Presentations POL 242Y March 23/25, 2004 Renan Levine Outline Preparation Organization Key points Transitions Speaking Visuals Preparation - 1 Who: Your peers and instructors, all of whom have knowledge of stats and some experience with data you are using. But, you are one of many presentations. What: Your results (NOT YOU) Where: In this classroom. Why: What is your audience expecting? How: Powerpoint? Overhead projector? Start: Prepare Organization What are the 2-3 key points you want people to know? 1 = your hypothesis/expectations 2 = “the bottom line” Make sure these are crystal clear and everyone would be able to identify what they are. Don’t say too much so that your main points are lost. Prep Two: Have points, will illuminate Brainstorm over how to best communicate and emphasize your main points. What will clarify and accentuate your main points? Can you break down your point into one clear sentence? What can you do to catch people’s attention? What tables or graphics will illuminate? Organization: Main Points After you have brainstormed many different things to do, think about what is the best way to organize your talk. Arrange information in logical sequence. What information is necessary, critical or just illustrative or tangential? Put most important points first. Organization: Priorities Prepare too much, then whittle down. Identify priorities and key pieces of information. Identify problems or questions the audience may have and address them, don’t gloss over them. Cut fluff even if you don’t need to cut for time in order to highlight main points. Material you do not present can still be readied in anticipation of questions. Do not assume that you have to present everything in your paper – or everything that would be in your paper. Coming Together: Transitions Once everything has been ordered and priorities identified, think about how to go from one point to the next. How can you link one idea, point or table to another? How can you keep the audience’s interest? Questions can be effective, as can personal insights. Important to always know what you are about to say; what is on next slide, what is on next table or graph. Don’t be afraid of some repetition and reiteration. Rehearse! Speaking: Notes First issue to address is to decide how will you organize your thoughts to guide your presentation. Write out entire presentation? Paper? Flash cards? Outline? Memorize? Assess your strengths, weaknesses and phobias when making decision. Speaking: Where is your eyes? Strive to maintain eye contact with multiple members of audience. Do not be afraid to look down at your notes and allow your eyes to linger on text. Best after you have completed making a point – it’s a natural break for you & your audience. Reading for a short stretches is not the end of the world and that is better than rapid glances. DO NOT speak into projector or to wall. Speaking: Hands and Body Language At a minimum, rehearse one of your main points or introductory lines into a mirror to simply see your style. Is your body language relaxed and open? Do you look nervous? Why? How much do you use your hands? Which hand? Speaking: Fixed Microphone Try to stand upright throughout, speaking to audience not into microphone. Rotate body and head without moving it far from microphone. Can lean forward when speaking to side for better amplification. Your hands are free, so you can use them. In a short presentation, try to avoid using podium to rest your weight. Speaking: Mobile Microphone Priority: have microphone follow your mouth at a constant distance. Ex: you turn right, it moves right… Easy if it is attached to you. If not, best place is either very close to lips or very far Remember constant distance. People assume holding it far (chest level?) is easiest, but often lips are easiest because you are more aware of your placement. If you are holding it, avoid using that hand to make your points. Visuals: KISS Keep It Simple, Students! Good design focuses attention to data. Do not let art get in way of visual’s effectiveness. What’s the point of 3-D? Remember people tend to read faster than they listen. Limit the data you present to that which is pertinent to your point(s). But include necessary parameters on visual. 5 Second Rule. Visuals: Causal Explanation Display data that presents causal explanation. Display what people need to think about. Not necessarily descriptive narration. Visual clarity should match explanatory clarity. Colors or shading should match ordering of data. Present all relevant information, even if it may contradict your point. Match Chart and Comparison - 1 Component – Pie Use only when you are illustrating parts as a percentage of some whole. Very useful if you want to highlight share of one part. Difficult to compare one pie to another pie. http://www.sapdesignguild.org/resources/diagram_guidelines/index.html Bar Charts Item – Bar Bars can be arranged in any order Great for categorical variables, especially with lengthy labels. Great for comparing values. Useful for showing ranges. Scale at top or bottom. Frequencies Time Series and Frequency – Column or Line Unlike bar, both axes of column chart are ordered. Subdivided columns compare changes in parts of the whole better than multiple pie charts. Lines show trends and skews very well and smooth over slightly irregular distributions. Final Notes Be clear. KISS You should trust yours, and your friends/family/neighbors intuitive judgment after viewing a rehearsal. Do not trust yourself without a rehearsal. Activity Groups of three. Person with middle birthdate presents first. As a group, read article and identify 2-3 main points. Prepare presentation of those points. Rehearse presenter. Group members should discuss style, strengths and weaknesses. At designated time, presenters (or audience) switch groups. Listeners should critique presentation. Rejoin group and prepare presentation of 2nd article.
Pages to are hidden for
"Presentations"Please download to view full document