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					                 What are Protists?
• Protists are eukaryotes (organisms whose cells are
  organized into complex structures enclosed within
  membranes with a true nucleus)
• All protists live in water, moist soil, or the moist interiors of
  other organisms.
• Many protists, such as the algae, are photosynthetic and
  are vital primary
  producers in ecosystems,
  particularly in the ocean.
  Other protists are
  responsible for a range of
  serious human diseases,
  such as malaria and
  sleeping sickness.
                                       Diversity and Ecology MW Lecture 16
                                              Photography Copyright D.Bausch. Public Domain Access Granted.
               The Origin of Eukaryotic Cells
Eukaryotic cells are
believed to have
developed when a
primitive prokaryotic
cell engulfed aerobic
bacteria. These aerobic
bacteria were not broken
down within the prokaryotic
cell, but rather, developed
into mitochondria which used
oxygen to convert the energy
stored in food into energy
that is able to be used by the              The Brain from Top to Bottom. Retrieved on July.30.2010 from a_05_cl_her_1b The Brain
                                            from Top to Bottom http://thebrain.mcgill.ca/flash/a/a_05/a_05_cl/a_05_cl_her/a_05_cl_her.html

prokaryotic cell. These cells
evolved into animals, fungi, or protists.
           The Origin of Eukaryotic Cells

Plants continued this
process a step further
and are believed to
have then engulfed
photosynthetic bacteria
which then evolved into
chloroplasts.
Chloroplasts are
responsible for the
photosynthetic process          The Brain from Top to Bottom. Retrieved on July.30.2010 from a_05_cl_her_1b The Brain
                                from Top to Bottom http://thebrain.mcgill.ca/flash/a/a_05/a_05_cl/a_05_cl_her/a_05_cl_her.html
which plants use to create
sugars from carbon dioxide and sunlight.
                  What are Protists?
• Animals, such as humans, are made up trillions of
  single cells, therefore we are multi-cellular.
  However, in multi-cellular organisms each cell is not
  considered an individual organism.
• Protists, however, are organisms that are primarily
  made of only one cell.
• Protists can multi-cellular
  but they do not have
  specialized tissues. This
  distinguishes the protists
  from other eukaryotes
  such as fungi, animals
  and plants.                    Diversity and Ecology MW Lecture 16
                                            Photography Copyright D.Bausch. Public Domain Access Granted.
Prof. Gordon T. Taylor, Stony Brook University. Retrieved on J
uly.30.2010 from Wikemedia Commons. Public Domain Access.


       Surface waters of
       oceans and lakes
                                                                            Merbabu. Retrieved on
  have an abundance of                                                      July.30.2010 from Wikimedia Commons.       Kip Evans. Retrieved on July.30.2010 from
                                                                                                                       Wikimedia Commons. Public Domain Access.

 protists called diatoms                                                              Protists are                    In some near-shore
                                                                                      particularly                         areas, gigantic
                                                                                  abundant in tidal                      protists, such as
                                                                                         habitats                               kelp, form
                                                                                                                       underwater forests

                                                       Protists, such as algae, are the leading primary
                                                       producers in oceans and are the basis for marine
                                                       and freshwater food chains.
                                                       Britannica Online. Retrieved on July.30.2010 from
                                                       http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/212636/food-chain.
Examples of different protists.




Monday, October 27, 2003
Photography Copyright D.Bausch. Public Domain Access Granted.
                                    Types of Protists
Animal like protists (Protozoans)
Eg. amoeba, ciliates, flagellates

They are considered animal like because they
                                                             Gregorius28.
consumer other organisms to obtain nutrients.                Retrieved on
                                                             July.28.2010 from
                                                             http://www.wikico

Some of these protists are parasites.              Stentor   mmons.org. Public
                                                             Domain Access.


Fungus like protists
Eg. slime moulds and water moulds

They are considered fungus like because they
                                                             US Government
consume nutrients from living or dead organisms              National Park
                                                             Service. Retrieved
                                                             on July.30.2010
                                                   Slime     from Wikpedia
Some water moulds are parasites.                   Mould     Commons Online.
                                                             Public Domain
                                                             Access.


Plant like protists
Eg. euglenoids, diatoms, dinoflagellates

They are considered plant like because they make
their own food by photosynthesis.
                                                              Hannes Grobe.
                                                              Retrieved on
                                                              July.28.2010 from
Some can consume other organisms and some                     http://www.wikico
                                                   Diatom     mmons.org. Public
are symbionts within other organisms.                         Domain Access.
Protists have different ways of moving
Some protists move by means of CILIA.

                                                                                 Cilia are hair-
                                                                                 like
                                                                                 projections
                                                                                 which beat
                                                                                 together like
                                                                                 oars to push
                                                                                 the protist
                                                                                 through its
                                                                                 environment.




 National Human Genome Research Institute. Retrieved on July.30.2010
 from http://www.genome.gov/pressDisplay.cfm?photoID=85. Public Domain Access.
Protists have differents ways of moving
Some protists move by means of A FLAGELLUM.
Flagella are tail like projections
which rotate like a propeller to
push the protist through its
environment




     National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved on   Mike Jones. Retrieved on July.30.2010 from
     July.30.2010 from Wikmedia Commons. Public Domain Access.       http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Image:Flagella.png. Public Domain Access.
Protists have different ways of moving
   Some protists move by means of PSEUDOPODIA.


 Pseudopod




                                                            Tsukii Yuuji. Retrieved on July.28.2010
                    Amoeba                                  from http://www.wikicommons.org. Public
                                                            Domain Access.




Pseudopods are temporary projections of the protist which push its body
in a particular direction. The fluid within the cell is pushed against the cell
wall which causes it to extend.
 Protists feed in a different ways:
Some engulf (swallow) bacteria and
other food materials in pseudopods
by surrounding it with arm like
structures, like this amoeba engulfing
a bacteria.

Some parasites have developed the
ability to penetrate a host and absorb
its nutrients, like this trypanosoma      PHIL_613_lores.
                                          Centers for Disease
protist swimming alongside the red        Control and
                                          Prevention's Public
blood cells of its host. Trypanosoma      Health Image
                                          Library. Retrieved on
causes African sleeping sickness.         July.30.2010 from
                                          Wikipedia Commons
                                          Online. Public
                                          Domain Access.


Some protists are filter feeders that
have hundreds of small hairs called
cilia near their mouths. The cilia beat
very rapidly and pull in smaller
organisms and nutrients, like this          Jockersam.
                                            Retireved on
rotifer.                                    July.30.2010 from
                                            http://creationwiki.
                                            org/File:Stentor123
                                            .jpg

				
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