Keeper Training Course-Nutrition by wulinqing

VIEWS: 8 PAGES: 48

									Rhino Nutrition Update
      AAZK, 2005
             Rhino TAG
     Nutrition Advisory Group

•   Ellen Dierenfeld, Chair (Sumatran)
•   Marcus Clauss, Univ Zurich (Black)
•   Michael Schlegel, Disney (White)
•   Kerrin Grant, Utah State (Asiatic)
    Q/A from Zookeeper Survey
    (thanks to Dawn Strasser!!)
•    New nutritional concerns
•    Doses of vitamin E; how often evaluate
•    Update on White Oak pellet feed study
•    Tannins for binding iron – feed study
•    Forages: timothy vs. Alfalfa
•    Browse – length of time to feed out
     and still maintain nutritional/enrichment
     value; if root on plant, degrades less?
Q/A from Zookeeper Survey
(thanks to Dawn Strasser!!)


•   Specific foods NOT to feed?
•   Perennial ryegrass staggars
•   D toxicity?
•   Pregnancy changes in diet
   Diseases with Possible
Nutritional Links - Black Rhino
• Hemosiderosis - mineral imbalances
• Hemolytic anemia - vitamin E, antiox
• Ulcerative dermatitis - glucose, amino acid,
  fatty acid, mineral imbalances
• Peripheral vasculitis (IHV) - vitamin C,
  antiox, minerals, fatty acids

• Overall impaired immune function
          Research Updates:
•   Mineral Survey, Tissues & Blood
•   Novel Antioxidant Metabolism
•   Tannin Binding Salivary Proteins
•   Intake trials in Indian Rhinos
•   Field Studies:
    • Vitamin E & Fatty Acids in Native Browses
    • Serum Vitamin E in Rhinos in South Africa
    • Field Ecology Studies – South Africa, Namibia
• New Initiatives
 Minerals in Rhinos
E.S. Dierenfeld (St. Louis), S.
  Atkinson (Muskingum College),
  A.M. Craig (Oregon State), K.C.
  Walker (Oregon State), W.J. Streich
  (Berlin) & M. Clauss (Zurich)

     Zoo Biology 24:51-72 (2005)
            Mineral Highlights
• Serum/plasma
    •   Zoo blacks (n=34); Free-ranging (n=27)
    •   Zoo whites (n=3-16); Free-ranging (n=5)
    •   Indian (n=3), Sumatran (n=3)
• Liver (21 blacks, 6 whites, 2-4 Indian & Sumatran)
• Horse a good model of metabolism
• Rhinos ‘er blood Ca & Se (captive
  only); low Na compared to equids
• Browsers high Fe (blood & liver)
• Browsers low Cu (liver) – grazers high
•   Liver K, Mg, Co, & Mo             with age
Iron Issues – Browsing rhinos




    •Captives & females higher
Iron Issues – Browsing rhinos




 • Females higher, both sexes increase with age
Iron Issues – Browsing Rhinos

• Linked with low tannins? Antiox,
  increased availability of iron but not
  solely diet
• Lack of fiber? Also can increase Fe
  bioavail – again, soluble CHO may be
  important
• Influence of dietary vitamin C? (citrus
  effect doubtful - native browses likely
  high)
Mineral Interactions
Elevated Free Tyrosine in
Rhinoceros Erytrhocytes

    Weber, B.W., D.E. Paglia, E.H. Harley




    Comp Biochem Physiol 138:105-109 (2004)
• Tyrosine in rhinoceros RBCs (but not
  plasma) 50-fold higher than humans
• Also elevated in other Perissodactyla
• Captives significantly lower compared to
  free-ranging; also variation across
  species
• Function as antioxidant?
 Tannins & Rhinos
M. Clauss, Munich (now Zurich); J.
 Gehrke, J. Fickel, & M. Lechner-
 Doll, Berlin; E.J. Flach,
 Whipsnade; E.S. Dierenfeld, WCS
 (now St. Louis); J.-M. Hatt, Zurich

Comp Biochem Physiol 140:67-72 (2005)
  Tannin-Binding Salivary
Proteins in 3 Rhino Species
• Salivary tannin-binding proteins (TBP)
  related to dietary habits – browsers highest
• Compared saliva samples from grazer
  (white, n=9), browser (black, n=10), and
  mixed (Indian, n=8) feeding habits
• Used hydrolyzable (tannic acid) &
  condensed (quebracho solution) tannin stds
  Tannin-Binding Salivary
Proteins in 3 Rhino Species
       Results……..
• Black rhino – bound both H & CT >>
  white
• Indian bound H = black, CT >> black
• Difference between black & white
  expected, results from Indian may
  indicate evolutionarily recent switch
  from browsing
Tannin-Binding Salivary Proteins
   Inducible in Black Rhinos
• Related to dietary habits – browsers highest
• Black rhinos eat tannins in nature – seasonal
  dietary habits might benefit from inducible
  mechanism.
• Six animals (3 facilities) fed 3 mo:
  • Regular diet
  • Diet + 5% tannic acid pellet
  • Diet + 5% quebracho pellet
Induction of Tannin-Binding
 Salivary Proteins …. Cont.

• Significant     in tannic acid-binding capacity
  with both tannic acid and quebracho feeding
• n.s. trend for change in quebracho-binding
  capacity with quebracho feeding; no change
  with tannic acid feeding
• Hydrolyzable tannins play a greater role in
  native environment of rhino?
• HT >> CT at iron binding? Ongoing trials
  both in Europe & the US, with Fe balance
Indian Rhino Nutrition:
      Zoo Study
M. Clauss, C. Polster, E. Kienzle,
 H.Wiesner, K. Baumgartner, F. von
 Houwald, W.J. Streich, E. S.
 Dierenfeld

     Zoo Biology 24:1-14 (2005)
          Aims of the Study

• Chronic foot problems, leiomyomas –
  linked with excess body weight?
• Intake, Digestion
  • difference between zoo diets
  • (Nürnberg, n=2; München, n=2; Zurich, n=3;
    Bronx, n=4)
  • Diets with or without concentrates
• Mineral (Ca) metabolism
• Water intake
                  Zoo Diets
• Nürnberg
  Grass hay, grass silage, pellets,
  Fruit & vegetable, mineral biscuits
• Munich
  Grass hay, pellets, fruit & vegetable, mineral
• Basel
  Straw, pellets, hay cobs, fruit & vegetable
• Bronx
  Mixed hay, pellets, (minimal) produce
                                 Particle Passage
                                & Dry matter intake

                       90
                       80
                       70
Particle passage (h)




                       60
                       50
                                                                   y = -1,2203x + 87,373
                       40                                               R2 = 0,6282


                       30
                       20
                       10
                       0
                            0    5   10       15         20            25                  30   35
                                          Dry matter intake (kg)
                                Dry Matter Digestibility
                               70,00

                               60,00
Dry matter digestibility (%)




                               50,00

                               40,00
                                                                    Diet A
                                                                    Diet B
                               30,00

                               20,00

                               10,00

                                0,00
                                       Nürnberg   München   Basel
                            Dry Matter Digestibility
                                & Crude Fiber
                           70

                           60
Dry matter digestibility




                           50

                           40                                              y = -2,3625x + 126,29
                                                                                R2 = 0,5522


                           30

                           20

                           10

                           0
                                0   10       20             30        40                       50
                                         Dietary crude fibre (% DM)
               Results:

• consumed 0.5-1.1% of body weight (DMI)
  daily
• digestible energy 0.27-0.99 MJ DE/kg
  BW0 .75 (compared with est. reqt. 0.49-0.66)
• 64% (7 of 11) consumed more energy, even
  on roughage-only diet
• Water intake 30-49 mL/kg BW daily
  (~equid)
                Results:

• hay ad libitum diet is possible
               BUT
• mineral &/or vitamin supplement needed
• straw + concentrate diet:
  • energy provision as good as hay only diet
  • May need to restrict both concentrate &
    forage
   Ca-Metabolism in Rhinos

• Similar to horses, rabbits
• not dependent on Vit D (?)
• Elimination: URINE
• Consequence:
  • Ca-stones in bladder & kidney
   (reported in rabbits, horses; never in rhino)
• Other minerals, similar to horses
              Rhino Browse:
          Free-Ranging & Captive
            Lignin   Cellulose      Hemicellulose   Protein   SO

          100%
          80%
% of DM




          60%
          40%
          20%
           0%
                 Native   Grasses Legumes       Temp   Browse
                 Browse    (n=12)      (n=4)   Browse Leaf Only
                 (n=44)                         (n=11)
    FORAGES FOR RHINOS:
•   Best nutrient ratio to duplicate browse?
    More grass than legume – sol CHO (in
    grass) impt. ??? - needs investigation
•   Good quality grass forage & proper pellet
    (6:1) alone can meet maintenance reqts.
•    Alfalfa NOT considered browse.
•   Browse can have enrichment value even if
    nutrient profiles not maintained.
•   Degradation depends on nutrient; don‘t
    know effect of roots – worth testing.
•   Keep as palatable as possible.
Lucerne (Alfalfa) can be
     Problematic
               • High [ ] N, Ca, Mg
               • Increased hindgut
                 pH
               • Very digestible,
                 altered passage rate
               • Salivary buffering
                 issues, acid/base
                 imbalances more
                 prevalent
Mineral Imbalances Due to
   Improper Forages?
• Associated with
  lucerne (alfalfa)
  feeding – in both
  grazers & browsers

 Nutrient       Timothy    Orchard Lucerne
                 (Early)    (Early) (Early)
 Ca, %             0.5        0.3     1.6
 P, %              0.3        0.3     0.2
 Mg, %             0.1        0.1     0.4
    Grass Also Problematic?
• Grass staggars reported with perennial
  ryegrass (Bluett et al., NZ Vet J 52:48, 2004)
• Due to fungal endophyte with alkaloids;
  localized in leaf base (overgrazing) and
  seed heads (undergrazing)
• Clinically – tremors, lethargy, staggar,
  collapse
• Test for lolitrem B (>1 mg/kg DM) or don‘t
  use pastures/hay containing perennial
  ryegrass with wild endophyte
         PREGNANCY DIETS
            (all rhinos):
• NO increased need until last trimester & during
  lactation
• Increased:
  •   Calorie needs (about double)
  •   protein reqts. (8-10 to 12-14%)
  •   Ca (0.3 – 0.5%) and P (0.2-0.3%)
  •   No other changes recommended with equine model
• Best to alter digestibility of diet – increasing
  browse and/or legume forage (adds protein and
  Ca), possibly targeted concentrates - not double
  quantities per se due to physical limitations
Plasma Vitamin E in Free-
  Ranging Black Rhinos
                             -toc
LLLocation         n         µg/ml



South Africa       9      0.19 ± 1.92
                   3     undetectable

 Mean = 0.86 ug/ml; similar to other studies
                              Ndondo et al., 2004
                              S Afr J Wild Rec 34:100-102
Plasma Vitamin E in Free-
  Ranging Black Rhinos
                      -toc
LLLocation     n      µg/ml

Namibia        3    0.80 ± 0.05
South Africa   45   0.62 ± 0.39
Zimbabwe       55   0.60 ± 0.23
Kenya          7    0.24 ± 0.07


                              Clauss et al., 2002
Plasma Fat-Soluble Vitamins
     in Black Rhinos
                   Vit A         Vit E
  (µg/ml)        (Retinol)      (-toc)

  Captives      0.08 ± 0.08 0.84 ± 0.96
   (n=85)
  Pre/Post 1990 0.09 / 0.08   0.46 / 1. 03
  Free-range 0.04 ± 0.03 0.58 ± 0.30
   (n=136)


  Horse          0.18-0.35     2.0-10.0


                                    Clauss et al., 2002
Vitamin E Concentrations in
   Black Rhino Browses
                       Vit E
 LLLocation     n     µg/g DM

 South Africa   9     100-729*
                     Leaves only
 Zimbabwe       26     57-341
 Kenya          12     0.4-153

                          Ndondo et al., 2004
                          Dierenfeld et al., 1995
                          Ghebremeskel et al., 1991
           VITAMIN E:
• Recommended doses (dietary levels)
  of vitamin E:

• Based on available information, ensure
  all species consume diets containing at
  least 50 IU/kg DM – up to ~200 IU/kg.
• Not doses per se, but if eat 1% of
  body mass, a 2000 kg black will eat 20
  kg DM X 50 IU = 1000 IU minimal.
• Evaluate at least annually
     Vitamin D Toxicity – an
    Isolated Problem in 2002
                         Plasma VitD
                          (25(OH)D3
                            ng/ml

       Captives          >160 ng/ml Mineralized
        (n= 3 animals,     (n=2);     tissues
         2 facilities)    28 ng/ml

       Normal Capitves   28.3 ± 3.7               3
                                                  .
                                                  2
       Free-range        55.7 ± 34.2
        (n=28)


Manufacturer very responsive, no diet problem isolated
                                          Miller et al., summary, 2003
Fatty Acids in Black Rhino
 Browses (South Africa)
                • Seasonal shift -
                  increased
                  PUFAs (C18) in
                  winter vs spring
                • No relationship
                  with vit E levels
                  but essential for
                  vit E absorption
                       Ndondo et al., 2004
Evidence of FA Deficiency in
       Black Rhinos
                • Browse composition
                  (Zimbabwe & NA
                  temperate spp.)
                • Fresh browse - a-
                  linolenic (n-3) 15X >>
                  linoleic (n-6); immediate
                  oxidation
                • Zoo vs. free-range diet -
                  linoleic 5X, linolenic 1/3

                   Grant et al., 2002, J. Wildl.
                     Dis.; Wright, 1998
Fatty Acid Investigations - Zoo
 Rhinos: Short- & Long-Term
                                • Adipose tissue FA [ ] as
 • Clinical response to           measure of long-term
   dietary FA                     diet effects
   supplementation              • 25% of rhinos (n=20)
 • Adding flax-based              deficient in C18:2
   supplement altered w-          (linoleic); >50%
   3:w-6 ratios favorably         undetectable C18:3 (a-
                                  linolenic)
 • Zoo diet - opposite
   effects on ratio             • No free-range tissue
                                  samples as baseline
 Suedmeyer & Dierenfeld, 1998       Dierenfeld & Frank, 1998
• Currently summarizing FA in rhino
  plasma (US and European zoos) vs.
  Free-ranging
• Limit foods high in PUFAs unless
  adequate antioxidant (Polyphenolics?
  Vitamin E? Tyrosine?)
• Concentrates higher than forages in
  PUFA
   Ongoing Captive Nutrition
      Studies – Rhinos:
• White Oak Browsing Rhino pellets –
  added St. Louis (n=1); others?
• Busch Gardens – diet with increased
  soluble CHO, beet pulp (n=3 blacks)
• Tannin feed additives: US and Europe
  – no updates submitted
• Sumatran rhino feeding trial – Los
  Angeles – seasonal intake/digestion
  trials
• Rhino Browse/Diet Database?
   Ongoing Nutrition Field
  Studies – Black Rhinos:
• Stephane Helary – University of
  Witwatersrand, South Africa. N. Owen-
  Smith, advisor. IRF initially funded
  •   Earthwatch project – Waterberg Plateau,
      Namibia, also examining South African sites
  • Quantifying Fe, tannins, minerals &
    natural chelators, possibly ascorbic acid
  • Feed plants, feces
  • Different ecosystems, different seasons
IRF RFP 2005 - Priority Target
 Areas with Possible Nutrition
       Component(s):
• Dietary/Nutritional links with
  disease or susceptibility
• Dietary links with reproduction
• Nutritional links with male sex
  skew

								
To top