"Heat Balance Calculation for Poer Plant"
Forecología – Phase IV: Determination of the required competences The winegrower or vineyard manager “VITICULTURE” General competence: definition „how to grow wine“ He/She controls everything that concerns the cultivation of wine and the treatment of the plants. As directors/conductors of his domain he/she must be able to make the correct decisions. He/she is supported by wine workers, oenologe and by a cellar master. Wine represents a genuine investment, it is very risky because the production out come will take several years. The needed modernisation invstments can lead to a serious finanical problems. In all cases the wine grower knows that his success depends particularly on the quality improvement of the grapes. Generally the winegrower will divide his time between the work in the vineyard, the treatment of wines, and the management of his workers. Its activity depends on the size of the enterprise and will be differently organized, if he/she cultivates and manufactures the wine, or transfers this work to a cooperative. He/she is also reponsible for selling and marketing the wine by him/her self of through a cooperative. The vineyard manager must select the wines, which are sold and those which must be still stored. 1. Administrative/managerial competences C 1. Supervision and control of valid norms C-unit 1 = knowledge about the CAP regulation; since 1/05/05 a new common agricultural polity is in force; Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Portugal, Sweden and the UK have changed over te new system which replaces subsidies linked to production with a “single farm payment” that is decoupled from levels of production. Framin those countries will have to make significant canges to their way of produce in ordr to meet the strict creteria, like having to observe specific conditions related to environmental sustainability and animal welfare, to be eligib le for the payment. Direct payments to large farms will be reduced in order to fund the EU’s new rural development policy aimed at enouraging sustainability for agricultre and rural communities. Finland, Spain, the Netherlands, Greece and France will move to the new CAP next year. Under the new CAP, incentive payments will be availabel for farmers who participate voluntarily in EU or natinal schemes designed to improve the quality of agricultural products and Forecología – Phase IV: Determination of the required competences The winegrower or vineyard manager “VITICULTURE” production processes, and which give assurance to consumers on these issues. The following EU quality schemes are eligible for support: Protection of geographical indicatins and designations of origin foragricultural products and foodstuffs Certificates of sepcific chareacter for agricultural products and foodstuffs Organic productison of agricultural products and indicatins referring to these Quality wine prduced in specified regions The EU now has more than 640 geographical indications and designations of origin (in addition there aer more than 4000 registered designations for wines and spirits). The new CAP will put some producers in the European Union under more pressure as the amount of subisstdy money will be limited to existing levels, However, the so-called CAP reforms still permit plenty of subsidies for the wine sector und schmes designed to improve the quality of agricultural products and production processes. Perversely, this will act to maintain the high levels of subisdies for the wine sector and my act as a deterrent to the sector increasing efficiency in production. C-unit 2 = Which igrediences are allowed for producing organic wine due to natinal regulations. C 2. Planning, follow-up and control of production C-unit 1 = Classification of grapes, species, species used for fruiting, species used for tootstocks, commercial classes of grapes C-unit 2 = Geographical distribution of grape growing Which grape are grown in Europe C- unit 3 = Structur of the wine, the cell, tissues, the parts of the vine, the root system, the shoot system C- unit 4 = Forecología – Phase IV: Determination of the required competences The winegrower or vineyard manager “VITICULTURE” The physiology of the vine, transpiration, water intake by the roots, absoption of mineral nutrients, photosyntesis, respiration, tanslocation, growth annual cycle of the vine C- unit 5 = The grape flower and berry set, fruit-bud formation, the cluster and fowers, pollination, setting of the berries C-unit 6 = Development and composition of grapes, stages of berry development, factors affectiong the ripening, physicqal composition of the fruit, chemical compositionof the fruit C-unit 7 = Propagation, cuttings, laywers, grafts, bench, grafting, planting and care of the nursery, field budding, grafting to change varieties, other methodes of grafting and budding, propagation by seeds C-unit 8 = Establishing the vineyard, choice of a location, preparation of the soil, planning the vinyard, laying out the vineyard, choce of variety, planting stock Organic System: Site and variety selection (the most important competence before starting to transit a conventional vineyard into an organice one) C-unit 9 = know how about the crop history of the site, which type of variety was planted till today C-unit 10 = Selection of relative pest incidence and nutritional requirements of selected grape cultivars and rootstocks. Evaluation of differenct requirements of the plants regarding organice grape production C-unit 11 = Support for vines, which variety are supported, where can I get support for harvesting as well as machinery C 3. Farm management C-unit 1 = Forecología – Phase IV: Determination of the required competences The winegrower or vineyard manager “VITICULTURE” Training young vines, forming head-trained vines, forming th head for cane-and-spur pruned vines, forming cordong-trained vines, traing grapevines on arbors and walls. C-unit 2 = Pruning, pruning and training, vigor and capacity, the response of the vine to pruning and crop, possilbe compromises in the use of longer pruning, principles of pruning, dormant pruning, summer or herbaceous pruning, classification of prunking systems, commercial system of pruning, choice of a pruning system, pruning grape vines on arbors cost control viticulture C-unit 3 = Means of improving grape quality; thinning, girdling, topping and pinching, plant growth regulatiors, sprinkler cooling grapevines C-unit 4 = Cultivation, chmical weed control and erosion control; purposes of cultivation, cultivation in unirrigated vineyards, cultivaiont in irrigated vineyards, tillage implements for vineyards, weed control with oil, chmical weed control, research with herbicides, soil erosion control 2. Commercial competences C. 1 Planning and management of purchases C-unit 1 = Calculation of amount covered, gross profit calculation, calculation of annuities for investments C-unit 2 = Determination of fixed and variable costs C-unit 3 = Allocation of financial support by supra national or national bodies C-unit 4 = Knowledge of difference rent agreements in wineyards c-unit 5 = differentiation of conventional or organic inputs, in general organic viticulture is more cost intensive and need to be calculated with a higher price per bottle. Forecología – Phase IV: Determination of the required competences The winegrower or vineyard manager “VITICULTURE” C. 2 Commercialization of farm products C-unit 1 = Determination of quality segment, general segmentation knowledge of the wine products C-unit 2 = price calculation by using own costs as well as closesed competitior pricing C-unit 3 = Development of marketing statagy, especially for oganice wine; introducing his own wine restaurant or bar, selling wine dirctly from the wineyard. C-unit 4 = Associating in wine marketing, depending on quantities C-unit 5 = Cork selection, natural or technical cork Air pocket problem with technical cors, price advantage of technical cork 3. Production competences C 1. Preparation of the soil = soil management Conventinal System: C-unit 1 = Irrigation, the soil and soil moisture How soils are wetted, the soil as a reservoir for water, absoption of water by vines, vine responses to soil moiture conditions, symtoms of insufficient moisture, possible effects of too much water, quantity of water needed by vineyards C-unit 2 = general principles of vineyard irrigiation, trime and frequency of irrigations, quantitiy of water required for an irrigation, quality of irrigation water, distribution of water =how to cover crop (in every second row, open tillage with winter cover crop) C-unit 3 = Soils for grapes, grapes are adapted to a wide range of soil types. The know how to determinate the soil type for the type of grapes to grow. All types from gravelly sands holding less Forecología – Phase IV: Determination of the required competences The winegrower or vineyard manager “VITICULTURE” water and therefore have to be planted much deepter than heavy clays needing much more shallow roots. C-unit 3 = how to cover crop (in every row, on one of the row clover grass mixture and the other multi-species plant mix) C-unit 4 = know how about soil erosion C-unit 5 = know how about farmland preservation = natural species plant mix “diversity” to enhance the biological and economic stability of the farm C-unit 6 = soil type and depth, soil type affect nematodes, phylloxera, root rots, and vine nutrition. Shallow soils or soils with poor drainage can cause problems with vine growth and increase susceptibility to diseases or pests. C-unit 7 = soil and nutrient management “to enhance and protect soil quality and to tighten nutrient cycles C-unit 8 = Soil fertility “reduction of off-farm inputs, especially chemical inputs” Organic System: C-unit 1 = Materials and methods; the ecological system of the organic culitation is characterized b a milti-species complete greencover, organic fertilizer and the use of pesticides approved fo organic viticulure (BÖW = norm for Germany). In the organic system, a combination of plant extracts, sodium silicon and copper were used to combat plant diseases. The grapevine moths, grape berr moth and tortix moth were controlled with bacillus thuringiesis. The populatoiin dynamics of the European red pider mite and the predatory mite were monitored by using “washing-method”. The population development of other predators were monitored by using a funnel-tap. C-unit 2 = Importance of polyculture; nature functions as a ployculture, where each orgnism is dependent on many others for survival. A balnce exists in any natural system that keeps one organism from eliminationg the other. Often in conventional vineyard Forecología – Phase IV: Determination of the required competences The winegrower or vineyard manager “VITICULTURE” culture, the vineyard has b een tratedas a monoculture that cannot coexist with pests or other inconveniences from the surrounding areas. An organic system seeks to copy the pattern of nature with each part contributing to the whole,. Nature’S diversity provides a balanced ecosystem where many factors contribute to the health of any individual part. This kidn of diversity can be incorporated into vineyards to produce a more stable ecosystem. Development of a polycuture is important for the enhancement of soil fertility and for the management of pests. C-unit 3 = Soil fertiliy; to create fertile soil organically, soil cannot be “treated like dirt”. Soil isone of the most fragile of living entities, The polyculture of soil features macroorganisms like earthworms and insects and mny types of microorganisms, These organisms cahnge the organic matter and mineral components of soil to a form that the vine can use. The relation could be described as follows: “Soil is a furnace of life wherein organic matter is the fuel, soil organisms are the fire consuming the fuel, and the plant nutrients are the ashes of combustion” Creation of good soil fertility is fundermantal to the organic system and spplying organic matter is perhaps the most important means of improving soil fertiliy, An important technique for enchancing soil organic matter content is to use cover crops, which are also prevents soil degradation by sun and erosion. Root channels crated by voer crops also create pathways for gas exchange and water penetration. Compost is anther excellent source of organic matter. Soil fertility and biological activity are also enhanced when not disturbed by excessive tillage and harsh soil additives like synthetic fertilizers. Improving the soil’s natural feritility creates halthier plants tha are more resitance to pest and deisease attcks. C 2. Sowing and fertilisation fo the crops Conventinal System: C-unit 1 = how to use fertilization (mineral fertilizer) Fertilizer elements requred by the vine, chemical elements essential to plant growth: 16 elements are known to be absolutely necessary for normal growth and fruiting of green plants = carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus , potassium, sulfur, iron, calcium, magnesium, boron, manganese, copper, zinc, molybdenum, and chlorine. Forecología – Phase IV: Determination of the required competences The winegrower or vineyard manager “VITICULTURE” C-unit 2 = Function of the elements C-unit 3 = Determining the need for fertilizer Organic System: C-unit 1 = Natural pest management, encouraging natural enemies such as predaceous mites and leafhopper parasites. Know how to discover and understand which natural controls are present and to encourage them. By making the vineyard an extension of its natural surroundings, the environmental for beneficial insects and mites may be improved, likewise, many cover crops provide habitat and a source of food for beneficials. C 3. Care and protection of the plants Conventinal System: C-unit 1 = Grape deseass and disorders, grapes are susceptibel to a number of diseases, some so serious that vineyards cannot be mainteined where climate particularly favores the disease. C-unit 2 = Fungi attacking both the vine and its fruit; for ex. powdery mildew (oidium), anthracnose, black rot, downy mildew (peronospora), dead-arm, black measles, Fungi attacking the fruit; blue-mold rot, black-mold rot, rhizopus rot, botrytis rot, summer bunch rot, cladosporium rot, alternaria rot, ripe rot and bitter rot, white rot Fungi attacking the roots of grapevines; oak-root fungus, soil fumigation, dematorphora root rot, root rot, collar rot. C-unit 3 = Bacterial diseases Bacteria have been associated with vine diseases, but dout arises in most cases as to whether the bacteria wre the primary cause or simply a secondary phenomenon, Only two seem worthy of discussion; black knot, crown gall and bacterial blight as well as rickettsia-like disease and mycoplasma-like disease Forecología – Phase IV: Determination of the required competences The winegrower or vineyard manager “VITICULTURE” C-unit 4 = Virus diseases Virus diseases spread in the soil and virus diseases apparently air-borne; Virus diseas mode of spread undeterined Virus –like condition and spread and control of virus diseases C-unit 5 = Nonparasitic disorders like salinity injury (high salt quantities in soil); weather injuries like spring frosts and winter injury (too cold winters); heat injury like afer a cold winter with low temperatures in spring and a hot summer by drying winds, hailstorms, lightning, ozone stipple of leaves C-unit 6 = Grape pests Various kinds of insects and mites attacks grapes. Some, like the phylloxera,a re specific to the grape and cannot live on any other host. For ex. Omnivorous leaf roller, Orange tortrix, pacific mite, willamette mite, grape rust mite, erinose, western grapeleafa skeletonizer, false chinch bug, sphinx moth larvae, white fly, grasshoppers, Insects attacking flowers and fuit; gaper mealy bug, thrips, consperes stinkbug, rose chafer, grape blossom midge, grape berry moth… How to use org. fungicide, copper, org. insecticide, org. acaricide Organic System: C-unit 1 = How to use plant extract, sodium silicon, copper, bazillus thuringiensis, neudosan C 4. Harvesting, transport and storing of the products C-unit 1 = Standards of Maturity, matruity must be determined accurately, its correctness largely determines the quality of the product. The finer the variety, the more important its proper maturity. C-unit 2 = Vinyard sampling Forecología – Phase IV: Determination of the required competences The winegrower or vineyard manager “VITICULTURE” Testing of the maturity of different parts of the vineyard. Measuring the sugar degree ration of the grapes. C-unit 3 = Criteria for harvesting Determination of the most significant criteria of wine grape maturity are; sugar, acidity, pH and Brix acid ration of the fresh pressed juice C-unit 4 = Proper maturity To be judged ready for harvesting, wine grapes should hae reached the stage of development where the relation of the different components of the fruit (sugar, acidity, pH and Brix acid ration of the fresh pressed juice) is optimal for production of the quality wine of the desired type. C-unit 5 = Care in harvesting and handling Harvest is an important factor in keeping wines sound. In removing the clusters, the berries should be injured no more than is absolutly necessary. This requires that the stems be cut individually and that the clusters not be tossed into the buckets used for gathering. C-unit 6 = Harvesting procedure The harvest of grapes for wine has been undergoing one change after antoher since world ware II. Numerous devices for mechanization have been developed, and some of these have handled the grapes quite econimically-yet very roughly. The currently accepted methods generally employ one or anther of the following devices: the 50 pound field box; the 1-ton tank; the 2-ton detachabel tank; the 3 to 5-ton mounted tank (=gondolas). C-unit 7 = Machine harvesting wine garpes Mechanical harvesting of grapes has received attention in a number of grape producing counties (Australia, France, Germany, Italy, USA and some more…, each method has advanced ideas such as; cutter bar, rotary cutters, suction, impactors, and vibrators. c-unit 8 = transportation of the grapes after harvest in gernal tractors are used for the transportation of the grapes. Forecología – Phase IV: Determination of the required competences The winegrower or vineyard manager “VITICULTURE” Organic harvesting and transportaion In organic wine production harvesting is done by hand only, no machines are used exept the cut the grapes from the plant. Transportation is done in some organice wineyards by horses but tractors with bio-fuel is used as well. C 5. Maintencance of agricultural machinery and facilities C-unit 1 = General technical know how of vihicles C-unit 2 = Periodical service intervalls c-unit 3 = technical know how with inovations and their handling Organic maintenance of machinery and facilities Use of bio-fuel for tracktors and similare machinery, handling of horses for work. Care for working horses. C 6. Fito-sanitary control Conventinal system to organic system: Conventional plant protection is using fungicide, copper, insecticide and acaricides in organic framing plant protection is done by using plant extract, sodium silicon, copper, bazillus thuringiensis and neudosan. Fertilization is done conventionally by using mineral fertilizer and organically by using orgnaic matter and compost. Organic system: C- unit 1 = Natural pest menagemnt; many historical vineyard pest problems con be traced to the monocutural management patterns. A more diversified system encourages natural enemies such as predaceous mites and leafhopper parasites. It makes sense to discover and understand which natural controls are presnt and to encourage them. By making the vineyard and extension of its natual sourroundings, the environment for benficial insects and mites may be improved, likewise, many cover crops provide habitat and a source of food for beneficials, Because pest outbreaks may occure berfore benficials become established, natural pesticides may be needed during the transition to organic farming, These pesiticdes differ from conventional Forecología – Phase IV: Determination of the required competences The winegrower or vineyard manager “VITICULTURE” pesticides in that most organics have minimal residual effect. Therefore, timelines become more critical. Regardless of the techniques employed,m it is the role of the manger to see that balance is mainteqaind to avoide major losses. C- unit 2 = Making the transission; a successful transitinal program must be build around a well thought-out plan. A realistic assessment should b e made of the amount of the risk that can be taken. It is b est to start out with a small portion of vineyard; that way, risks are limited and information can be developed to help guide future transitional phases. It is vital that the manager void the temptation to “pull the trigger” and revert to a non organic mehtod in the face of adversity. Substantial planning must be undertaken to acticipate and prevent problems; the idea is to mange problems rather than solve them. The vineqard manager must know the vineyard, the probable timing, and severity of problems, and plan for their eventuality, In most caseds, it will cost from € 250 to € 500 poer acre to make a transition from conventional to organic. Because the goal are to improve quality, preserve the environment, and provide agfer products rather than simply to reduce costs, planing has to be complete and accurate, or these goals will not be met. Sources used: Weinbau Kap. 8 Betriebswirtschaftliche Überlegungen zum Weinbau The Australian & New Zealand Grapegrower & Winemaker March 2005, Tony Bataglene Planzenschutz im Öko-Weinbau, das deutsche Weinmagazin 7/05/03 Dr. Uwe Hofmann, was ist erlaubt? Kellerwirtschaft, Kap. 25 Betriebswirtschaftliche Überlegungen General Viticulture, Univercity of California, A.J. Winkler, J.A. cook, L.M. Kliewer and L.A. Lider Literature Cited, Parnes, R Fertile Soil agAccess, Davis, CA 1990; Am. Jenol, vitic., vol 43, No. 3 1992