems (EWIS), have come under
increasing scrutiny in the past decade. This has been due to some high profile accidents, notably
TWA 800 and Swissair 111 – both commercial airliners which crashed, killing all aboard, due
to EWIS failures.

The author is a Licensed Aircraft Maintenance Engineer (Avionics) with Qantas Airways, and
his personal experience of the challenges of troubleshooting and repairing large commercial
aircraft EWISs has been the motivation behind this Capstone topic.

Until now, aircraft EWISs have generally be designed to last the life of the aircraft – without
much consideration given to the maintainability the system. The amount of wiring in large
commercial airliners is in the range of hundreds of kilometers. Much of this wiring is run in
large “bundles” – wires, run along the same path, secured together. Many of the areas these
bundles run through are environmentally harsh, but also difficult to access – so wiring
inspection and ease of repair are not facilitated.

Additional problems are generated by the contradictory fact that general visual inspections of
wiring are unlikely to reveal much, apart from obvious damage. To do detailed inspections
involves separating wire bundles – and this can itself, lead to damage. So for adequate
inspections to be carried-out, the wiring must (almost) inevitably be damaged.

Shortcomings of current metal-based EWISs are discussed, with a list of shortcomings
generated. The many proposed solutions to these problems are discussed, and shown to either
not address the core problems – or to be overly onerous.

An alternative involving high bandwidth media and enabling technologies is proposed. The
various high bandwidth media are compared, with optical fibres being chosen as the best
candidate to provide a solution to the list of EWIS shortcomings.

A general, high-level architecture for a generic aircraft is proposed, and shown to provide a
theoretical solution. To show that such a system is a realistic proposal, a real-world
implementation is designed for the systems contained in the left-hand wing of a Boeing 747-400
aircraft: Specifications are listed, and the fibre-based design is shown to meet all regulatory,
environmental and system bandwidth requirements – whilst avoiding the problems inherent in
the EWIS it is replacing.

A discussion of new-technology aircraft (particularly the Airbus A380 and Boeing 787), and
their EWIS implementation shows that many of the design solutions being advanced in this
thesis are already being implemented, but to nowhere near the extent advocated.




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Capstone Project D/HD Presentation Day                                                    Autumn 2007


PLATFORM DESIGN AND TESTING FOR AN AUTONOMOUS SANDBLASTING
SYSTEM (12cp)
James Medlin - S06-086

Supervisor: Dikai Liu
Assessor: Ray Clout
Major: Mechanical Engineering

Various steel bridges constructed before the late 1980’s are coated in paint containing toxic
materials (mainly asbestos and lead). The presence of these toxins in the paint makes traditional
methods of paint removal problematic. They prove to be both significantly costly and difficult
to remove due to the potential impacts on bridge maintenance staff and the environment.

An autonomous robotic sandblasting system has been selected as a solution for the safe removal
of such paint. The use of this robotic system requires a platform to be designed, built, and tested
for use in the development of the autonomous sandblasting system. The aim of this thesis is to
design and test a prototype platform which is capable of automated movement along the length
of the bridge.

The mechanical design of the platform was realized with the use of three dimensional computer
aided design software. The platform consists of a lightweight welded square-tube aluminium
chassis which is powered by air vane motors. The platform runs on a lightweight, modular rail
system, which was designed for its ease of installation and configurability. The platform has
pneumatic clamps which serve to positively locate it on the rail system during the sandblasting
operation.

The platform is controlled through the use of a data acquisition module. Part of my project was
to program the movement of the platform using the digital input and output capabilities of the
module using C++ programming language. The program and its functions allow the platform to
either be controlled by a remote operator or at a higher level by another program.

The correct functioning of the control program was conducted on a test bench using a digital
multimeter. After these initial tests were completed and passed satisfactorily, further tests were
conducted using the working platform. The final platform is a success, and will continue to be
used as a testing bed for the autonomous sandblasting system.




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Capstone Project D/HD Presentation Day                                                   Autumn 2007


SUSPENSION DESIGN OF A SUPERSPORTS RACECAR (12cp)
Rodney Mark McCarley - A07-057

Supervisor: Guang Hong
Assessor: Matthew Low
Major: Mechanical Engineering

The purpose of this paper is to provide a tool for the design of high-performance vehicle
suspension systems through the detailed analysis and design of such a system for a modern
racecar as a practical example.

Background information on vehicle dynamics and suspension types is presented to provide an
understanding of the functions and requirements of racecar suspensions. Areas that have been
identified as being critical to a good design are the purpose and mechanics of the tyre; load
transfer and the effects on lateral and longitudinal grip; optimising suspension geometry to
maximise the use of the tyre; spring and damper requirements to provide vehicle control; and
chassis torsional rigidity.

The derivation and examination of vehicle dynamics phenomenon has not been carried out in
great detail as this is well covered in other texts, but critical ideas and calculations have been
used and organised in such a manner as to facilitate the design of a vehicle suspension.

Several tools have been developed to aid in the analysis, including a spreadsheet to calculate
load transfers and a simple 2D parametric model to visualise the performance of different
suspension geometries. A flowchart is also included that can assist design decision making
processes for other suspension developments.

The design, analysis and simulation of racecar suspension systems, especially at an amateur or
semi-professional level, will only produce a partially resolved solution. Once a design has been
optimised to a certain degree of performance on paper or computer, further tuning and
adjustment must be carried out after manufacture. This paper provides tools and methods, and
gives some direction to those wishing to design a suspension system that will function
predictably and with the required performance.




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Capstone Project D/HD Presentation Day                                                      Autumn 2007


STEEL CREW PILES: USES AND ABUSES (6cp)
Mathew Mikhail - A07-022

Supervisor : Dr Hossein A. Taiebat
Assessor : Dr Ali Saleh
Major: Construction Engineering

In the current building industry, engineers and contractors alike are continually looking for
more efficient, reliable and cost effective methods of installation of footings and foundations for
various size structures. Also, the performance and fitness for purpose of these foundations are of
major importance, as engineers seek to reduce costs while maintaining structural and
engineering integrity and safety standards.

As a developing country, Australia has and is still undergoing exceptional growth, particularly
in the housing and development industry. Over the last 15 to 20 years, the market has shown
that in the five major states in Australia (NSW, Vic, QLD, WA and SA) that housing and
development figures are approximately 13,000 a month. With this constant high demand,
contractors have been looking at cheap, fast and reliable ways of meeting the desire for the
development of dwelling units across Australia.

Steel screw piles have been found to be an adequate tool for meeting the demands of the fast
paced construction industry for small to medium developments. The Dictionary of Civil
Engineering defines a screw pile as ‘A spiral blade fixed on a shaft screwed into the ground…’
Screw piles are relatively easy to install and, depending on the depth and sub-surface properties,
has the capacity to be installed at a rate of 20-30 piles a day.

This document details the use of steel screw piles in medium rise residential developments in
homogenous sandy soil layers and some inconsistencies in theoretical determination of its
structural capacity. It identifies some weaknesses in the ability of steel screw piles to support its
design load due to some structural incapacities and weaknesses which may be experienced with
this pile type. Two case studies will be reviewed in order to provide support to arguments raised
in this document. An investigation and analysis of results from data obtained in these case
studies will be presented in this document. These are actual test data obtained from static load
testing on steel screw piles provided thanks to Douglas Partners.

In essence this document should give the reader an understanding of the limitations and
uncertainties in the ultimate capacity of steel screw piles in geotechnical applications which
stem from its structural features.




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Capstone Project D/HD Presentation Day                                                  Autumn 2007


LEAN SIGMA – AN INVESTIGATION AND APPLICATION OF CONTEMPORARY
PROCESS IMPROVEMENT METHODOLOGY (12 CP)
Jeffrey Michael Morris - S06-019

Supervisor : Garry Marks
Assessor : Hasan Akpolat
Major: Mechanical Engineering

In an increasingly demanding marketplace, ensuring customer satisfaction while reducing costs
associated with the development and manufacture of goods and services can be considered key
to the success of any organisation. To this end, modern customer-centric quality improvement
strategies such as Lean Manufacturing and Six Sigma have enjoyed universal acclaim in helping
deliver these objectives where others have failed. In combination, these two alternately derived
but complimentary theories aim to reduce process variation and waste through the
implementation of rigorous and well defined methodologies targeting only activities guaranteed
to add value to the customer.

With the support of an extensive literature review, this project provides a comprehensive review
of the tools and techniques used during the planning and execution of Lean Sigma projects. This
has involved establishing a common framework aimed at providing structure and guidance for
the effective consolidation of Lean and Six Sigma theory, whilst outlining constraints,
implementation strategies and critical-to-success factors affecting their practical
implementation. In addition, to demonstrate the applicability of this process improvement
paradigm, a case study analysis has been conducted to investigate the process and measurement
of aircraft punctuality within the airline line maintenance environment.

In support of these outcomes, recommendations resulting from this analysis have been proposed
for Qantas Engineering senior management to review and action, with the aim of identifying
opportunities that exist for improving dispatch reliability performance of the Qantas 747 fleet.
These recommendations centre on structural changes to the planning and scheduling of
maintenance activities conducted on routes identified as performing below the agreed service
level commitment targets with its primary customer, Qantas Airlines.




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Capstone Project D/HD Presentation Day                                                   Autumn 2007


SOFTWARE PATTERNS AND SOFTWARE SYSTEM QUALITIES (12cp)
Duy Thai Nguyen - S06-114

Supervisor : David Davis
Assessor : Zenon Chaczko
Major: Software Engineering

This Capstone explores the relationship between software patterns and system qualities and how
system qualities are enhanced by use of software patterns. In order to understand software
patterns and software system qualities, this Capstone briefly discusses the origin of
programming languages, software engineering life cycles and various principles that guide the
process of analysis and design.

In software engineering, there are a number of software development life cycle models and
software development processes. There is confusion in the literature about the exact definition
of these terms. This Capstone uses the IEEE approach in choosing a software life cycle and
development processes. Software development process models and processes or activities that
relate to the usage of software patterns are also discussed.
Again, exact activities involved in the process of software analysis and design are not generally
agreed upon and discussion is made on the activities of analysis and design, including software
patterns that could be used.

Software engineering is a discipline concerned with knowledge and tools applied through out a
software project life cycle. This Capstone reviews major publications that embody the
knowledge of software design and its organisation. These include historical design principles of
coupling and cohesion, and the criteria and rules for modularization.

This Capstone reviews different categories of software patterns and how these categories relate
to one another, proposing a categorization of patterns by levels of primitiveness and abstraction.
Software patterns are a re-useable solution to different problems, which have a basic structure.
Discussion is made on the most basic structures of software patterns called ‘Fundamental design
patterns’, which exists and promotes certain system qualities when used. Usage of these basic
structures, in different categories of software patterns, are also shown.




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Capstone Project D/HD Presentation Day                                                Autumn 2007


MOBILEBLASTER – AN INTERACTIVE MOBILE GAME USING THE WIRELESS
APPLICATION PROTOCOL (12cp)
William Nguyen - A07-045

Supervisor : Zenon Chaczko
Assessor : Tim Aubrey
Major: Software Engineering

MobileBlaster is a multiplayer mobile phone game which was created as an interactive
demonstration of the capabilities of a flexible communication framework.

The primary objective of this capstone was to develop a communication framework which can
provide connectivity between mobile devices, whilst also being expandable to cater for other
communication technologies including Wireless Fidelity (WiFi) or BlueTooth®.

The communications framework created used a combination of existing technologies such as
Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) and Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
(TCP/IP). The use of WAP in this framework provides a point of contact, where mobile devices
are able to exchange the required information to locate other users. Following the WAP
exchange, the TCP/IP protocol is used to connect players directly, achieving an increased
efficiency in communication.

WAP and mobile device connections speeds are dependent on telecommunications providers
such as Telstra, Optus, or Vodafone. The optimum results that can be achieved from WAP and
mobile device connections are vastly influenced by the choice of providers.

The project is developed in compliance with the MIDP 2.0 specifications. This ensures that any
mobile device which supports MIDP 2.0 will be able to run applications developed with the
framework. Extensibility and portability has been integrated into the design of the framework
during design.

Due to financial constraints MobileBlaster and the framework has only be tested on the J2ME
Wireless Toolkit midlet emulator and Nokia mobile phones connected to the Vodafone network.

There are plans to extend the framework to cater for BlueTooth or WiFi connectivity and
porting onto other device platforms for games and applications in the near future.




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Capstone Project D/HD Presentation Day                                                Autumn 2007


DEMAND DEPENDANT ACTIVE SUSPENSION – DEVELOPMENT OF HYBRID
SHOCK ABSORBER / ACTUATOR (12cp)
Carl Peterson - S06-006

Supervisor : Nong Zhang
Assessor : Chris Chapman
Major: Mechanical Engineering

Vehicle suspension systems play an important role in the safety of most people in today’s
society and continual advancement of these systems is important to promote better, and safer,
vehicle handling capabilities. Active suspension is one such advancement which is currently
unused for the majority of vehicles due to high production costs. The Demand Dependant
Active Suspension (DDAS) hydraulic system implements innovative design concepts to
overcome this restriction. Direct application of force through a Hybrid Shock Absorber /
Actuator (HSAA), coupling of these forces, and a hydraulic circuit that allows separate control
of different vehicle motions give DDAS the potential to advance active suspension to an
affordable, main-stream level. The purpose of this project is to validate the concept through
physical testing on an existing vehicle as well as complete conceptual design work on the
critical HSAA component.

The suspension system relies largely on the HSAA component to provide the active function in
an inexpensive manner. Several concept designs for the HSAA have been established and
analysed. Each concept performs the function of both a reactive shock absorber (suspension
damping) and an active actuator and have advantages and disadvantages. The concepts have
been compared with various design considerations including ease of manufacture, setup
requirements, and functionality. For the concept testing/prototyping, standard double acting
hydraulic cylinders were installed on a vehicle in parallel to the existing spring and damper
assembly to achieve the required function. Conclusions are drawn and recommendations made
for continuing work on this project based on both the early design work done and the physical
concept testing. Further development is needed as great potential has been found for the
concept.




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Capstone Project D/HD Presentation Day                                                     Autumn 2007


CULTURAL DIMENSIONS FOR ENGINEERS: IS THERE A NEED FOR
CULTURALLY COMPETENT ENGINEERS? (12cp)
Vanessa Rathborne - A07-039

Supervisor : Pam Hazelton
Assessor : Anne Gardner
Major: Telecommunications Engineering

Globalisation has internationalised the engineering profession and the skills that modern day
engineers need must reflect these changes. The underlying assumption made is that cultural
misunderstandings can potentially lead to failures in engineering projects and or poor
performance of an engineer. Many of these failures and negative experiences could be avoided
if engineers had a better understanding of different cultures and if they were equipped with
intercultural skills. These intercultural skills are an integral part of the “social awareness” that
Professional Engineering Bodies, such as Engineers Australia, identify as apart of an engineer’s
key competencies. Intercultural competency can be achieved through three phases; cultural
awareness, intercultural communication skills and simulation and application.

Two prominent cultural dimensions theories are presented and critically analysed, namely
Hofstede’s dimensional model and Trompenaars’ dilemmas model. These provide a framework
for analysing characteristics of different cultures and lay the foundation for the first phase;
cultural awareness. The second phase involves training in intercultural communication skills.
This report provides a sample intercultural training guide for engineers. The third and final
phase involves simulation and application of the skills learnt, this is achieved through a
comparative cultural analysis between Eastern and Western cultures, Japan and Australia. This
analysis highlights the key cultural differences not only in a generic societal context, but also in
an engineering context. From this indepth analysis several examples of simulation and
application exercises for engineers are provided.

Non-technical skills may be viewed within engineering circles as less important, however, in
light of the internationalisation of the profession there is strong evidence that indicates that
cultural competence is also a critical factor for successful completion of engineering projects.




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Capstone Project D/HD Presentation Day                                                   Autumn 2007


PORTABLE IMPACT TEST RIG FOR USE IN EVALUATING PLAYGROUND
SAFETY (12cp)
Jonathan S. Riley - S06-118

Supervisor : David Eager
Assessor : Christopher Chapman
Major: Electrical Engineering

The purpose of this project is to produce a stand alone portable playground undersurfacing
impact test rig that is easily operated by non technical people. Two other primary design
constraint are that the tester would be priced at an appropriate level for the market and that the
tester calculates readings generally in compliance with AS/NZ4422 to an accurately of
approximately +/-10%.The scope of this project is to design and implement the electronics
within the impact tester used for the acquisition and computation of data to determine accurately
if a playground meets the surfacing requirements of AS/NZ4422 and display these results.

For many years UTS has been at the forefront of research into children’s playground safety. The
university has developed a rig to test playground undersurfacing for compliance to the
Australian and New Zealand standard AS/NZ4422. This standards focus is on reducing the
incidences of permanent brain damage arising from playground incidents.

The current impact test rig has a number of drawbacks which make it unsuitable for use by
operators, maintainers and installers of playgrounds. The device requires a skilled operator, is
complex, has an inhibitive price and requires a sophisticated computer program to evaluate
results.

The electronics of the stand alone portable impact test rig are advanced and involve a powerful
microprocessor based system to control the field test instrument. The device has multiple circuit
boards within it and contains high-tech component including a touch-sensitive handle, surface
mount accelerometers and switches with no moving parts.

The scope of the project includes the multi-aspect-tidal nature of engineering a new product
including the design of a device which meet the requirements, testing, implementation, future
advances and its effect on stakeholders.

Given the alarming rate of child injuries and litigation associated with playground injuries a
large market exists for the stand-alone portable headform.




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Capstone Project D/HD Presentation Day                                                     Autumn 2007


USING VOICE RECOGNITION TO CONTROL HOME APPLIANCES - 6cp
Alexander Rodriguez - A06-101

Supervisor : Prof Joe Zhu
Assessor : Peter McLean
Major: Electrical Engineering

Interfacing with home appliances, computers and other technologies is generally done by tactile
means. Such means include keyboards, mouse, buttons, switches, knobs and dials. These
methods of control can be quite tedious and even potentially cause arthritic problems such as
Repetitive Straint Injury (RSI) which is caused by constant typing on a keyboard. People with
disabilities may find it particularly difficult to get up and turn a light on, or change channels on
the T.V. By using speech control, such difficulties can be overcome.

Although still in its infancy, speech recognition technology is now at a stage where it can be
implemented into homes and used to control home appliances with a 98% accuracy rate. Many
other applications of speech recognition are being tested and implemented. The
telecommunications industry has integrated speech recognition into mobile phones where by
saying the name of the person to be called, the mobile phone will automatically dial the number.
A prototype of a voice controlled wheelchair has been built which will improve movement
control for paraplegics. Some automobile companies are also integrating this technology into
their vehicles which increases road safety as the driver can control the radio, phone etc by
speaking and thus maintaining constant sight of the road.

This capstone project details speech recognition and is split into two components. First is the
thesis which explains the theory of speech recognition and different speech models used such as
the Hidden Markov Models (HMM); how sound and speech is created by human beings and
different language models. Second is the actual construction of a speech recognition controller
and the manual containing all the technical information of the controller.




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Capstone Project D/HD Presentation Day                                                   Autumn 2007


RECTENNA SOLAR ENERGY COLLECTION (12cp)
Amanda Schilling - A07-009

Supervisors: Mike Ford and Ben Rodanski
Assessor: Ananda Sanagavarapu
Major: Electrical Engineering

Worldwide energy demands are increasing rapidly. Energy sources such as fossil fuels are
decreasing and damage the environment. The need for a clean and renewable source of energy
is becoming more and more urgent. Solar energy has been identified as one such energy source,
however conventional photovoltaic technology is limited by the materials band gap and must
improve in cost and efficiency.

A rectenna designed to couple to light frequencies could be a solar energy device alternative. A
rectenna contains an antenna that absorbs the incident radiation and a rectifier to convert the AC
power from the antenna output into DC power which is delivered to a load. Rectenna’s have
been used widely in microwave transmission and efficiencies of over 85% have been achieved.

Classical electromagnetic theories state that an antenna can be scaled to couple with any
frequency. However, the antenna required for light frequencies would be of the order of a few
hundred nanometers. At the nanolevel, classical theories which describe conductors are no
longer accurate as surface and quantum effects become dominant. There are many other
problems associated with the size of such a device including low output power of the antenna,
impedance matching of antenna and rectifier, rectification ability of nanosized diodes and
nanoscale fabrication techniques. In addition, light is a complex waveform which is randomly
polarized and is contained in a wide bandwidth.

This thesis report provides a literature review which details the progress of the rectenna from
the early uses in microwave frequencies to more current applications in the solar spectrum. It
aims to outline the key problems thus far with fabricating an efficient device. It provides a
discussion of the quantum effects of conductance and other conductor properties at the
nanolevel. Finally the report provides some preliminary design recommendations for an
improved rectenna.




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Capstone Project D/HD Presentation Day                                                      Autumn 2007


AN EXTENSIBLE SIMULATOR FOR MICROPROCESSORS (12cp)
Paul Subotic - S06-049

Supervisor : Kit Ka Fung
Assessor : Steve Murray
Major: Software Engineering

Processor simulators are useful for debugging and developing low level software such as device
drivers and micro-kernels. This type of software development often requires testing on several
processor architectures and often with very limited debugging support. Furthermore, processor
simulators are used to explore new processor architectures when the hardware is not available.
However this requires constant “recoding” of the simulator something which is error prone and
time consuming.

Despite the fact that there are a variety of simulators available for specific popular architectures,
there is a lack of simulators that can support a wide range of architectures as well as user
defined architectures.

This capstone looks at the design and implementation of an extensible processor simulator that
can support various popular processor architectures as well as user defined architectures.
Several approaches to extensibility are examined including extensibility using a code
abstraction approach with a domain specific language (DSL).

Finally a prototype is presented that can support the simulation of a wide range of processors
and virtual machines with a uniform level of fidelity. The domain specific language ensures that
there are reduced errors and defects when retargeting to other architectures as well as faster and
simpler reconfiguration. Currently this prototype has been used to simulate an ARM Central
Processing Unit and a MIPS Central Processing Unit. Several programs have been successfully
debugged using this simulator.




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Capstone Project D/HD Presentation Day                                                       Autumn 2007


IMPLEMTATION OF ACTIVE SHAPE MODEL FOR LIP TRACKING (12cp)
Ngoc Thuy Than - S06-058

Supervisor: Ahmed Al-Ani
Assessor: Adel Al-Jumaily
Major: Telecommunications Engineering

While mainstream speech recognition research has concentrated almost exclusively on the
acoustic speech signal, it is well-known that humans use visual information of the talker’s face
(mainly the lip movements) in addition to the acoustic signal for speech perception purpose. Lip
reading is also used by hearing-impaired to understand frequently spoken speech.

In order for a machine to perform lip-reading, it first needs to implement a lip-tracking
mechanism, which is the topic of this project. There have been a number of tracking algorithms
which are used to track the moving object in general and movement of human’s lip in particular.
The thesis first reviews several well-known algorithms, their relative advantages and
disadvantages with respect to lip tracking. Based on the analysis on human’s lip characteristics
and the nature of lip movement, the available software and tools, and the video files, the Active
Shape Model (ASM) is chosen to track lip movement. The focus of this thesis is to successfully
implement Active Shape Models and use it to track lip movement in MPEG extension files. To
use ASM to find the exact location of the lip in frames, first an initial estimate of the location of
lip is required. To estimate this location, a rough estimate of the location of the face for the first
frame in the video is calculated. Then, an initial lip shape is placed in location inside the face
area which most matches with the actual lip in the video. Next, Active Shape Model is used to
find the location of the lip in the first frame of the video. To perform lip tracking, the found
position of the lip in the previous frame is used as the estimate of lip location for the next frame.
Testing in two MPEG files shows that Active Shape Model can be used for accurate modeling
and tracking of lip shape and gray level appearance. Although the model has much less
dimensions as compared to the original shape data it can still allow for considerable amount of
variability while at the same time being specific to the class of objects or structures to be
represented.




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Capstone Project D/HD Presentation Day                                                   Autumn 2007


A PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION INTO THE ENGINEERED SAFETY AND
INJURY PREVENTION CHARACTERISTICS OF A SPRINGFREE TRAMPOLINE
(6cp)
Qing-Ling Tran - A07-027

Supervisor : David Eager
Assessor : Christopher Chapman
Major: Telecommunications Engineering

This Capstone project is a preliminary investigation into the effects of the engineered safety and
injury prevention characteristics of SpringFree trampolines purchased for domestic use. The
purpose of this project was to ascertain whether the unique design features of this domestic
trampoline were reflected in the injury data collected via a survey investigation.

This investigation was constrained to sampling a subset of the SpringFree customer database by
conducting 200 telephone surveys of the SpringFree models SF40E and SF90E in the states of
New South Wales and Queensland. There were 50 surveys per trampoline model per state,
totaling to 100 per trampoline model and 100 per state. A survey was designed and ethics
approval was sought and gained from the UTS Human Research Ethics Committee to conduct
this survey. The data obtained from the survey was collated and categorised by injury type,
treatment, place of treatment, cause of injury, usage frequency, clearance distance, surface type,
average number of children in a household owing a SpringFree trampoline, and perceived
potentially dangerous behaviour on the trampoline.

The analysis was performed using Excel on the data collected against model type, metropolitan
and regional areas, and age group (0 to 4 year-old, 5 to 9-year old, 10 to 15 year-old and 16 and
over). It was noted that metropolitan areas had a higher injury rate, where overall, children in
the 0 to 4 year-old age group were more likely to be injured. The most common injury was a
“bump to the head” that can be most often attributed by colliding with another user. This
investigation presents the findings and discusses the results and draws conclusions based on its
findings on whether the engineered safety and injury prevention characteristics improvements
embedded within SpringFree trampolines translated to lower injury rates.




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Capstone Project D/HD Presentation Day                                                   Autumn 2007


EFFECTIVENESS OF SYNTHETIC JET ACTUATORS FOR CONTROLLING FLOW
SEPARATION WITH AN ADVERSE PRESSURE GRADIENT (12cp)
Paul Walker - A07-091

Supervisor : Guang Hong
Assessor : Phuoc Huynh
Major: Mechanical Engineering

This project aimed to investigate the effect of a micro synthetic jet actuator (MSJA) on
controlling separated flow developed in a boundary layer with an adverse pressure gradient.
This dependency of this control effect on the position of the synthetic jet actuator, and the
forcing frequency and amplitude was examined. Intensity of disturbance was used to evaluate
the effectiveness of the MSJA. It has been demonstrated that both the position of the jet and the
actuation frequency play a significant role in separation control. Where the correct position will
prevent dissipation of momentum into the flow, and the correct frequency will enhance the flow
disturbances significantly. The role of actuation amplitude is secondary to these parameters, it
will affect the momentum added from the jet, but it will not have a significant effect on
achieving separation control once the critical size of the jet has been achieved. There has been
demonstration of two mechanisms that work together to achieve complete separation control,
where the addition of momentum to the flow will collapse the upstream end of the bubble, but
the flow instabilities enhanced by the forcing frequency are responsible for the collapse of the
remainder of the separation bubble. Furthermore, it has also been demonstrated that not only is
intensity of disturbance an acceptable method of achieving separation control, it can be used to
identify the mode of control achieved. Results have shown that through the use of appropriate
forcing frequency a micro synthetic jet actuator should be capable of successfully achieving
separation control.




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Capstone Project D/HD Presentation Day                                                   Autumn 2007


TAS SHIELDING WEDGE MOTION CONTROL SYSTEM (12cp)
Burhan Widjaja - A07-028

Supervisor: Quang Ha
Assessor: Steven Su
Major: Electrical Engineering

OPAL is Australia's new world-class, multi-purpose research reactor and the centrepiece of the
facilities at ANSTO (Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation), Lucas Heights
Sydney. OPAL features a 20 megawatt pool reactor which uses low enriched uranium fuel and
is cooled by water. It is one of the most performance-efficient research reactors in the world.

Triple Axis Spectrometer (TAS) is one of the eight Neutron Beam instruments of the OPAL
nuclear reactor at ANSTO. TAS is an instrument that measures the energy spectrum and
interprets it in terms of atomic dynamics or how the atoms move. This allows us to understand
how materials change their structure. These materials could be blood cells, plastic, paper,
chocolate, aircraft components, etc. The neutron generated in the reactor are scattered in the
material being probed. The scattering pattern reveals the sample’s molecular structure, upon
which scientists can study the material characteristics.

There are three mobile shielding wedges inside the TAS main assembly. The purpose of these
shielding is to protect the surrounding area from radiation produced by the neutron beam. In
normal operations, these shielding wedges are movable by a positioning Arm Actuator. The
direction and location where the wedges will be controlled and the Arm’s movements are
automated and monitored by a motion control system.

In the motion control system, a Galil controller acts as the brain of the motion control system. A
Zeta Drive compumotor is used as an amplifier and converts the control signal from the Galil
controller into step and direction pulses to drive the actuator using an Empire Magnetic stepper
motor. SSI (Synchronous Serial Interface) absolute encoder and limit switches are instrumented
as sensors and feedback devices. A MicroPLC processes the momentary signal activated by the
limit switches and sends output signals to the Galil controller.

The work involved in this capstone project includes setting up the motion control system,
writing a Wedge Shuffle Routine program for the Galil controller and a ladder diagram for
Micrologix 1200 Micro-PLC, designing and wiring a control panel for interfacing between the
Galil controller, Micro-PLC and the magnet arm activation, testing the program in real-time
operations with limit switches, and configuring the resolver and encoder. Following the system
description, the project development will be detailed in the thesis. Some conclusions will be
withdrawn from this capstone project together with an outline of future work on this interesting
motion control system.




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Capstone Project D/HD Presentation Day                                                   Autumn 2007


UNIVERSAL RAIL FASTENING PLATE FOR TANGENTIAL TURNOUTS (12cp)
Daniel Yeung - S06-098

Supervisor : Garry Marks
Assessor : John Dartnall
Major: Mechanical Engineering


The Universal Tangential Base Plate project was carried out with the support and guidance from
Kenneth Blomqvist, Pacific Rail Engineering and Garry Marks, University of Technology
Sydney, during Spring 2006 and Autumn 2007.

There are currently twenty eight base plate assemblies found in tangential turnouts. These
assemblies are located in the forged switch region in the stock rail and switches. The Universal
Rail Fastening Plates was developed to replace these existing base plate assemblies in order to
simply the manufacturing process and reduce production time. Through the adoption of a new
fastening system and cast design, this eliminates the need to weld and each base plate
accommodates for a range of sizes. As a result this reduced twenty eight different variations
down to eight assemblies and has also reduced production time by approximately 60%.

The development of this product followed strict engineering procedures and adhered to all
relevant stakeholder specifications and Australian standards. The following phases have been
executed- planning, analysis, design, testing, and installation procedures which have all been
documented in the appropriate manner.

A prototype was produced to allow PRE to verify this model would work in the actual assembly
and ensured that dimensional and structural checks were performed prior to the approval for
manufacture. These were all found to be within allowable tolerances and to material
specifications.

This project was primarily carried out by Daniel Yeung, with the contributions and
responsibilities of the other team members documented. Individual reflections are also included
with the difficulties encountered and the lessons learned.




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Capstone Project D/HD Presentation Day                                                     Autumn 2007


SYSTEM MODELLING OF CARDIO-RESPIRATORY RESPONSE (12cp)
Yunjia Yu - A07-082

Supervisor : Steven Su
Assessor : Hung Nguyen
Major: Electrical Engineering

The aims of this study are to investigate the cardio-respiratory behavior of human beings during
moderate activity. This capstone project proposed a multivariable ARX model well described
the cardio-respiratory response of moderate exercises based on reliable experimental data.
Specifically, the model is to determine the relationship between body movement and heart rate
variation with oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide production during exercises.

Two types of MIMO ARX models are introduced. Initially, treadmill speed together with heart
rate variation is used to model oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide production. Desired
estimation results are obtained. In order to achieve fault tolerance of sensor failures, the outputs
of triaxial accelerometers (TA) are employed to replace treadmill speed signal to predict energy
expenditure based on gas analyser. Compatible estimation results are achieved. This provides an
efficient way to implement analytical fault tolerant for automated sports training equipment.

All the laboratory sessions were experimented in the Biomedical Systems Laboratory of
University of New South Wales. In the experiment a range of cardio-respiratory responses were
measured. They are heart beat rate, breath volume, breathe frequency and gas concentrations of
each breath. The analysis of the cardio-respiratory response has practical usage as an indicator
of physiological impairment in unhealthy subjects.




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