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    POL 242Y
    March 23/25, 2004
    Renan Levine
Outline

 Preparation
 Organization

     Key points
     Transitions

 Speaking
 Visuals
Preparation - 1

   Who: Your peers and instructors, all of whom
    have knowledge of stats and some
    experience with data you are using.
       But, you are one of many presentations.
   What: Your results (NOT YOU)
   Where: In this classroom.
   Why: What is your audience expecting?
   How: Powerpoint? Overhead projector?
Start: Prepare Organization

   What are the 2-3 key points you want people
    to know?
       1 = your hypothesis/expectations
       2 = “the bottom line”
   Make sure these are crystal clear and
    everyone would be able to identify what they
    are.
   Don’t say too much so that your main points
    are lost.
Prep Two: Have points, will illuminate

   Brainstorm over how to best communicate
    and emphasize your main points.
       What will clarify and accentuate your main points?
       Can you break down your point into one clear
        sentence?
       What can you do to catch people’s attention?
       What tables or graphics will illuminate?
Organization: Main Points

   After you have brainstormed many
    different things to do, think about what
    is the best way to organize your talk.
       Arrange information in logical sequence.
       What information is necessary, critical or
        just illustrative or tangential?
           Put most important points first.
Organization: Priorities
   Prepare too much, then whittle down.
       Identify priorities and key pieces of information.
       Identify problems or questions the audience may have and
        address them, don’t gloss over them.
       Cut fluff even if you don’t need to cut for time in order to
        highlight main points.
       Material you do not present can still be readied in
        anticipation of questions.
   Do not assume that you have to present everything
    in your paper – or everything that would be in your
    paper.
Coming Together: Transitions

   Once everything has been ordered and priorities
    identified, think about how to go from one point to
    the next.
       How can you link one idea, point or table to another?
       How can you keep the audience’s interest?
       Questions can be effective, as can personal insights.
   Important to always know what you are about to
    say; what is on next slide, what is on next table or
    graph.
   Don’t be afraid of some repetition and reiteration.
   Rehearse!
Speaking: Notes

   First issue to address is to decide how will
    you organize your thoughts to guide your
    presentation.
       Write out entire presentation?
           Paper? Flash cards?
       Outline?
       Memorize?
   Assess your strengths, weaknesses and
    phobias when making decision.
Speaking: Where is your eyes?

   Strive to maintain eye contact with multiple
    members of audience.
   Do not be afraid to look down at your notes
    and allow your eyes to linger on text.
       Best after you have completed making a point –
        it’s a natural break for you & your audience.
       Reading for a short stretches is not the end of the
        world and that is better than rapid glances.
   DO NOT speak into projector or to wall.
Speaking: Hands and Body Language

   At a minimum, rehearse one of your main
    points or introductory lines into a mirror to
    simply see your style.
       Is your body language relaxed and open?
           Do you look nervous? Why?
       How much do you use your hands? Which hand?
Speaking: Fixed Microphone

   Try to stand upright throughout, speaking to
    audience not into microphone.
   Rotate body and head without moving it far
    from microphone.
       Can lean forward when speaking to side for better
        amplification.
   Your hands are free, so you can use them.
   In a short presentation, try to avoid using
    podium to rest your weight.
Speaking: Mobile Microphone

   Priority: have microphone follow your mouth at a
    constant distance.
       Ex: you turn right, it moves right…
       Easy if it is attached to you.
       If not, best place is either very close to lips or very far
           Remember constant distance.
           People assume holding it far (chest level?) is easiest, but
            often lips are easiest because you are more aware of your
            placement.
       If you are holding it, avoid using that hand to make your
        points.
Visuals: KISS

   Keep It Simple, Students!
   Good design focuses attention to data. Do not let art
    get in way of visual’s effectiveness.
       What’s the point of 3-D?
   Remember people tend to read faster than they
    listen.
   Limit the data you present to that which is pertinent
    to your point(s).
       But include necessary parameters on visual.
   5 Second Rule.
Visuals: Causal Explanation

   Display data that presents causal
    explanation.
       Display what people need to think about.
       Not necessarily descriptive narration.
   Visual clarity should match explanatory
    clarity.
       Colors or shading should match ordering of data.
   Present all relevant information, even if it may
    contradict your point.
Match Chart and Comparison - 1

   Component – Pie
       Use only when you are
        illustrating parts as a
        percentage of some
        whole.
       Very useful if you want to
        highlight share of one
        part.
       Difficult to compare one
        pie to another pie.

http://www.sapdesignguild.org/resources/diagram_guidelines/index.html
Bar Charts




   Item – Bar
       Bars can be arranged in any order
       Great for categorical variables, especially with lengthy
        labels.
       Great for comparing values.
       Useful for showing ranges.
       Scale at top or bottom.
Frequencies
   Time Series and
    Frequency – Column or
    Line
       Unlike bar, both axes of
        column chart are ordered.
       Subdivided columns
        compare changes in parts
        of the whole better than
        multiple pie charts.
       Lines show trends and
        skews very well and
        smooth over slightly
        irregular distributions.
Final Notes

   Be clear.
   KISS
   You should trust yours, and your
    friends/family/neighbors intuitive judgment
    after viewing a rehearsal.
       Do not trust yourself without a rehearsal.
Activity

   Groups of three. Person with middle birthdate
    presents first.
   As a group, read article and identify 2-3 main points.
   Prepare presentation of those points.
   Rehearse presenter. Group members should
    discuss style, strengths and weaknesses.
   At designated time, presenters (or audience) switch
    groups.
   Listeners should critique presentation.
   Rejoin group and prepare presentation of 2nd article.

								
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