Beverly Boyd Hillary Tunstall Working Together…Making a Difference ! Welcome Teams! – Your Importance 1. Support for students 2. Support for parents 3. Support for teachers Training Schedule/Overview Our Teams – Who is on the team and what do they do? State/Federal Mandates Factors contributing to academic failure PST Process Flow Chart Steps for Problem Solving Selecting Interventions – What and where? Graphing FAQs Who’s on the Team? Core Members of the Team Other individuals who may Reg. ed. Teacher be present Administrator Parent (Always Invited!) School Counselor Teacher of student (Chairperson) School psychologist EC Teacher C.A.R.E. Teacher Past teachers School nurse Speech therapist Occupational therapist Outside service providers Other Roles Members may engage in a variety of roles or activities Recorder (keep minutes of each meeting) Brainstormer (Always!) Researcher (explore avenues for finding intervention ideas) Graphing (It may be necessary for an individual to graph data if teacher is unable to do so) Why use a problem solving approach? No more “wait to fail” Progress monitoring gives as much or more information than standardized instruments Encourages parent participation Team approach leaves potential for more ideas Proactive instead of reactive Find solutions rather than diagnose problems www.nasponline.org The Bottom Line “Research-based interventions are now required prior to determining eligibility for special education and related services in some areas of disability” DPI What Disability Areas? Specific Learning Disability, Intellectual Disability, Other Health Impairment, Emotional Disability, Traumatic Brain Injury 5 out of 14 disability areas of eligibility require two scientifically research based interventions with progress monitoring Individuals with Disabilities Improvement Education Act (2004) It’s a Disability? Prove It! The schools are charged with the task of proving a student has a disability Intervention Data + Evaluation Results Eligibility Determination: Is there a negative impact on academic performance? It can be a disability, and still not require exceptional children services What impacts student performance that is NOT a disability? Language proficiency Transitions – moving, Retention divorce, death, etc. Lack of early Life stressors – natural intervention (Snowball disaster, trauma, illness effect) Poor adult/peer Low socio-economic interactions status Poor school attendance Limited exposure to learning opportunities STEP 1: The Referral A. Teacher completes PST Initial Form B. Refers information to PST Chairperson C. Chairperson A. Review PST Initial Form – Is it complete? B. Schedule PST meeting within 10 calendar days of receiving PST Initial Form C. Invites/Informs members of team Date Form Completed: 9/20/2010 Student: Sarah Student School: Super Elementary School Sex: F Race: African American Grade: 4 Parent/Guardian: Tom and Denise Student Date of Birth: 5/24/2000 Age: 10 Address: 17 Pleasant Ln. Williamston NCWISE: 00000000 Telephone: 252-555-5555 Student Strengths: Sarah has strong peer relationships and enjoys inviting friends over and incorporating them in her activities. She is a good friend to others and is generally helpful and cooperative in the classroom. Sarah recently began playing softball with a recreational league. She enjoys and shows exciting skills in drawing and other aspects of art. When asked about specific skills, Sarah reported that she was a good softball player and friend. Sarah shows relative strength in the academic area of math. Parent Participation: First Contact: Date 9/2/2010 Person Making Contact: Mrs. Teacher Type of Contact: ___ School Conference ____ Letter/Note _____Home Visit + Phone Call Purpose: Mrs. Teacher was concerned about Sarah’s difficulty in language arts activities. Outcome: Mrs. Student (parent) also indicated similar concern and both individuals discussed increasing reading activities at home. Second Contact: Date 9/15/2010 Person Making Contact: Mrs. Teacher Type of Contact: ___ School Conference ___ Letter/Note ___Home Visit + Phone Call Purpose: Sarah’s continued difficulty with language arts, particularly in comprehending what she reads. Outcome: Mrs. Teacher and Mrs. Student discussed possibility of referring to the problem solving team. STEP 2: Initial Referral Meeting A. Referring individual presents case A. Review PST Initial Form, PEP, or other info B. As a team, complete the Intervention Documentation Form A. Area of concern, target behavior, etc. C. If baseline data is complete: A. Determine length of intervention period D. If baseline data is not complete: A. Designate individual to obtain Intervention Documentation Form Area of Concern – Clarify the Problem! Focus on only one area at a time Measurable! Observable! Specify: Failing Reading -> Not comprehending text -> Does not read fluently -> Struggles to segment and blend sounds in words -> DING DING DING DING! Baseline Data: What is it? Snapshot of the current performance The “before” picture The comparison Requires some hypotheses about reason for academic struggle Obtaining Baseline Data Examples DIBELS, curriculum-based measurement probes from intervention central, Direct Behavior Ratings Obtain 3 data “points” 3 examples of the area of concern May be over the course of 3 days, 3 weeks, 3 instructional periods, etc. KEEP IN MIND! The method of data collection used for baseline will also be used for progress monitoring Intervention Documentation Area of Concern: Be Specific (e.g. vowel sound recognition, homework completion, comprehension) Sarah (4th grade) has difficulty comprehending grade level text. She is not able to identify main themes and retell stories. Interventions/Strategies Previously Attempted More time to read passages, Rereading passages, partner reading with classmate, proximity to teacher during oral reading. Baseline Data: (Occurs prior to intervention) Baseline Data Collection 1 Baseline Data Collection 2 Baseline Data Collection 3 40% accuracy answering WH 40% accuracy answering WH 60% accuracy answering WH questions questions questions Date: 10/1 Date: 10/3 Date: 10/6 Target Behavior: Specific level of mastery to be achieved Answer WH questions with at least 80% accuracy. Intervention Description: Advanced Story Map – Worksheet with questions related to narrative text to help Sarah organize her understanding of key components of the story previously read. Advanced Story Map worksheets will be obtained from interventioncentral.org. Frequency: 3 X per week When: Last 10 minutes of reading block Who: Sarah reads and completes Story Map worksheet with teacher feedback immediately following completion Where: Classroom Data Collection: Method of Collection: Teacher made Who, What, Where, When, and Why question probes Frequency: 1 X per week Intervention Length: 4 weeks STEP 3: Follow-Up Meeting A. Chairperson schedules follow-up meeting within 10 calendar days of end of intervention period B. As a team A. Complete the Evaluate Intervention Effectiveness form B. Decide on next steps A. Continue? Discontinue? Change? Move to targeting another skill? Evaluate Effectiveness of Intervention Summary of Baseline Data (e.g. charted, graphed, listed, etc.) Sarah was answering WH question teacher made probes with 40 – 60% accuracy. What is the level of performance after intervention? After receiving 4 weeks of intervention, 3 out of 4 weeks showed performance at or above the target behavior mark of 80% accuracy on WH questions. What is the difference between expectation and performance? + Improvement in performance ___No Improvement in performance ___Insufficient data PST Recommendations Continue intervention through end of current grading period – Teacher tracks progress through classroom grades. Signatures Position Date __________________ ___________________ __________ __________________ ___________________ __________ __________________ ___________________ __________ __________________ ___________________ __________ __________________ ___________________ __________ __________________ ___________________ __________ __________________ ___________________ __________ __________________ ___________________ __________ __________________ ___________________ __________ Selecting Interventions What Does Research-Based Mean? Where Do We Get Interventions? Research-Based Interventions “research-based”, “evidence-based”, “scientifically- based”, “empirically validated” No Child Left Behind (NCLB) refers to “scientifically based reading research” Research Systematic Uses observation or experimental procedures Data analysis Accepted by peer-reviewed journal Rathvon 2008 Evidence Based Intervention Network East Carolina University “Fine Print” of EBIs Researched techniques paired with a particular situation (“hammer is a great tool, but not with a screw”) Delivered the same way it was researched What often works, will not always work EBI Network Common Problem Framework Emphasizes determining the function of the problem and seeking interventions that address this function http://www.ecu.edu/cs-cas/psyc/rileytillmant/EBI-Network-Common- Problems-Framework.cfm Riley-Tillman, 2010 Sounds Great! WHERE????? On MCS’s website Interventions listed in academic and behavior areas List of resources for interventions Effective School Interventions, Second Edition – Natalie Rathvon Intervention Central – www.interventioncentral.org What Works Clearinghouse - http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/ Taking Data Systematically Systematic Regularly Methodological Doing the same thing Derived from planning and organization Why Important? Examining Data Keeping team members informed Interventions used in line with how they were researched Graphing 3 Options 1. Excel Spreadsheet 2. Intervention Central’s ChartDog 3. Paper graphing by hand Choose option that works best for you! Use the same method! Using Excel Benefits of using excel Saves data Allows for various ways of formatting Provides easy visual Only gives you the information you need Review Graphing 101 worksheet Let’s do an example!!! Sarah’s Excel Graph % of WH Questions Correct 90 80 70 60 50 40 % of WH Questions Correct 30 20 10 0 Oct. 1 Oct. 4 Oct. 6 Oct. 8 Oct. 15 Oct. 22 Oct. 29 (Baseline) (Baseline) (Baseline) Using ChartDog Benefits of using ChartDog (www.interventioncentral.org) Can obtain more data analysis information % of Non-Overlapping Data Points Trend (puts in a trend line) Effect Size – Doesn’t just tell us IF the intervention worked but to what EXTENT it worked Provides useful visual Easy plug-in method of charting CANNOT save data as you go Sarah’s ChartDog Graph Graphing By Hand Benefits of using good ‘ole graphing paper! No need to remember where to put what information Easily maintain a running document of data Review MCS’s graph model Examining the Graph Visual Analysis Trend is toward increased performance Data during intervention is stronger than during baseline % of WH Questions Meet target behavior? Correct 90 What Next? 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 % of WH 10 Questions 0 Correct Evaluate Effectiveness of Intervention Summary of Baseline Data (e.g. charted, graphed, listed, etc.) Sarah was answering WH question teacher made probes with 40 – 60% accuracy. What is the level of performance after intervention? After receiving 4 weeks of intervention, 3 out of 4 weeks showed performance at or above the target behavior mark of 80% accuracy on WH questions. What is the difference between expectation and performance? + Improvement in performance ___No Improvement in performance ___Insufficient data PST Recommendations Continue intervention through end of current grading period – Teacher tracks progress through classroom grades. Signatures Position Date __________________ ___________________ __________ __________________ ___________________ __________ __________________ ___________________ __________ __________________ ___________________ __________ __________________ ___________________ __________ __________________ ___________________ __________ __________________ ___________________ __________ __________________ ___________________ __________ __________________ ___________________ __________ Let’s Try Brainstorming! Trey is a Kindergarten student who is exhibiting noncompliant behavior during whole group instruction time. He refuses to answer questions, distracts other students, and shows off-task behavior. The teacher has tried time-outs and maintaining proximity during these times but the behaviors have continued…. In Your Teams Review the PST Initial Form for Trey Brainstorm hypotheses for Trey’s behavior during whole group instructional times Begin completing the Intervention Documentation Form Brainstorm methods of obtaining baseline data FAQs Is this process the same for referrals related to possible speech/language impairment? No – the following disability areas do not mandate 2 research based interventions: Speech/language Impairment, Autism, Deaf, Deaf-blind, Developmental Delay, Hearing Impairment, Multiple Disabilities, Orthopedic Impairment, Visual Impairment Are 2 research based interventions needed for specific skill areas such as basic reading or fluency? No – Interventions are needed for academic areas. For example, if referral is related to reading, 2 interventions with progress monitoring are needed addressing reading Do not need 2 interventions for basic reading, 2 for reading fluency, etc. FAQs Continued Is there a minimum amount of time for intervention periods? Yes – Interventions are typically considered to require at least 4 weeks of implementation to show any effectiveness. May carry out for longer! Behavior referrals typically need more time! I.e. 6 weeks or longer When referring for testing, what specific academic areas should be requested? The brainstorming conducted to identify interventions will also guide what areas to request testing such as basic reading or math calculation skills What if parent(s) are not willing to become involved? Parent involvement, while critical, is not necessary. This is a child-centered process. FAQs Continued Can the 2 interventions be done simultaneously? No – Determining the success of an intervention is difficult if another intervention is being done as well. What if a student’s academic difficulty is connected to medical issues? Medical history will be included on both Social/Developmental History and PST Initial Form Must go to PST – Team decision about next steps Parent Referral FAQs How do parent referrals alter the problem solving process? Parent referrals for testing begin a 90 day timeline for the completion of testing This does not usurp the problem solving process The two actions must occur simultaneously Parent referral may be an opportunity to get the parent involved in the problem solving process! What if parent states a request for testing rather than in writing? Requests honored if delivered orally or in writing Disability Areas NOT Requiring Interventions Speech/language impairment, Deaf, Deaf-Blind, etc. If suspected disability area does not require interventions, the referral must still go to the PST Complete PST Initial Form Next Steps Screenings? Refer to EC teacher to begin initial referral process for EC Developmental Delay & Specific Learning Disability Developmental Delay (DD) Child aged 3 through 7 years Development and/or behavior is delayed or atypical One or more of these areas is delayed Physical, cognitive, communication, social/emotional, or adaptive development Specific Learning Disability (SLD) Impaired ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, perform etc. Includes conditions: perceptual disabilities, brain injury, brain dysfunction, dyslexia, developmental aphasia Disorders not included: visual, hearing, or motor disabilities, mental retardation, emotional disturbance, or other disadvantages (cultural, environmental, economic) Policies Governing Services for Children With Disabilities June 2010 Developmental Delay (DD) vs. Specific Learning Disability (SLD) Since DD does not require interventions, at what age do we stop considering DD and begin considering LD and implement interventions? Best Practices: Up to age 6 years, referrals would not require interventions. Referral must still go to the PST to review the PST Initial Form. After 6 years, referrals would require interventions because the eligibility area may be SLD, OHI, ID, or other area that requires interventions. Conclusion Words from our EC Director Questions? Suggestions for follow-up training Teams: Staff Overview??