Reconstruction Notes General Information • Where does Reconstruction take place? – the Confederacy and the South • When does Reconstruction take place? – 1865-1877 Physical Ruin of the South • Most of the war took place in the South • The North had ripped up railroad track, destroyed crops, and burned down homes and buildings Economic Ruin of the South • Southern property had be seized during the war • Confederate currency became worthless • Loss of valuable property when slaves were freed • Southerners could not pay property taxes and lost their homes Social Changes after the War • Large number of Southern men were killed or were crippled • Newly freed blacks were unprepared for freedom Lincoln’s Plan for Reconstruction (10% Plan) • New constitutions could be created after 10% of population swore loyalty • States could hold elections and resume full participation Lincoln’s Plan for Reconstruction (10% Plan) • Who opposed this plan? – Radical Republicans • What tone did this plan set? – Forgiveness • What was wrong with Lincoln’s plan? – Too lenient Lincoln’s Plan for Reconstruction (10% Plan) • What did Radical Republicans feel the main goal should be? – Guarantee black peoples’ equality • Why was this plan not used? – Lincoln was assassinated on April 14, 1865 Johnson’s Reconstruction Plan (Presidential Reconstruction) • Who took over after Lincoln’s assassination? – Andrew Johnson Johnson’s Reconstruction Plan (Presidential Reconstruction) • States could hold constitutional convention and elections without 10% allegiance • States had to void secession, abolish slavery, and pay off confederate debt Johnson’s Reconstruction Plan (Presidential Reconstruction) • How did Johnson’s Plan differ from Lincoln’s Plan? – More generous than Lincoln’s • Divided the South into 5 military districts (Military Reconstruction Plan) A map of the South under Military Reconstruction.. IRC Congressional Plan for Reconstruction (2005). Retrieved December 5, 2008, from Discovery Education: http://streaming.discoveryeducation.com/ Congressional Plan for Reconstruction (Military Reconstruction) • Required states to allow all males the right to vote, including African Americans • Required southern states to guarantee equal rights to all citizens • Required the states to ratify the 14th Amendment Congressional Plan for Reconstruction (Military Reconstruction) • Which plan is used during Reconstruction? – Congress’s Plan 13th Amendment • What year did it become law? – 1865 • What did the Amendment do? – Ended legal slavery in the U.S. forever Black Codes • Who passed these restrictions? – Southerners • Purpose – Restrict the rights of blacks Black Codes • Examples – Curfews- blacks could not gather after sunset – Vagrancy laws- any man not working could be fined, whipped, or sold for a year’s worth of labor Black Codes • Examples – Labor contracts- blacks sign a contract to work for a year. If leave early no money – Land restrictions- blacks could only rent land or homes in rural areas (plantations) 14th Amendment • What year did it become law? – 1866 14th Amendment • What did the Amendment do? – Gave citizenship to all born in the United States – Congress given power to enforce Bill of Rights at state level 15th Amendment • What year did it become law? – 1868 • What did the Amendment do? – Guaranteed black males the right to vote Enforcement Act of 1870 • Purpose – Protected the voting rights of African Americans and gave the federal government power to enforce the 15th Amendment Freedmen’s Bureau • Purpose – Help black southerners adjust to freedom by giving them food and an education Freedmen’s Bureau • Accomplishments – First major federal relief agency in U.S. History – Gave out clothing, medical supplies, and food – Gave blacks education- taught them how to read and write Changes in Farming • Why were Southern Plantation owners desperate for workers? – Hard to find people willing to pick cotton for $.50 a day – Blacks left the South for better jobs elsewhere Changes in Farming • Solutions – Sharecropping- family farmed land and paid rent by giving a part of crop to land owner. They were told what to plant. – Tenant farming- families paid rent with the money made from selling crops. They could plant what they wanted and work when they wanted Impeachment of Johnson • Define impeach. – To formally accuse the President of a crime • What was the Tenure of Office Act? – Forbid the President from firing any official confirmed by the Senate without Senate approval • Why was Johnson impeached? – He fired the Secretary of War thus violating the Tenure of Office Act Impeachment of Johnson • Was Johnson removed from office? – No, the Senate failed to convict him by one vote • What did the trial show? – The extremes to which Congress would go to have political power New Players in the State Govts • Blacks- voted Republican • Carpetbaggers- provided leadership and encouraged blacks to vote Republican • Scalawags- hoped to win public office by working with Northerners Negative Effects • Southern whites were replaced by illiterate and ignorant blacks • Widespread corruption • New governments over spent money leaving heavy state debts Positive Effects • New constitutions allowed for more political participation • New roads, bridges, public buildings, and railroad track built Positive Effects • Tax burden more evenly distributed • Free public education for all • Revived cotton production End of Reconstruction • Election of 1876 – Dispute between Republicans and Democrats over who won the election. Decision sent to House of Representatives End of Reconstruction • Compromise of 1877 – Rutherford B. Hayes (Republican candidate) given Presidency under following conditions: • Federal troops removed from the South • Federal government gives South money to build railroads End of Reconstruction • What is the importance of the Election of 1876 and the Compromise of 1877? – The election marks the end of Reconstruction in the South Restoration of Southern Control • Southern whites unite against outside control and stopped black voting • Corrupt governments turn southerners away from Republican party • Amnesty Act of 1872- restored political rights to all former confederates Ku Klux Klan • What was it? • Secret organization in the South during Reconstruction • Why was it started? • Help maintain white rule and stop blacks from voting Ku Klux Klan • What happened to this organization? • Died out after Reconstruction but was revived in the early 1900s Jim Crow Laws • What are Jim Crow laws? – laws passed by southern state governments which segregated blacks from whites in schools, parks, and other public places Jim Crow Laws • Voting Restrictions – Poll Tax- a special fee that must be paid before a person can vote – Grandfather Clause- Could only vote if your Grandfather had voted in a previous election Jim Crow Laws • Voting Restrictions – Literacy Tests- a test administered before voting that required them to read a portion of the U.S. Constitution Jim Crow Laws • Segregation- forced separation of races in society – Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) • Supreme Court ruling that permitted legalized segregation in schools and all public accommodations. Established the “Separate but Equal” doctrine.