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					Reconstruction Notes
          General Information
• Where does Reconstruction take place?
  – the Confederacy and the South
• When does Reconstruction take place?
  – 1865-1877
     Physical Ruin of the South
• Most of the war took place in the South
• The North had ripped up railroad track,
  destroyed crops, and burned down homes and
  buildings
     Economic Ruin of the South
• Southern property had be seized during the
  war
• Confederate currency became worthless
• Loss of valuable property when slaves were
  freed
• Southerners could not pay property taxes and
  lost their homes
    Social Changes after the War
• Large number of Southern men were killed or
  were crippled
• Newly freed blacks were unprepared for
  freedom
    Lincoln’s Plan for Reconstruction
                (10% Plan)
• New constitutions could be created after 10%
  of population swore loyalty
• States could hold elections and resume full
  participation
    Lincoln’s Plan for Reconstruction
                (10% Plan)
• Who opposed this plan?
  – Radical Republicans
• What tone did this plan set?
  – Forgiveness
• What was wrong with Lincoln’s plan?
  – Too lenient
    Lincoln’s Plan for Reconstruction
                (10% Plan)
• What did Radical Republicans feel the main
  goal should be?
  – Guarantee black peoples’ equality
• Why was this plan not used?
  – Lincoln was assassinated on April 14, 1865
     Johnson’s Reconstruction Plan
      (Presidential Reconstruction)
• Who took over after Lincoln’s assassination?
  – Andrew Johnson
     Johnson’s Reconstruction Plan
      (Presidential Reconstruction)
• States could hold constitutional convention
  and elections without 10% allegiance
• States had to void secession, abolish slavery,
  and pay off confederate debt
     Johnson’s Reconstruction Plan
      (Presidential Reconstruction)
• How did Johnson’s Plan differ from Lincoln’s
  Plan?
  – More generous than Lincoln’s
                                                                • Divided the South into 5 military districts
                                                                                                                   (Military Reconstruction Plan)




A map of the South under Military Reconstruction.. IRC
                                                                                                                Congressional Plan for Reconstruction




(2005). Retrieved December 5, 2008, from
Discovery Education: http://streaming.discoveryeducation.com/
Congressional Plan for Reconstruction
     (Military Reconstruction)
• Required states to allow all males the right to
  vote, including African Americans
• Required southern states to guarantee equal
  rights to all citizens
• Required the states to ratify the 14th
  Amendment
Congressional Plan for Reconstruction
     (Military Reconstruction)
• Which plan is used during Reconstruction?
  – Congress’s Plan
             13th Amendment
• What year did it become law?
  – 1865
• What did the Amendment do?
  – Ended legal slavery in the U.S. forever
                  Black Codes
• Who passed these restrictions?
  – Southerners
• Purpose
  – Restrict the rights of blacks
               Black Codes
• Examples
   – Curfews- blacks could not gather after
     sunset
   – Vagrancy laws- any man not working could
     be fined, whipped, or sold for a year’s
     worth of labor
                Black Codes
• Examples
   – Labor contracts- blacks sign a contract to
     work for a year. If leave early no money
   – Land restrictions- blacks could only rent
     land or homes in rural areas (plantations)
           14th Amendment
• What year did it become law?
  – 1866
             14th Amendment
• What did the Amendment do?
  – Gave citizenship to all born in the United States
  – Congress given power to enforce Bill of Rights at
    state level
             15th Amendment
• What year did it become law?
  – 1868
• What did the Amendment do?
  – Guaranteed black males the right to vote
       Enforcement Act of 1870
• Purpose
  – Protected the voting rights of African Americans
    and gave the federal government power to
    enforce the 15th Amendment
            Freedmen’s Bureau
• Purpose
  – Help black southerners adjust to freedom by
    giving them food and an education
           Freedmen’s Bureau
• Accomplishments
  – First major federal relief agency in U.S. History
  – Gave out clothing, medical supplies, and food
  – Gave blacks education- taught them how to read
    and write
           Changes in Farming
• Why were Southern Plantation owners
  desperate for workers?
  – Hard to find people willing to pick cotton for $.50
    a day
  – Blacks left the South for better jobs elsewhere
           Changes in Farming
• Solutions
  – Sharecropping- family farmed land and paid rent
    by giving a part of crop to land owner. They were
    told what to plant.
  – Tenant farming- families paid rent with the money
    made from selling crops. They could plant what
    they wanted and work when they wanted
      Impeachment of Johnson
• Define impeach.
  – To formally accuse the President of a crime
• What was the Tenure of Office Act?
  – Forbid the President from firing any official
    confirmed by the Senate without Senate approval
• Why was Johnson impeached?
  – He fired the Secretary of War thus violating the
    Tenure of Office Act
      Impeachment of Johnson
• Was Johnson removed from office?
  – No, the Senate failed to convict him by one vote
• What did the trial show?
  – The extremes to which Congress would go to have
    political power
   New Players in the State Govts
• Blacks- voted Republican
• Carpetbaggers- provided leadership and
  encouraged blacks to vote Republican
• Scalawags- hoped to win public office by
  working with Northerners
            Negative Effects
• Southern whites were replaced by illiterate
  and ignorant blacks
• Widespread corruption
• New governments over spent money leaving
  heavy state debts
              Positive Effects
• New constitutions allowed for more political
  participation
• New roads, bridges, public buildings, and
  railroad track built
             Positive Effects
• Tax burden more evenly distributed
• Free public education for all
• Revived cotton production
         End of Reconstruction
• Election of 1876
  – Dispute between Republicans and Democrats over
    who won the election. Decision sent to House of
    Representatives
         End of Reconstruction
• Compromise of 1877
  – Rutherford B. Hayes (Republican candidate) given
    Presidency under following conditions:
     • Federal troops removed from the South
     • Federal government gives South money to build
       railroads
         End of Reconstruction
• What is the importance of the Election of
  1876 and the Compromise of 1877?
  – The election marks the end of Reconstruction in
    the South
  Restoration of Southern Control
• Southern whites unite against outside control
  and stopped black voting
• Corrupt governments turn southerners away
  from Republican party
• Amnesty Act of 1872- restored political rights
  to all former confederates
               Ku Klux Klan
• What was it?
  • Secret organization in the South during
    Reconstruction
• Why was it started?
  • Help maintain white rule and stop blacks
    from voting
               Ku Klux Klan
• What happened to this organization?
  • Died out after Reconstruction but was
    revived in the early 1900s
              Jim Crow Laws
• What are Jim Crow laws?
  – laws passed by southern state governments which
    segregated blacks from whites in schools, parks,
    and other public places
               Jim Crow Laws
• Voting Restrictions
  – Poll Tax- a special fee that must be paid before a
    person can vote
  – Grandfather Clause- Could only vote if your
    Grandfather had voted in a previous election
               Jim Crow Laws
• Voting Restrictions
  – Literacy Tests- a test administered before voting
    that required them to read a portion of the U.S.
    Constitution
               Jim Crow Laws
• Segregation- forced separation of races in
  society
  – Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
     • Supreme Court ruling that permitted legalized
       segregation in schools and all public
       accommodations. Established the “Separate
       but Equal” doctrine.

				
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