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Problem Solving Team Training

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Problem Solving Team Training Powered By Docstoc
					                Beverly Boyd
              Hillary Tunstall




Working Together…Making a Difference !
Welcome Teams!
 – Your Importance
    1.   Support for students
    2.   Support for parents
    3.   Support for teachers
  Training Schedule/Overview
 Our Teams – Who is on the team and what do they do?
 State/Federal Mandates
 Factors contributing to academic failure
 PST Process Flow Chart
 Steps for Problem Solving
 Selecting Interventions – What and where?
 Graphing
 FAQs
Who’s on the Team?
 Core Members of the Team    Other individuals who may
   Reg. ed. Teacher          be present
   Administrator               Parent (Always Invited!)
   School Counselor            Teacher of student
    (Chairperson)               School psychologist
   EC Teacher                  C.A.R.E. Teacher
                                Past teachers
                                School nurse
                                Speech therapist
                                Occupational therapist
                                Outside service providers
Other Roles
 Members may engage in a variety of roles or
 activities
   Recorder (keep minutes of each meeting)
   Brainstormer (Always!)
   Researcher (explore avenues for finding
    intervention ideas)
   Graphing (It may be necessary for an individual
    to graph data if teacher is unable to do so)
Why use a problem solving
approach?
 No more “wait to fail”
 Progress monitoring gives as much or more
  information than standardized instruments
 Encourages parent participation
 Team approach leaves potential for more ideas
 Proactive instead of reactive
 Find solutions rather than diagnose problems



              www.nasponline.org
The Bottom Line
 “Research-based interventions are now required prior
  to determining eligibility for special education and
  related services in some areas of disability” DPI
 What Disability Areas?
    Specific Learning Disability, Intellectual Disability,
     Other Health Impairment, Emotional Disability,
     Traumatic Brain Injury
 5 out of 14 disability areas of eligibility require two
  scientifically research based interventions with
  progress monitoring
                 Individuals with Disabilities Improvement
                 Education Act (2004)
It’s a Disability? Prove It!
 The schools are charged with the task of
  proving a student has a disability
    Intervention Data + Evaluation Results
 Eligibility Determination: Is there a negative
  impact on academic performance?
    It can be a disability, and still not require
     exceptional children services
  What impacts student performance
       that is NOT a disability?
 Language proficiency      Transitions – moving,
 Retention                  divorce, death, etc.
 Lack of early             Life stressors – natural
  intervention (Snowball     disaster, trauma, illness
  effect)                   Poor adult/peer
 Low socio-economic         interactions
  status                    Poor school attendance
 Limited exposure to
  learning opportunities
STEP 1: The Referral
A. Teacher completes PST Initial Form
B. Refers information to PST Chairperson
C. Chairperson
  A. Review PST Initial Form – Is it complete?
  B. Schedule PST meeting within 10 calendar days of
     receiving PST Initial Form
  C. Invites/Informs members of team
Date Form Completed: 9/20/2010

Student: Sarah Student                                    School: Super Elementary School

Sex: F Race: African American Grade: 4                    Parent/Guardian: Tom and Denise Student

Date of Birth: 5/24/2000       Age: 10                    Address: 17 Pleasant Ln. Williamston

NCWISE: 00000000                                          Telephone: 252-555-5555

Student Strengths:
Sarah has strong peer relationships and enjoys inviting friends over and incorporating them in her
activities. She is a good friend to others and is generally helpful and cooperative in the classroom. Sarah
recently began playing softball with a recreational league. She enjoys and shows exciting skills in
drawing and other aspects of art. When asked about specific skills, Sarah reported that she was a good
softball player and friend. Sarah shows relative strength in the academic area of math.

Parent Participation:
First Contact: Date 9/2/2010

       Person Making Contact: Mrs. Teacher

       Type of Contact: ___ School Conference ____ Letter/Note _____Home Visit + Phone Call

       Purpose: Mrs. Teacher was concerned about Sarah’s difficulty in language arts activities.

       Outcome: Mrs. Student (parent) also indicated similar concern and both individuals discussed
        increasing reading activities at home.

Second Contact: Date 9/15/2010

       Person Making Contact: Mrs. Teacher

       Type of Contact: ___ School Conference ___ Letter/Note ___Home Visit + Phone Call

       Purpose: Sarah’s continued difficulty with language arts, particularly in comprehending what she
        reads.

       Outcome: Mrs. Teacher and Mrs. Student discussed possibility of referring to the problem
        solving team.
STEP 2: Initial Referral Meeting
A. Referring individual presents case
  A. Review PST Initial Form, PEP, or other info
B. As a team, complete the Intervention
   Documentation Form
  A.   Area of concern, target behavior, etc.
C. If baseline data is complete:
  A. Determine length of intervention period
D. If baseline data is not complete:
  A. Designate individual to obtain
Intervention Documentation Form
 Area of Concern – Clarify the Problem!
   Focus on only one area at a time
   Measurable! Observable!
 Specify:
    Failing Reading -> Not comprehending text -> Does not
     read fluently -> Struggles to segment and blend sounds
     in words -> DING DING DING DING!
Baseline Data: What is it?
 Snapshot of the current performance
 The “before” picture
 The comparison
 Requires some hypotheses about reason for
 academic struggle
Obtaining Baseline Data
 Examples
    DIBELS, curriculum-based measurement probes from
     intervention central, Direct Behavior Ratings
 Obtain 3 data “points”
    3 examples of the area of concern
    May be over the course of 3 days, 3 weeks, 3 instructional
     periods, etc.
 KEEP IN MIND!
    The method of data collection used for baseline will also
     be used for progress monitoring
                                  Intervention Documentation
Area of Concern: Be Specific (e.g. vowel sound recognition, homework completion, comprehension)

Sarah (4th grade) has difficulty comprehending grade level text. She is not able to identify main themes
and retell stories.

Interventions/Strategies Previously Attempted

More time to read passages, Rereading passages, partner reading with classmate, proximity to teacher
during oral reading.

Baseline Data: (Occurs prior to intervention)

Baseline Data Collection 1        Baseline Data Collection 2        Baseline Data Collection 3
40% accuracy answering WH         40% accuracy answering WH         60% accuracy answering WH
questions                         questions                         questions

Date: 10/1                        Date: 10/3                        Date: 10/6




Target Behavior: Specific level of mastery to be achieved

Answer WH questions with at least 80% accuracy.

Intervention Description:

Advanced Story Map – Worksheet with questions related to narrative text to help Sarah organize her
understanding of key components of the story previously read. Advanced Story Map worksheets will be
obtained from interventioncentral.org.

Frequency: 3 X per week

When: Last 10 minutes of reading block Who: Sarah reads and completes Story Map worksheet with
teacher feedback immediately following completion    Where: Classroom

Data Collection:

Method of Collection: Teacher made Who, What, Where, When, and Why question probes

Frequency: 1 X per week

Intervention Length: 4 weeks
STEP 3: Follow-Up Meeting
A. Chairperson schedules follow-up meeting
   within 10 calendar days of end of intervention
   period
B. As a team
  A. Complete the Evaluate Intervention Effectiveness
     form
  B. Decide on next steps
       A.   Continue? Discontinue? Change? Move to targeting
            another skill?
                                 Evaluate Effectiveness of Intervention

Summary of Baseline Data (e.g. charted, graphed, listed, etc.)

Sarah was answering WH question teacher made probes with 40 – 60% accuracy.

What is the level of performance after intervention?

After receiving 4 weeks of intervention, 3 out of 4 weeks showed performance at or above the target
behavior mark of 80% accuracy on WH questions.

What is the difference between expectation and performance?

+ Improvement in performance            ___No Improvement in performance       ___Insufficient data

PST Recommendations

Continue intervention through end of current grading period – Teacher tracks progress through
classroom grades.

Signatures                      Position                         Date

__________________              ___________________              __________

__________________              ___________________              __________

__________________              ___________________              __________

__________________              ___________________              __________

__________________              ___________________              __________

__________________              ___________________              __________

__________________              ___________________              __________

__________________              ___________________              __________

__________________              ___________________              __________
  Selecting Interventions

What Does Research-Based
          Mean?


    Where Do We Get
      Interventions?
Research-Based Interventions
 “research-based”, “evidence-based”, “scientifically-
  based”, “empirically validated”
 No Child Left Behind (NCLB) refers to “scientifically
  based reading research”
   Research
       Systematic
       Uses observation or experimental procedures
       Data analysis
       Accepted by peer-reviewed journal



                  Rathvon 2008
Evidence Based Intervention
Network
 East Carolina University
 “Fine Print” of EBIs
   Researched techniques paired with a particular situation
     (“hammer is a great tool, but not with a screw”)
    Delivered the same way it was researched
    What often works, will not always work
 EBI Network Common Problem Framework
    Emphasizes determining the function of the problem
     and seeking interventions that address this function
   http://www.ecu.edu/cs-cas/psyc/rileytillmant/EBI-Network-Common-
    Problems-Framework.cfm


                 Riley-Tillman, 2010
Sounds Great! WHERE?????
 On MCS’s website
   Interventions listed in academic and behavior areas
   List of resources for interventions
 Effective School Interventions, Second Edition –
  Natalie Rathvon
 Intervention Central –
  www.interventioncentral.org
 What Works Clearinghouse -
  http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/
    Taking Data Systematically
 Systematic
    Regularly
    Methodological
    Doing the same thing
    Derived from planning and organization
 Why Important?
    Examining Data
    Keeping team members informed
    Interventions used in line with how they were
     researched
              Graphing
 3 Options
   1. Excel Spreadsheet
   2. Intervention Central’s ChartDog
   3. Paper graphing by hand
 Choose option that works best for you!
 Use the same method!
                   Using Excel
 Benefits of using excel
    Saves data
    Allows for various ways of formatting
    Provides easy visual
    Only gives you the information you need
 Review Graphing 101 worksheet
 Let’s do an example!!!
                     Sarah’s Excel Graph
                                        % of WH Questions Correct
90

80

70

60

50

40                                                                                   % of WH Questions Correct

30

20

10

0
       Oct. 1     Oct. 4     Oct. 6           Oct. 8   Oct. 15   Oct. 22   Oct. 29
     (Baseline) (Baseline) (Baseline)
                   Using ChartDog
 Benefits of using ChartDog (www.interventioncentral.org)
    Can obtain more data analysis information
        % of Non-Overlapping Data Points
        Trend (puts in a trend line)
        Effect Size – Doesn’t just tell us IF the intervention worked
         but to what EXTENT it worked
    Provides useful visual
    Easy plug-in method of charting
 CANNOT save data as you go
Sarah’s ChartDog Graph
         Graphing By Hand
 Benefits of using good ‘ole graphing paper!
   No need to remember where to put what
    information
   Easily maintain a running document of
    data
 Review MCS’s graph model
          Examining the Graph
 Visual Analysis
    Trend is toward increased performance
    Data during intervention is stronger than during
     baseline
                                     % of WH Questions
 Meet target behavior?                    Correct
                                 90
 What Next?                     80
                                 70
                                 60
                                 50
                                 40
                                 30
                                 20                 % of WH
                                 10                 Questions
                                  0
                                                    Correct
                                 Evaluate Effectiveness of Intervention

Summary of Baseline Data (e.g. charted, graphed, listed, etc.)

Sarah was answering WH question teacher made probes with 40 – 60% accuracy.

What is the level of performance after intervention?

After receiving 4 weeks of intervention, 3 out of 4 weeks showed performance at or above the target
behavior mark of 80% accuracy on WH questions.

What is the difference between expectation and performance?

+ Improvement in performance            ___No Improvement in performance       ___Insufficient data

PST Recommendations

Continue intervention through end of current grading period – Teacher tracks progress through
classroom grades.

Signatures                      Position                         Date

__________________              ___________________              __________

__________________              ___________________              __________

__________________              ___________________              __________

__________________              ___________________              __________

__________________              ___________________              __________

__________________              ___________________              __________

__________________              ___________________              __________

__________________              ___________________              __________

__________________              ___________________              __________
   Let’s Try Brainstorming!
  Trey is a Kindergarten student who is
 exhibiting noncompliant behavior during
whole group instruction time. He refuses to
answer questions, distracts other students,
 and shows off-task behavior. The teacher
   has tried time-outs and maintaining
   proximity during these times but the
        behaviors have continued….
            In Your Teams
 Review the PST Initial Form for Trey
 Brainstorm hypotheses for Trey’s behavior
  during whole group instructional times
 Begin completing the Intervention
  Documentation Form
 Brainstorm methods of obtaining baseline
  data
                                 FAQs
 Is this process the same for referrals related to possible
  speech/language impairment?
   No – the following disability areas do not mandate 2 research based
    interventions: Speech/language Impairment, Autism, Deaf, Deaf-blind,
    Developmental Delay, Hearing Impairment, Multiple Disabilities,
    Orthopedic Impairment, Visual Impairment
 Are 2 research based interventions needed for specific
  skill areas such as basic reading or fluency?
   No – Interventions are needed for academic areas. For example, if referral is
    related to reading, 2 interventions with progress monitoring are needed
    addressing reading
   Do not need 2 interventions for basic reading, 2 for reading fluency, etc.
                  FAQs Continued
 Is there a minimum amount of time for intervention
 periods?
   Yes – Interventions are typically considered to require at least 4 weeks of
    implementation to show any effectiveness. May carry out for longer!
   Behavior referrals typically need more time! I.e. 6 weeks or longer

 When referring for testing, what specific academic
 areas should be requested?
   The brainstorming conducted to identify interventions will also guide what
    areas to request testing such as basic reading or math calculation skills
 What if parent(s) are not willing to become involved?
   Parent involvement, while critical, is not necessary. This is a child-centered
    process.
                  FAQs Continued
 Can the 2 interventions be done simultaneously?
   No – Determining the success of an intervention is difficult if another
    intervention is being done as well.
 What if a student’s academic difficulty is connected to
 medical issues?
   Medical history will be included on both Social/Developmental History
    and PST Initial Form
   Must go to PST – Team decision about next steps
           Parent Referral FAQs
 How do parent referrals alter the problem solving
 process?
   Parent referrals for testing begin a 90 day timeline for the
    completion of testing
   This does not usurp the problem solving process
   The two actions must occur simultaneously
   Parent referral may be an opportunity to get the parent involved in
    the problem solving process!
 What if parent states a request for testing rather than
 in writing?
   Requests honored if delivered orally or in writing
    Disability Areas NOT Requiring
             Interventions
 Speech/language impairment, Deaf, Deaf-Blind, etc.
    If suspected disability area does not require
     interventions, the referral must still go to the PST
    Complete PST Initial Form
    Next Steps
       Screenings?
       Refer to EC teacher to begin initial referral process for EC
     Developmental Delay & Specific
           Learning Disability
 Developmental Delay (DD)
   Child aged 3 through 7 years
   Development and/or behavior is delayed or atypical
   One or more of these areas is delayed
       Physical, cognitive, communication, social/emotional, or adaptive
        development
 Specific Learning Disability (SLD)
   Impaired ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, perform etc.
   Includes conditions: perceptual disabilities, brain injury, brain dysfunction,
    dyslexia, developmental aphasia
   Disorders not included: visual, hearing, or motor disabilities, mental
    retardation, emotional disturbance, or other disadvantages (cultural,
    environmental, economic)

                    Policies Governing Services for Children With
                    Disabilities June 2010
Developmental Delay (DD) vs. Specific
      Learning Disability (SLD)
 Since DD does not require interventions, at what age
 do we stop considering DD and begin considering LD
 and implement interventions?
   Best Practices: Up to age 6 years, referrals would not
    require interventions.
   Referral must still go to the PST to review the PST Initial
    Form.
   After 6 years, referrals would require interventions
    because the eligibility area may be SLD, OHI, ID, or
    other area that requires interventions.
         Conclusion
Words from our EC Director
Questions?
Suggestions for follow-up
 training
Teams: Staff Overview??

				
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