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Introduction - Welcome to SIM University Powered By Docstoc
					            SIM UNIVERSITY
  SCHOOL OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY




    DEVELOP A GAME FOR THE
PLAYSTATION PORTABLE (PSP) USING
     OPENSOURCE SOLUTION




          STUDENT      : W0605324
          SUPERVISOR   : MR SHAWN HOW
          PROJECT CODE : JAN09/BSHMT/07




        A project report submitted to SIM University
  in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of
   Bachelor (Hons) of Multimedia Technology and Design



                         NOV 2009
MTD 499 CAPSTONE PROJECT REPORT                              Yap Jialun W0605324




                        TABLE OF CONTENTS
                                                                                       Page

       ABSTRACT                                                                           i

       ACKNOWLEDGEMENT                                                                    ii

       LISTS OF FIGURES AND TABLES                                                        iii

       CHAPTER ONE

              INTRODUCTION                                                                1

       CHAPTER TWO

              LITERATURE REVIEW                                                           2 - 12

              2.1   Game Attributes                                                       2

              2.2   History of Game Industry                                              4

              2.3   Top Selling Game Titles                                               6

              2.4   What is Opensource Solutions?                                         7

              2.5   Capability of Opensource Solutions                                    7

                            2.5.1   Opensource Solutions (Graphic Development)            8

                            2.5.2   Opensource Solutions (Game Engine)                    10

              2.6   Game Development Process                                              11

              2.7   Technical Specifications of PSP                                       12

       CHAPTER THREE

              PROJECT DEVELOPMENT (DESIGN)                                                13 - 20

              3.1   Market Research                                                       13

                            3.1.1   Survey Findings                                       14

              3.2   Game Idea Creation                                                    17

              3.3   Game Graphics Elements                                                19

              3.4   Game Graphical User Interface                                         20



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              PROJECT DEVELOPMENT (TECHNICAL)                                            21 - 29

              3.5   Building the Infrastructure                                          21

                            3.5.1   Main Game Play                                       21

                            3.5.2   Player Logic                                         24

                            3.5.3   Computer A.I. Logic                                  26

              3.6   Programming and Scripting of the Opensource Solution                 28

              3.7   Setting Test Cases                                                   29

       CHAPTER FOUR

              USER ACCEPTANCE TEST                                                       30 - 31

              4.1   Test Environment                                                     30

              4.2   Problems Arising                                                     30

              4.3   The Results                                                          30

              4.4   Data Analysis                                                        31

       CHAPTER FIVE

              PROJECT MANAGEMENT                                                         32

              5.1   Usage of Software Development Life Cycle                             32

              5.2   Work Breakdown Structure                                             32

              5.3   Execution                                                            32

       CHAPTER SIX

           CHALLENGES AND PROBLEMS                                                       33

       CHAPTER SEVEN

           SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE WORK                                          33

       REFERENCES                                                                        34




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       APPENDICES                                                     35 - 66

              A. Industrial Interview                                 35

              B. Market Survey                                        37

              C. Game Design Document                                 38

              D. Test Cases                                           62

              E. Work Breakdown Structure                             65

              F. Gantt Chart                                          66




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ABSTRACT

This project is aimed to develop a Sony Playstation Portable (PSP) fully functional
game through the use of available opensource solutions.

PSP is a handheld gaming console, which has become very popular among recent
years. The portability of this console makes it even more attractive among people
who have to travel for long hours.

Opensource Solutions are applications that are being developed by programming
experts and are sometimes referred as Homebrew Game Development Kits. They are
free to download from the World Wide Web.

In this project, research will be done to explore the capability of the opensoure
solutions, as well as their limitations as compared to licensed development software
applications.

Will Opensource Solutions be able to overtake the license development applications
in the near future for game development? Will the games be as good, if not better?
This will be the main focus point of this research report




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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I would like to thank the following for their contributions to this research project:

Mr. Shawn How (Supervisor of this project) for his in-depth advice and guidance
throughout the entire project development.

Mr. Ryan Foo (Creative Consultant in eLC Pte Ltd) for his invaluable suggestions

Test Participants for their time and effort during the prototype testing session

Family for their unlimited moral support

Irrlicht Engine Website for the documentation of the Game Engine




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LIST OF FIGURES AND TABLES

Figures

   Figure 2.1 Screenshot of Noughts And Crosses ................................................................. 5

   Figure 2.2 Sample Screenshot of Super Mario 1 ................................................................ 5

   Figure 2.3 Sample Screenshot of Super Mario 64.............................................................. 5

   Figure 2.4 Colour Wheel ......................................................................................................... 5

   Figure 2.8 Stages of Game Development ............................................................................ 12

   Figure 2.9 Sony Playstation Portable.................................................................................... 13

   Figure 3.2 Screenshot of God of War: Chains of Olympus ............................................... 16

   Figure 3.3 Screenshot of DJ Max .......................................................................................... 16

   Figure 3.4 Screenshot of World Soccer Winning Eleven 9 ............................................... 17

   Figure 3.5 Screenshot of Diner Dash: Sizzle and Serve ................................................... 17

   Figure 3.6 Screenshot of MS-DOS ....................................................................................... 21

   Figure 3.7 Flow of the Entire Game Play ............................................................................. 22

   Figure 3.8 Flow of the Main Game Play Logics .................................................................. 24

   Figure 3.10 Flow of Player Logic ........................................................................................... 25

   Figure 3.12 Flow of Computer A.I. Logic .............................................................................. 27

Tables

   Table 2.5 Comparison of the 3D Graphic Applications ....................................................... 9

   Table 2.6 Comparison of the 3D Graphic Applications ....................................................... 10

   Table 2.7 Comparison of Game Engines .............................................................................. 11

   Table 3.1 Compilation of Survey Findings ............................................................................ 15

   Table 3.9 Description of individual game play action .......................................................... 24

   Table 3.11 Description of individual player action ............................................................... 26

   Table 3.13 Description of individual computer A.I. action................................................... 28

   Table 5.8 Test case example .................................................................................................. 30

   Table 6.1 Test results ............................................................................................................... 31



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CHAPTER ONE - INTRODUCTION

The Game Development Process is very important to any game development team.
All members in the team must be very clear on the process so as to avoid any clash or
conflicts during the development. In this report, the process of developing a game
will be researched and findings will be applied to the development of the game for
this project.

Another imperative aspect to game developing is to understand the availability of the
different types of game genres. This thesis research will focus on the popularity of the
different types of game genre that has been developed for the Playstation Portable
(PSP) console currently in the market, as well as the available opensource
development kits that are used to develop a PSP game. Information will be gathered
on why are some game genres ranked above others in terms of popularity. Each game
genre’s unique attractive attributes will be explored and compiled as part of this
project research into deciding on this project’s genre type. The developed game
prototype will be tested and finally, executed on a PSP, based on the standard controls
and configurations as defined by the PSP system.

In addition, I will be exploring on the different types of game genre currently in the
market. This exploration will involve which is the more popular game genres among
the gamers currently and the reason being so. This will be part of the consideration in
determining this project’s game idea.

Besides the game genres, a minor portion of game history will be discussed which
will look into the types of games that were successful and the level of technology at
that point of time. The findings will serve as one of the primary guidelines while
creating my game idea.

In this report, research will be conducted to explore the capabilities and limitations of
the opensource development kits for Sony Playstation Portable (PSP) games in the
current market. The aspects that will be discussed in this thesis report will be on the
graphical support of the development kits, rendering them in realtime, the responsive
time towards the player’s input, ability to do multiplayer gaming, and the ease of
programming a fully functional game.

For the visuals portion, research on the graphical direction of the more recent popular
games will be conducted, and henceforth, deciding on my game overall look and feel
based on the findings.

To make sure that the game prototype is functioning, a selective group of people,
based on this project’s target audience, will serve as the game testers. The results
gathered will be recorded during the testing phase, and necessary modifications will
be made to the game based on it.

The other aspect of developing a PSP game is the programming. Discussion and
research findings on the types of game programming languages used for some PSP
game titles will be analysed. Ease of use will be the deciding factor in selection of the
programming language for this project.


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CHAPTER TWO - LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Game Attributes

To make a successful game, there are 3 factors to consider, namely target audience,
game genre and graphical approach. These 3 factors work hand in hand together.

Identifying the target audience is very important to planning a game idea. Different
groups of people have varying interests. This may refers to a particular age group, sex
gender or even people who have the same occupation.

For instance, take a look around you. Try going into a children’s playground. You
will notice that the playground is built and painted with bright and vibrant colours.
Next, take a walk at the commercialised business district. Grey and black are
probably the most frequently seen colours among the building structures. As people’s
age increases, their interests change. Thus understanding and identifying the target
audience right in the beginning of the planning stage is of paramount importance to
the game success.

If you don’t gauge your audience first, you’ll end up providing a game that isn’t
entertaining to the people you are most hoping to influence. (Rod Afshar, Duke
Banjee and Clifford Jones, 2004) [13] On top of that, once the target audience is being
finalised, the developers will have a clearer direction in designing the aims and the
goals of the game. This brings us to the next interconnecting factor – Game genre.

Game genre describes the way the story is told. A genre is a narrative style that
effects the structure of the story, the depth of character, and other storytelling
elements. (Lindsay Grace, 2005) [6]

Game genres are categorised into these main categories – Action, Role-Playing,
Adventure, Strategy, Simulations and Puzzles. Each game genre caters to different
target audience. Each genre’s definition is as follows, according to PSP/ Playstation
Portable Glossary (About.com) [2]
        Action – Games that fall under this genre focus mainly on action

       Action Adventure – This is a hybrid genre of video game that combines some
       of the puzzle-solving elements of the adventure genre with more active
       elements from action games.

       Adventure – This genre involves looking for clues and collecting inventory
       items in order to solve puzzles and fill out the storyline.

       Driving – A genre that re-creates the car (or other vehicle) racing experience
       for the player.

       Role-Playing – A genre in which the player controls one or more characters,
       usually on some kind of quest.

       Simulation – A genre that aims to simulate an experience as realistically as
       possible.

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       Sports – A genre that simulates the sports activities in the real world.

       Strategy – A genre that emphasises resource management and planning.

       Puzzler – A genre in which the main goal is to solve puzzles or fit pieces
       together to keep the game going.

As of today, there are numerous game genres which have evolved either from a
mixture of two or more genres or entirely a new gaming experience due to the
advancement of recent technology. For instance, Action Role Playing and Action
Adventure are both combination of two different game genres. On top of that, there
has been a significant rise films and movies being produced based on the
sophisticated and intriguing story plots of some big hit game titles. Examples of these
dramatic games are the all-time favourites Final Fantasy and Resident Evil, to name a
few.




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The other interconnecting factor is the graphical approach of games.




                        Figure 2.1: Screenshot of Noughts And Crosses
                            (http://www.pong-story.com/1952.htm)

2.2 History Of Game Industry

As early as 1950s, the very first video game was developed. The game title was called
Noughts And Crosses, also known commonly as the Tic-Tac-Toe. (Wikipedia, the
free encyclopedia, 2009) [16] Developed by A.S. Douglas, this game’s purpose was to
display human-computer interaction.

As the technology advances, the gaming industry experienced huge evolutions. More
and more game consoles are being developed to cater for more memory and more
graphical capacity. In 1972, the first home video game console is released. And not
long after it was released, the first supported game, PONG, became the first hit game.
(Mark J. P. Wolf, 2008) [7]

All the games that were developed during that time used 2-Dimensional graphics. In
1979, Namco released the first ever game, Galaxian, to achieve 100 percent of its
graphics in RGB colour (a standard used for colour video using red, green and blue
signals).

In a year later, the graphical approach took another evolution – from 2-Dimensional
to 3-Dimensional. In 1980, Atari’s Battlezone is the first arcade game to feature a true
3-D environment. Since then, with the rapid advancement of technology, game
consoles are built with higher memory space, better graphic renderer and faster
processing speeds. To date, there are not just one, but many such game consoles in
the market. Such examples are Playstation 3, Nintendo Wii and Microsoft Xbox 360.
Therefore, for a game to achieve full 3-Dimensional graphics is no longer an issue.

There are many classic games which had been developed, as early as in the 80s.
One typical example that has remained popular for around 20 years, Super Mario, has
evolved from 2D scrolling graphics, to an entirely 3D environment graphical
approach released for Nintendo 64. Figure 2.2 displays a sample screenshot of Super
Mario 1, in 2D scrolling graphics developed on Nintendo while Figure 2.3 is taken
from Super Mario 64, 3D graphics on Nintendo 64.




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     Figure 2.2: Sample Screenshot of Super Mario 1             Figure 2.3: Sample Screenshot of Super Mario 64
(http://nintendo8.com/game/629/super_mario_brothers/)     (http://ign64.ign.com/dor/objects/606/super-mario-64/image
                                                          s/super-mario-64-virtual-console-20070131013938559.html)

     While deciding on 2-D or 3-D, another important aspect is the graphical user interface
     (GUI). With an easy-to-use GUI, players will be able to get used to the game easily
     and this improves the playability of a game.

     Overall colour usage is imperative to a successful game as well. Understanding
     colour psychology helps in selecting the right colour combination for the overall look
     and feel of a game.




                                               Figure 2.4: Colour Wheel (TIGERcolor,
                                               http://www.tigercolor.com/color-lab/color-theory/color-theory-intro.htm)


     With reference the colour wheel in Figure 2.4, colours such as blue and violet are
     regarded as cool colours. Cool colours usually bring a dull and heavy mood whereas
     the direct opposite, yellow and red colours bring a vibrant mood to the game.

     Colour plays such an important role in our lives whether we realise it or not. It has the
     ability to influence our feelings and emotions in a way that few other mediums can. It
     can control our moods and thoughts. Colour has the ability to make us feel happy,
     depressed, excited, relaxed, hungry and creative. (Joshua Hughes, 2009) [5]



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Sony Playstation Portable (PSP) was first released in Japan in December 2004, and in
North America three months later, the Playstation Portable (PSP) could play games,
videos, MP3, and provide internet support. The PSP’s colour screen was the largest
ever available on the handheld system: 4.3 inches with a 16:9 widescreen ratio. (Mark
J. P. Wolf, 2008) [8]

In a short period of time, the PSP gained fast popularity and had been sold worldwide.
In 2006, Sony sold 24.7 million PSPs around the world, the most successful handheld
system ever that was not manufactured by Nintendo.

Ever since the introduction of PSP, major game developers such as Square Enix
Holdings, Sony Computer Entertainment America Inc (SCEA) and Konami have
already developed quite a number of successful titles for the handheld console. For
instance, game titles like Crisis Core: Final Fantasy VII, God of War: Chains of
Olympus, Grand Theft Auto: Liberty Stories and the Winning Eleven: Pro Evolution
Soccer 2007 are some of the all time favourite game titles. They are mostly action
packed and full of realism. All the games listed above adopted the 3D graphical
approach, which has again proven that 3D is more appealing to the current gamers.

2.3 Top Selling Game Titles

In the article “The Top 5 Best Selling PSP Games For January 2009”, Mike
Yardwood[8] has compiled the top 5 best selling PSP games, which are “Ben 10: Alien
Force”, “Star Ocean: Second Evolution”, “Football Manager 2009 : Handheld”, “PES
2009” and “Midnight Club: LA Remix” for the month of January 2009. Although this
article is based in USA, it nonetheless provides a rough estimate of the type of games
that are more appealing to the population at current times.

As most of the Asia countries are being severely hit by piracy, there is no significant
selling chart for PSP games. Therefore, a reference guide from another continent is
being used instead. Based on the information, the more popular game genres are
Action, Racing and Role-Playing.

There are many more successful Action games out in the entertainment market.
Action game has always been able to capture the interest of most gamers. Most of the
time, gamers are in full control of the outcome. Speed and reflex will determine
whether the gamer gets to win over his/her opponent. Every time the gamer starts off
the game, he/she will not be guaranteed a win. It all boils down to how fast his/her
reaction is, how strategic his/her tactics are. These attributes make Action games
extremely addictive.

Racing games, too, are very action-packed. Another plus factor is, it resembles the
real world. Gamers who want to get a taste of racing thrill, they found through this
genre of games.

Role-playing games were boosted by the Final Fantasy Series, released by Squaresoft
Enix. The slowly unveiling mysterious story that follows the game advancement
attracts the gamer to keep on playing and playing until he/she gets the final complete
story. Another selling point of this game genre is the breathtaking computer graphics
cut scenes that are presented to the gamer as he/she advances through the game.

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2.4 What is Opensource Solutions?

Opensource solutions means a lot more than “free.” Firstly, the source code of the
software must be available to users at zero costing, and users are able to modify the
program. Secondly, users have the authority to redistribute the software without any
restriction. Lastly, the license can require improved versions of the software to carry a
different name or version from the original software. The above three points fall
under the certification of mark owned by the Open Source Initiative (OSI)[11].

One very successful example is the release of Linux Operating System by Red Hat.

However, besides OSI, there is another major influential source of authority that is
similar to the standards of Opensource. They are the Free Software Foundation, with
its Free Software Definition[4].

As much as their standards are very similar to one another, they do not correspond
together. “Opensource” and “Free” are two very distinct terms, according to these
organizations.

2.5 Capabilities of Opensource Solutions

Opensource Solutions are sometimes referred to as Homebrew Game Development
Kits. Homebrew, means in simple terms, “brewed from home.” They are programmed
by a few enthusiasts around the world who are very knowledgeable in Computer
Science. They are often available to download off the World Wide Web for free.
Every application needs a long period of debugging and testing before it is fully
functional without any major errors. Therefore, the owners upload their applications
on the internet for people to download, and in turn, do them a favour by using and
testing at the same time.

Another reason is due to the piracy that is on the rise, free development kits could be
the solution for big companies to cut down costs on acquiring software licenses to
produce more interesting games.

This research report consists of two development aspects; graphic development
opensource solutions and game engine opensource solutions.




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2.5.1 Opensource Solutions (Graphic Development)

For the 3-Dimensional graphics, Autodesk Maya, Autodesk 3D Studio Max,
Pixologic ZBrush, Autodesk Softimage and Blender3D are the few 3D applications
shortlisted.

Comparison of 3D Graphic Applications
         Name of         Able to        Texture         Licensed to use / Opensource
         Solution      export .3DS?    Mapping
                                      supported?
     Autodesk Maya         Yes           Yes       Licensed – USD 3,450
                                                   http://usa.autodesk.com/

     Autodesk 3D           Yes           Yes       Licensed – USD 3,450
     Studio Max                                    http://usa.autodesk.com/

     Pixologic             Yes           Yes       Licensed – USD 595
     ZBrush                                        http://www.pixologic.com/home.php

     XSI Softimage         Yes           Yes       Licensed – USD 2, 995
                                                   http://usa.autodesk.com/

     Blender3D             Yes           Yes       Opensource
                                                   http://www.blender.org/)

    Table 2.5: Comparison of 3D Graphic Applications

Apparently, all of them are able to fulfill the requirements for this project. However,
out of these few, only Blender3D is opensource. Hence, Blender3D will be the 3D
graphical development tool for this project.




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For the static screen interfaces, transitions and the texture maps of the 3D models,
GNU Image Manipulation Program, GIMP, Corel Painter, Adobe Photoshop and
Microsoft Paint are going to be the softwares taken into comparison.

Comparison of 2D Graphic Applications
       Name of       Output file type       Graphic        Licensed to use / Opensource
       Solution                              type
     GIMP          .jpg, .bmp, .png, .gif    Pixel    Opensource
                                                      http://www.gimp.org/

     Corel         .jpg, .bmp, .png, .gif    Pixel    Licensed – USD 499
     Painter                                          http://www.corel.com/international.html

     Adobe         .jpg, .bmp, .png, .gif    Pixel    Licensed – USD 699
     Photoshop                                        http://www.adobe.com/

     Paint         .jpg, .bmp, .png, .gif    Pixel    Opensource


    Table 2.6: Comparison of 2D Graphic Applications

In the comparison table above, only GIMP and Paint can be considered for this
project. Paint is an application that comes with bundle of Microsoft Windows.
However, the editing tools available are very limited. As compared, GIMP is similar
to the licensed software, Adobe Photoshop. Although it has lesser tools compared to
Adobe Photoshop, it is definitely a much better choice over Paint. Thus, GIMP will
be the opensource solution for the screen interfaces, transitions and the texture maps
of the 3D models.




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 2.5.2 Opensource Solutions (Game Engine)

 A list of the opensource solutions for developing PSP games can be obtained from
 QJ.net (http://www.qj.net/). Below is a list of the opensource solutions offered and
 their features and capabilities. As there are as many as over 800 over toolkits
 available, only the few popular ones are being selected and compared.

 As these solutions have their limitations, I have created a table to compare the
 capabilities of the various game development toolkits and the attributes are listed
 based on the needs and requirements of the game idea.

 Comparison of Game Engines
Name of Solution    Graphic        Audio    Prototype         Documentation/ References
                   Approach       Support    Created
                   (2D / 3D)                 before
LuaPlayer             2D            Yes        Yes      http://www.luaplayer.org/
OpenGL

Raptor 3D             3D            Yes     Unknown     Unavailable
Open-source
Engine
LTE Game              3D            Yes     Unknown     http://irrlicht.sourceforge.net/
Engine                                                  (LTE Game Engine and Irrlicht are
                                                        identical)
Adventure Maker       2D            Yes        Yes      http://www.adventuremaker.com/


3D Game Builder       3D            Yes     Unknown     Unavailable


 Table 2.7: Comparison of Game Engines

 After comparing, the opensource solutions that can fulfil the development of this
 proposed game idea are Raptor 3D, LTE Game Engine and 3D Game Builder. Out of
 these three, only LTE Game Engine has a complete documentation on the internet.
 On top of it, there is abundance of forum helps on the internet which has proven to be
 a very useful reference source.




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2.6 Game Development Process

The development process of a game is broken down in 3 major phases – Concept
phase, Pre-production phase and the Production phase. Fig 1.1 below illustrates this
entire development process.




 Figure 2.8: Stages of Game Development
 (Diagram from Tracy Fullerton, Christopher Swain, Steve Hoffman, 2008, chapter 13)


At the concept phase, the developing team has to find a sponsor for funding.

After funding is secured, the developing team will design the game document and the
technical specifications. Prototypes are developed as well.

At the production phase, the graphic designers will create the art files and animation;
the programmers will write the code that makes the game function; the sound
engineers create sound effects and music; writer writes dialogue and other in-game
texts; QA engineers familiarise themselves with all aspects of the project and do some
light testing of early builds. (Tracy Fullerton et al., 2008) [15]

In addition, an interview with the Lead Programmer of Rainbow Media Pte Ltd, a
game production company, has been conducted to find out the actual game
development process that is being practiced in the current industry. The interview was
conducted in Rainbow Media Pte Ltd, and the exact details are attached in Appendix
A. The company is divided into two teams, graphical designers and programmers.




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2.7 Technical Specifications of PSP

         According to Playstation official website[14], the technical specifications of
         PSP that will be taken into considerations in this project are as follows:
          PSP® CPU (System clock frequency 1 - 333MHz)
          64MB main memory
          4.3 inch, 16 : 9 full transparent type
          TFT drive
          480 x 272 pixel
          Approximately 16,770,000 million colors displayed
          Built-in stereo speakers
          Wireless LAN (IEEE 802.11b) (Wi-Fi)
          Directional buttons (Up/Down/Right/Left)
          Analog Stick
          Enter keys (Triangle, Circle, Cross, Square)
          START button, SELECT button, PS button
          Read-only UMD™ Drive
          Supported Profile
                o PSP® (PlayStation®Portable) Game
                o UMD™
                o Video

         The proposed game will be developed within the above listed technical
         specifications of the PSP.




Figure 2.9: Sony Playstation Portable
(Sony Playstation Official Website, http://www.us.playstation.com/PSP/Accessories)




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CHAPTER THREE – PROJECT DEVELOPMENT (DESIGN)

3.1 Market Research

People’s interests change in relative to the technological advancements. This point is
very much illustrated in the brief history of the game industry. Therefore, before
designing the game idea, I have conducted a market research with a general survey
(Appendix B). This survey’s aim and purpose is to find out what games are more
popular among the local population in the current times. The questions in this survey
are generated based on the three factors as mentioned above.

Question 2, 3 and 4 will determine the type of audience that I would intend to target
to for my game.

Question 5 will aid me in setting the general graphical approach of my game.

For the last factor, which is the game genre, question 6 and 8 will give me the answer.
Games listed in Question 8, are specifically chosen based on their distinct difference
in the graphical approach and game genre.

In a nutshell, the findings of this survey will aid me in determining my game’s target
audience, game genre and graphical approach. It will serve as a guideline and keep
me in focus when designing the game. The survey sheets can be found under
Appendix B.




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3.1.1 Survey Findings

Below table is the analysis and findings of forty people who took the survey. Out of
these people, we have chosen twenty males, and twenty females specifically to take
the survey.

Gender                                          Male             Female

Gamers                                          17               15

Age (< 10 years old)                            1                1

Age (10 – 18 years old)                         11               11

Age (19 – 30 years old)                         5                1

Age (> 30 years old)                            0                2

Graphic Preference (2D)                         3                5

Graphic Preference (3D)                         14               10

Table 3.1: Compilation of Survey Findings

Based on the tabulation in Table 3.1, thirty two people do play games. Of which,
more than seventy five percent are in the age group between ten years old and
eighteen years old.

In the male section, most of them played more than one gaming platform. Out of
these male gamers, almost ninety percent of them owns a Playstation Portable (PSP),
and have played game titles like God of War: Chains of Olympus, DJ Max, World
Soccer Winning Eleven 9 etc. On the other hand, they have never played Diner Dash
and Cake Mania: Baker’s Challenge. As results have shown, male gamers’ game
preference can be grouped into the following categories - fantastic 3D graphics,
interesting storyline and action packed as compared to games that are easier to pick
up, and most of the time, doesn’t require the players to spend hours and hours in it.




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 God of War: Chains of Olympus, released by Sony Computer Entertainment America
 Inc. (SCEA), belongs to the action role playing game genre. It is developed entirely in
 3D environment, and a lot of blood scenes and actions are involved in the game play.
 The captivating story waiting to be unveiled and high resolution 3D animations cut
 scenes throughout the entire game keep players addicted to continue playing until the
 end.




               Figure 3.2: Screenshots of God Of War: Chains of Olympus, taken from
               Gamefaqs(http://www.gamefaqs.com/portable/psp/image/938607.html)




 DJ Max, is a simulation type of game. It is fast paced and intense, and is one of the
 more popular games out in the current market. Its intense game play and the wide
 selection of music pieces are certainly the selling points of this game.




                             Figure 3.3: Screenshots of DJ Max, taken from
                                          IGN Official Website
(http://psp.ign.com/dor/objects/14273310/dj-max-fever/images/dj-max-fever-20081104005317490.html)




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 World Soccer Winning Eleven 9, release by Konami, is a Soccer Simulation game,
 belonging to the Sports game genre. Throughout the entire game, the gamers are
 almost involved in everything, from selection the characters for his team to passing
 the ball, moving the characters around the soccer pitch, defending and making tackles,
 shooting the ball accurately etc.




                  Figure 3.4: Screenshots of World Soccer Winning Eleven 9, taken from
                                          IGN Official Website
(http://psp.ign.com/dor/objects/683138/world-soccer-winning-eleven-9/images/world-soccer-winning-el
                            even-9-international-20060125034326138.html)

 On the other hand, there is a big difference in the preference of game types of the
 female population as compared to the male population. According to the survey
 findings, females generally prefer games with light and simple game play.

 For instance, take a look at Diner Dash: Sizzle and Serve. Diner Dash: Sizzle and
 Serve, released by Eidos Interactive, is a very fast-paced game with very simple rules
 and graphics. This is a very challenging game, but with little variation in the game
 play. While it lasts, Diner Dash is enjoyable, even if it is repetitive. Trying to juggle a
 seemingly endless number of tasks and then successfully finishing a day is personally
 quite rewarding, and you really get a sense of accomplishment from doing so. (Aaron
 Thomas, Gamezone, 2007) [1]




               Figure 3.5: Screenshots of Diner Dash: Sizzle and Serve, taken from
        Gamezone Official Website (http://psp.gamezone.com/gamesell/screens/s25456_1.htm)

 This simple survey reveals a few common trends:
     Games aren’t just for small kids
     Most of the people aged ten to eighteen do play games.
     There is almost an equal balance in the number of females playing games as
        compared to the males.
     Male gamers prefer 3D graphics while female gamers prefer light and simple
        game play style.


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       3.2 Game Idea Creation

After compiling all the market reviews and ideas brainstorming, I have decided that
the main selling points of my game idea would be
     Simple rules
     Easy to get started

Sing Tycoon, a Turn-based Strategy Board Game, will be the game idea for this
project. The game play is very simple. Roll the dice when it’s the player’s turn, and
the representing seed will move on the board according to the dice. Whichever tile the
player lands onto, he/she will be granted a chance to purchase, or obliged to pay the
tile owner. Detailed game document can be found in Appendix C.

The adoption of this game idea comprises of several factors.

      Low Learning Curve
       Due to the long history of board games, people will be engaged into the game
       much faster as they can easily relate to the traditional board games, such as
       Monopoly. Monopoly is a very successful classic board game. Monopoly was
       first introduced to the mass by Parker Brothers in 1936. (Mary Belis, 1997)[9]
       The game was originally invented by Charles Darrow. Parker Brothers
       purchased the rights from him, and agreed to give Charles Darrow royalties on
       all sets sold. Charles Darrow eventually became a millionaire. Till this date,
       even though the selling rate of Monopoly in the toy market is not as vigorous,
       no one game has been able to stay alive for as long as 70 years.

      Uniqueness
       There has been no PSP games that is in the form of a board game currently out
       in the market, thus the competition for this game will be less strife and it will
       be easier to market this game, as compared to marketing against popular game
       titles like God Of War or Final Fantasy Series. Although Monopoly has
       already been developed for other consoles like Sony Playstation 2, there has
       been none for PSP.

      Hassle-free
       Imagine having to calculate all the pieces of Monopoly money every time a
       game is finished to make sure that none goes missing? Making sure that all the
       tokens are accounted for? By having the game in PSP, all these will not be an
       issue at all. The game AI will make sure that there will be enough money to
       go around the entire game, and the tokens will always be ready each time the
       game is played.

      Simple rules with multiple game advancement
       The rule of this game is very simple. It is turn-based. The player throws a dice
       at every turn. He has to act according to the tile based on where the dice
       brings his token to. The objective of the game is to make the other players
       bankrupt. This is very much similar to the traditional Monopoly board game,
       which most of the people have played before. Thus, it will be fairly easy to get
       started on the game.


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      Educational value
       As this proposed game idea will be using some of the famous Singapore
       landmarks as the game elements, players will get to know more of this country.
       This is especially so for the younger generation where they have very little
       knowledge of their homeland. As the game progresses, the players are
       required to build the landmarks, according to the wealth they possessed. As
       compared to games which contain gore or violence, this proposed game idea
       can be easily accepted by the mass. Research has shown that teaching through
       games are becoming more and more acceptable in the world today. In the
       news article by BBC News titled “Computer games „motivate pupils‟, 2006”
       [3]
           a third of teachers are using computer games in the classroom and a
       majority believe they improve pupils’ skills and knowledge, a survey suggests
       was quoted. In Singapore, many people are in one way or another, in contact
       with games. Some may play games to relieve stress, some strive to compete
       with their fellow peers, some play to pass time and some use games for
       educational purposes.

In a nutshell, the players have the ability to develop Singapore based on their own
judgment.

The intended target audience for this game idea is teenagers, mainly females. After
conducting the research on the current game industry, the games which are more
popular are mostly targeted to male population. Female-oriented games usually are
not in the limelight, as reflected in the article “The Top 5 Best Selling PSP Games
For January 2009”, Mike Yardwood[10].

The game prototype will be built in an entirely 3-Dimensional environment. All the
graphic elements will be in 3-Dimensional. The user interface will comprise of
vibrant colours to show the liveliness of the game, and very user-friendly. Light
background music clips will be applied, which will set a relaxing mood for this game
prototype.




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3.3 Game Graphics Elements

For this project, there will be two categories in the graphics portion; one, the screen
interfaces and transitions will be in 2-Dimensional; two, the game elements are to be
created in 3-Dimensional.

Graphical elements are very crucial in maintaining the gamers’ interest level towards
the game. Depending on the type of target audience, the style of the graphics can be
very much different. Cute graphics such as little dolls or soft toys are very appealing
to gamers of age twelve to fourteen, or usually, teenage girls, whereas on the other
hand, boys usually like more high impact graphics and actions. Therefore, by
determining the target audience in the initial stage will make this process of graphic
elements development smoother and more efficient.

The screen interfaces will be designed with a resolution of 480 pixels by 272 pixels,
which is exactly the screen size for the PSP console. The creation process will start
from rough sketches, which is very useful for brainstorming sessions and quick
recording down of any ideas that come along with it. Creation in the application will
then began once the idea is being finalised.

As for the 3-Dimensional graphics, they will be created using Autodesk 3D Studio
Max 2009, a purely 3-Dimensional creation software. Output for the chosen game
engine has to be in .3DS file format, which is supported by Autodesk 3D Studio Max
2009.

To facilitate the loading of the game, all the graphic elements are built under the
following constraints:
     1500 polygons and below
     Texture maps to be 512 pixels by 512 pixels
     No opacity maps due to the limitations of the Game Engine
     Game background is to be simulated using a texture map, instead of 3D
        models

All the graphical elements can be found in the Game Design Document.




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3.4 Game Graphic User Interface

Any game has a Graphical User Interface, and this is extremely important. User
Interface refers to the screens where gamers can see the game status and select
options and menus of the game. A game can have the best game play, however, with
a very complex user interface, gamers will still lose their interests. User-friendly
interface is imperative to a game’s success.

When Computer was first invented, there was no Graphical User Interface. Every
operation is done through text commands. Before Microsoft Windows 1.0 was
released in 1985, MS-DOS was the main operating system for computer users. In July
1980 IBM assigned Microsoft to develop a 16-bit operating system for the personal
computer for the fee of 186,000 dollars. (Operating System Documentation Project,
2001) [12] MS-DOS did not have a graphical user interface. Therefore, all operations
were done through text inputs and commands. Figure () shows some screen shots of
MS-DOS.




                        Figure 3.6: Screenshots of MS-DOS, taken from
                           Operating System Documentation Project
            (http://www.operating-system.org/betriebssystem/_english/bs-msdos.htm)

Only certain texts are recognised as commands. Hence, it became a requirement for
the users of Microsoft Windows 3.1 to know those commands in order to operate
Microsoft Windows 3.1, which is very troublesome.

In 1985, MS-DOS was slowly being replaced by the graphical user interface based
operating system, Microsoft Windows. Since then, vast improvements have been
made to the graphical representation of the various commands.

Hence, after much exploration, the user interface for this game prototype has been
finalised to keep simple and clean. It will be a left – right window panel style. The
right panel will house all the game status items, i.e. the current location of all the
players on the board, the dice rolled and the assets of the player while the left panel
will be the actual game play.




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PROJECT DEVELOPMENT (TECHNICAL)


3.5 Building the Infrastructure

The entire flow of the game prototype has to be clear to all the developers. Therefore
the best approach to do so is through the usage of flowcharts. Figure () clearly shows
the flow of the game, in the most simplest and understandable method.

3.5.1 Main Game play
                                     Introduction Short
                                         Sequence


                                   A. Game Title Screen




    B. CONTINUE                   C. START NEW GAME                    D. HOW TO PLAY




    Load previously                   C1. Selection of                    D1. Instructions
     Saved game                           Colour




                                      C2. Game starts




            Game Play                      Is player the   No   C4. Game Over
                                             last in the
                                                                Short Sequence         Yes
                                               game?

                                                    Yes

                                    C3. Winning Short                Restart
                                        Sequence                     Game?



                                                                                       No


Figure 3.7: Flow of the Entire Game Play



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This thesis report will focus on the development of the game play for the game
prototype as highlighted in the flow chart. The detailed explanation of each screen is
documented in the Game Design Document. (Appendix C)

For the game play, the main bulk of the programming has been broken up into 4 main
concepts:

Loading of the graphic elements

Before the game starts, the loading of the graphic elements, and the constant updates
while the game progresses. Sound clips are to be loaded at this stage as well.

Randomisation of the dice sides

When the player click to roll the dice, the dice has to show a random side.

Movement of the seed

Moving a number of steps according to the dice rolled result.

Actions of the player

When the player lands on a tile, a tracker has to track whether the tile is already been
bought by another player. If positive, the player has to pay a rental fee, as denoted by
the asset card to the owner. If negative, the player will be presented an option to
purchase it.




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Below flow chart summarises the game play logics:

                                      Load Level Map



                                    Load Level Objects



                                        Game begins



                                      Player Interaction



      Winning                            Player wins
      Screen
                         Yes
                                                No
                                    Computer A.I.’s turn



      Losing                         Computer A.I. wins
      Screen
                         Yes                                     No

Figure 3.8: Flow of the Main Game Play Logics

        Action                               Description

        Load Level Map                       Initialise the game map, i.e. the board with the
                                             land tiles, background, and lightings.
        Load Level Objects                   Initialise the objects such as Player seeds,
                                             Computer Artificial Intelligence (A.I.), total
                                             monies, dice, and the buildings to be constructed
                                             on purchase.
        Load Music Objects                   Initialise the music clips to loop throughout the
                                             game
        Player actions                       Functions which involve movement around the
                                             board, buying/upgrading of their own properties
                                             and paying rental to other players.
        Computer A.I. actions                Functions which involve movement around the
                                             board, buying/upgrading of their own properties
                                             and paying rental to other players.
        Win / Lose                           Functions to track whether the player wins or loses
                                             the game by comparing the criteria needed to win
                                             the game.
    Table 3.9: Description of individual game play action




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3.5.2 Player Logic

Below flow chart illustrates the actions of a player in the game:



                                      Player rolls dice


                                    Player Seed moves



                                    Player lands on a tile




      Luck Tile                            Land Tile                              Rest Tile




  Random event              Owned by                      Vacant Land             Player turn
     happens               other players                                             ends
   (Good / Bad)




                                         Self-Owned
                                            Land




                                                                               Pay to own



        Pay rental           Pay for
                             Co-Ownership
                                                              Pay to
                                                              upgrade




Figure 3.10: Flow of Player Logic




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       Action                               Description

       Player rolls dice                    Determine the number of tiles a player moves over

       Player Seed moves                    Player Seed moves according to the dice result
                                            automatically

       Luck Tile                            When the game seed lands on a Luck Tile, a
                                            random luck event will occur. For example,
                                            gaining more monies, tax exemption or paying
                                            more tax to the bank.

       Land Tile                            When the game seed lands on a Land Tile, a
                                            function is to check whether the Land Tile is
                                            already owned. If it’s already, another function
                                            will check whether it’s owned by another player,
                                            or the current player who is on the tile at this
                                            instance. Otherwise, he/she can pay the land cost
                                            to own the land for future development.

       Land owned by other players          He/She will be asked to pay the rental, or given an
                                            option to co-own the land with the owner, with a
                                            calculated cost based on the level of development
                                            done by the owner.
       Self-Owned land                      He/She will be given the option to do development
                                            of the land.
       Rest Tile                            When player lands on a Rest Tile, his/her turn will
                                            automatically end and the next player will roll the
                                            dice.

        Table 3.11: Description of individual player action




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    3.5.3 Computer A.I. Logic

Below flow chart illustrates the actions of a computer A.I. in the game:



                                     Computer A.I. rolls dice


                                   Computer A.I. Seed moves



                                  Computer A.I. lands on a tile




        Luck Tile                             Land Tile                                  Rest Tile




     Random event              Owned by                   Vacant Land                  Computer A.I.
        happens               other players                                             turn ends
      (Good / Bad)




                                           Self-Owned
                                              Land




                                                                                      Pay to own



           Pay rental          Pay for
                               Co-Ownership
                                                                  Pay to
                                                                  upgrade




Figure 3.12: Flow of Computer A.I. Logic




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       Action                                Description

       Player rolls dice                     Determine the number of tiles a player moves over

       Player Seed moves                     Player Seed moves according to the dice result
                                             automatically

       Luck Tile                             When the game seed lands on a Luck Tile, a
                                             random luck event will occur. For example,
                                             gaining more monies, tax exemption or paying
                                             more tax to the bank.

       Land Tile                             When the game seed lands on a Land Tile, a
                                             function is to check whether the Land Tile is
                                             already owned. If it’s already, another function
                                             will check whether it’s owned by another player,
                                             or the current player who is on the tile at this
                                             instance. Otherwise, he/she can pay the land cost
                                             to own the land for future development.

       Land owned by other players           He/She will be asked to pay the rental, or given an
                                             option to co-own the land with the owner, with a
                                             calculated cost based on the level of development
                                             done by the owner.
       Self-Owned land                       He/She will be given the option to do development
                                             of the land.
       Rest Tile                             When player lands on a Rest Tile, his/her turn will
                                             automatically end and the next player will roll the
                                             dice.

    Table 3.13: Description of individual computer A.I. action



The above mentioned are the main game logics which summarise the entire game
play. Based on the flow chart for player and computer A.I., they are similar except
that the programming for player portion is based on player’s input while the computer
A.I. portion is a constant running looping programming.




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3.6 Programming and Scripting of the Opensource Solution

LTE Game Engine provides an extensive C++ library. It has all the libraries for PSP
game development, and the best advantage is, PSP supports all the libraries that this
tool provides. Complete documentation and forum helps further facilitates the usage
of this tool to development this project’s proposed game idea.

However, as it is a pure programming based development tool, users are required to
have a certain level of C++ programming knowledge in order to fully utilise this tool.
It does not provide any help wizards for insertion of the syntax commands nor does it
provide any drag and drop functions for users to drag to insert the codings.
Everything will have to be written from scratch.

Thus, in order to solve this incapability, a third-party application has to be introduced.
Dev C++ was installed to solve this issue. Dev C++ is C++ based, and supports all
C++ libraries. To use the libraries that PSP supports, the following code is being
written:

    #include    <engine.h>
    #include    <string>
    #include    <stdio.h>
    #include    <wchar.h>
    #include    <math.h>
    #include    <cstdlib>
    #include    <time.h>
    #include    "../common.h"

The above listed are the libraries that will be used in the development of this game
prototype. Proper commenting is also a must for this development. This is to aid in
future improvements that are going to be done in this game prototype. For instance,
    //game menu options
    bool gameMenuOpen = false;
    int menuSelected = 1;

Furthermore, the style of scripting will be kept to Object-Oriented Programming
(OOP) model. Encapsulation is to be practiced in the programming. This would aid in
the altering or adjustment of values in the future, and if any error occurs, it can be
detected easily.




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3.7 Setting the Test Cases

To put the game into the initial testing phase, a series of test cases have been set up.
The test cases are based on the major bugs that will create a fatal error in the running
of the game. In other words, the game cannot proceed if any of these test cases fail.
For instance, the loading of the game map. If the map could not be loaded properly,
the game will not be able to continue. As compared, if the sound effects did not play,
the game can still proceed on. This would not be considered into one of the test cases.
Below lists one such case:

                           Test Case 1: Launching of the game

 Title: Game Start
 Purpose           To test the whether all the game elements can be loaded
 Test steps            1. Open game
                       2. Choose Start Game
 Result
Table 3.14: Test case example

The complete list of the test cases is found in Appendix D. This list enables
developers to keep track of all the errors, minor and major, that might arise during the
development.




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CHAPTER FOUR – USER ACCEPTANCE TEST

4.1 The Test Environment

The targeted audiences for this project’s test model are ten female Secondary School
student’s age range between twelve to fourteen years old. All these students must
have played PSP games before. This means they must be familiar with the buttons of
a PSP console. The reason for this criterion is to make sure they focus their interest
on the game itself, and not learning how to operate the console. The focus of this
research is to find out the major errors in the game prototype, as well as the interest
level of the users towards the game, therefore certain rules have to be set beforehand.

Each student will be given a Sony PSP console with firmware 3.90, installed with
Sing Tycoon only. The game is launched and presented at the start game screen for all
the ten consoles. Each PSP will be plugged on with the same model pair of earphones.
This will isolate the differences in hardware specification. The game manual is also
available for the students to browse through, in the event that they do not know how
to play the game.

They will be given maximum time duration of 30 minutes to play through the game.

Sing Tycoon, at this stage of testing, is only a prototype of the actual game. The game
play is very limited and full focus will be on the smooth loading and error free of this
game prototype.

4.2 Problems Arising

The main problem for conducting the test is getting the intended group of testes
students and getting ready the ten PSP consoles. Due to such circumstances, the test is
being conducted on only two students, Susan who is a daughter of my colleague and
Carol who is a schoolmate of hers.

The test will not change. Both of them are given the exact same hardware
specifications. After the playing session, a short interview on the evaluation will be
conducted.

4.3 The Results

            Testes                   Time played                  Errors recorded
            Susan                     10 minutes                         2
            Carol                      8 minutes                         0
Table 4.1: Test Results

Both of the girls played the game for approximately 10 minutes. The error recorded
by Susan is a major error as it caused the PSP Console to shut down itself. However,
the error did not occur at the same spot and Carol, on the other hand, did not
encounter any error while playing.




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4.4 Data Analysis

The overall results yield from this test model is less than satisfactory. However, due
to the lack of testes resources, the collected data might not be sufficient enough to
draft a firm conclusion. Nonetheless, this test session has provided quality data and
feedbacks for the research.

Initial launching of the game posts no problem to the testes. They managed to load
into the game in no effort and the game manual was left untouched, throughout the
entire playing session. This clearly reflects the fact that the game is able to absorb the
gamers in the shortest possible time.

However, the error encounter is least expected. From the results gathered, the game
engine still lacks stability.

Both testes did not play to the maximum time given. Although the results did not
prove to be very positive, the test must be conducted again, with a bigger group of
testes for a firm conclusion. At the same time, the game is only a prototype, a very
first draft up of the entire game idea; therefore, tests need to be conducted again when
the game is further improved.




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CHAPTER FIVE – PROJECT MANAGEMENT

5.1 Usage of Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC)

Development model for this project is the Spiral Model of the Iterative Software
Development Life Cycle (SDLC).

Iterative SDLCs refer to models that develop the product incrementally through
prototyping and modeling. This is very appropriate for projects that have a lot of
changes throughout the development life cycle. The development is constantly going
through “Requirements Definition”, “Design and Planning”, “Development”,
“Construction and Implementation” and “Evaluation.” The development does not end
at “Evaluation” Stage. Instead, prototypes may be developed for the user to evaluate.
Consolidating all the feedbacks from the user, including additional requirements, the
developing team will re-identify the requirements, and then re-design and construct
the product, and again, allow the end user to do an evaluation of it.

For this thesis project, it will be ideal to adopt this model for the development. The
developing team will develop prototypes at various development phases. These
prototypes will be sent to a group of users to evaluate. And after each evaluation, the
developing team will consolidate the feedbacks and re-design and construct the
prototype, and once again, allow the user to re-evaluate again. This process will be
repeated until the user is satisfied.

5.2 Work Breakdown Structure

A Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) has been created to monitor the progress of this
project status. This WBS will undergo minor modifications as the project progresses.
This is highly possible as this is a major project which spans over a period of more
than 6 months. The list can be found in Appendix E.

5.3 Execution
The initial plan was to complete the deliverables of this project in 9 months, which
includes:

      A website to promote the PSP game
      Video trailer of the actual game play of the PSP game embedded in one of the
       web pages of the website
      PSP game must have a 3D animated opening sequence (maximum 2 minutes)
      Game Design Document
      Thesis research and report
      Presentation Poster

Although there are some slips in the middle of the development, as shown on the
Gantt chart (Appendix F), the project eventually still met the deadline set in the initial
planning.




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CHAPTER SIX – CHALLENGES AND PROBLEMS

Throughout this entire project, many challenges arose, from both the design and
technical aspects. Much time is spent on the research of the available opensource
solutions as well. With limited knowledge on game development, research became of
utmost importance to the progress of this project. Regular supervision and guidance
from the supervisor provided much appreciated help in this project development.

During the design phase, even though much research has been done on the
requirements of the opensource solution, there are some visual details which are
being compromised in order to fit into the limitations. Thus, adjustments to the game
design document have to be made, and possible alternatives have to be created to
counter the challenges.

As for the technical development phase, limited knowledge in C++ programming
inevitably poses a very big hindrance to the game programming. Not knowing how to
script, this work task took longer than expected. Furthermore, the 3D models that
were modeled based on the initial game design specifications have to be placed on
hold as the initialising of all the models into the game has proven to be a failure after
a initial integration. Henceforth, compromising has to be catered and time is lost yet
again.

Unexpected instability of the opensource solutions has made the development even
harder.

To address these sudden challenges, buffer time is placed for each work task.
Constant adjustment to the Gantt chart also proves to be useful in the monitoring of
the project progress. Although some planned features were not able to achieve due to
the lack of competency in the technical field and the limitations of the opensource
solution, the game prototype was still able to function with the major features present.

CHAPTER SEVEN - CONCLUSION

Literature review done during the initial stage of this project proves to be very useful
in the success of developing the game prototype. Creation of a game design document
to record down the entire game logics and mechanics allows reference during the
course of the development. However, the project did not proceed as smoothly due to
lack of prior knowledge in game developing.

The prototype was not able to fulfill all the requirements as stated in the design
document; the ability to co-own a land tile, loading of a customised game board.
Nonetheless, the game was able to be launched successfully on a PSP console, with a
set of hardware specifications laid out in the Game Design Document.

The recommend test for any future continuation of this project would be to research
on C++ programming and conduct more prototypes testing over a larger group of
targeted audience.

At this stage, capability of opensource solutions is still unable to overtake licensed
development tools.

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REFERENCES

[1] Aaron Thomas (2007). Diner Dash: Sizzle & Serve Review. Retrieved March 6, 2009,
    from Gamespot Official Website
    http://www.gamespot.com/psp/puzzle/dinerdash/review.html?om_act=convert&om
    _clk=gssummary&tag=summary;read-review

[2] About.com (2009). PSP/ Playstation Portable Glossary. Retrieved February 22, 2009,
    from About.com: PSP. Website:
    http://psp.about.com/od/pspglossary/PSP_PlayStation_Portable_Glossary.htm

[3] BBC News (2006). Computer Games „motivate pupils‟. Retrieved March 6, 2009,
    from BBC News. Website:
    http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/education/4608942.stm

[4] GNU Operating System (n.d.).The Free Software Definition. Retrieved March 5, 2009,
    from GNU Operating System. Website:
    http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/free-sw.html

[5] Joshua Hughes (2009). Color Pyschology. Retrieved February 24, 2009, from
    http://www.digitalskratch.com/color-psychology.php

[6] Lindsay Grace (2005). Game Type and Game Genre. Retrieved from
    http://www.lgrace.com/documents/Game_types_and_genres.pdf

[7] Mark J. P. Wolf (2008). The video game explosion: a history from PONG to
    Playstation and beyond (p. xvii)

[8] Mark J. P. Wolf (2008). The video game explosion: a history from PONG to
    Playstation and beyond (p. 148)

[9] Mary Belis (1997). Monopoly, Monopoly. Retrieved February 24, 2009, from
    About.com: Inventors. Website:
    http://inventors.about.com/library/weekly/aa121997.htm

[10] Mike Yardwood (2009). The Top 5 Best Selling PSP Games For January 2009.
     Retrieved February 26, 2009, from Amazines. Website:
     http://www.amazines.com/Electronics/article_detail.cfm/750934?articleid=750934

[11] Open Source Initiatives (n.d.). Retrieved March 5, 2009, from Open Source
     Initiatives. Website:
     http://opensource.org/osr

[12] Operating System Documentation Project (2004). DOS (Disk Operating System).
     Retrieved March 10, 2009, from Operating System Documentation Project. Website:
     http://www.operating-system.org/betriebssystem/_english/bs-msdos.htm

[13] Rod Afshar, Duke Banejee & Clifford Jones (2004). Advergaming Developer‟s guide:
     using Macromedia Flash MX 2004 and Director MX (p. 94)

[14] Technical Specifications – PSP®-3000 system. Retrieved March 5, 2009, from
     Playstation Official Site. Website:
     http://www.us.playstation.com/PSP/Systems/TechSpecs/default.html

[15] Tracy Fullerton, Christopher Swain, Steve Hoffman (2008). Game Design Workshop
     (chapter 13)

[16] Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2009). History of Video games. Retrieved
     February 22, 2009 from Wikipedia. Website:
     http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_video_games

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APPENDICES

A. Market Survey

   1) What is your age group?
        Less than 10 years old                      19 – 30 years old
         10 – 18 years old                          More than 30 years old

   2) What is your sex gender?
        Male                                        Female

   3) Are you still schooling?
        Yes                                         No

   4) What type of game platforms do you play in?

         Console Gaming
         PC Gaming
         Mobile Gaming
         Not applicable

   5) How often do you play games a week?

         10 hours
         20 hours
         30 hours
         More than 30 hours

   6) What type of game graphics style do you like most?
        2D style
         3D style
         No preference




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        7) Rank the below game genres in terms of your preference by putting a tick at
           the respective boxes.
             Preference
Game Genre                Most Favourite   Favourite   Neutral       Dislike       Most dislike
Role Playing Game
Strategy Game
Genre
Action Game Genre
Board Game Genre
Music Game Genre
Racing Simulation
Game Genre
Big Fish Games



        8) Do you own a PSP Console? If yes, please proceed to Qn 9. Otherwise, please
           proceed to Qn 10.

              Yes                                        No

        9) Please indicate from the PSP game list below, which are the games you have
           played before?
             God Of War: Chains of                       Cake Mania: Baker's
                  Olympus                                   Challenge
              Grand Theft Auto                           Diner Dash: Sizzle and
              Final Fantasy Tactics                        Serve
              Final Fantasy VII Crisis                   Lumines
                  Core                                    Taiko no Tatsujin Portable
              Bomberman                                  DJ Max
              World Soccer Winning
                  Eleven 9

        10) What kind of games would you hope to see more on PSP in future?

                 Action Role Playing Game
                 Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing Game (MMORPG)
                 Sports Game
                 Fishing Simulation Game




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B. Industrial Interview

Question 1: Can you briefly explain the game development process practiced in
your company?

We are more using of agile software development in our company. The process will
involve the developers and artist to be involved in a 2 weeks sprint to meet each
sprint cycle. The sprints are geared to match with milestones so that we can release
the features in a timely manner.

Question 2: Which part of the process are you involved in?

I am personally involved in the planning and execution of the sprint cycle.

Question 3: Usually, how many people are there in the development team
(Graphics Designers and Programmers)?

Our team is close to 10 people.

Question 4: What is the estimated time to develop a game, including the testing
phase?

As we are working on massive multiplayer games, our development cycle tends to be
longer compared to traditional box games. Our development cycle is close to a year.

Question 5: Can you list down some games developed by your company? What is
the targeted platform?

Winxclub.com

Flash/web based




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C. Game Design Document

CHAPTER ONE - GAME MECHANICS

       1.1 Core Game Play

       The game is in the form of a board game style. Player moves around the board
       in tile format. The board is the Singapore Map. There are 4 players which will
       be differentiated using different colours, mainly blue, red, yellow and green
       and the seed to represent them is a posh toy car. The objective of the game is
       to

              become the richest developer
              build and develop Sing Land
              do not go below 0 game dollar
              make other players go bankrupt

       On your turn, throw the dice and move forward the number of spaces. Cars are
       not allowed to share tiles. If you land on your opponent’s car, move ahead to
       the next free tile.

       *When only two players are left, there will be no fixed amount of money
       given when they finish 1 round. They must receive their income by the upkeep
       of their assets and the rental fee from the opponent.




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       1.2     Game Flow

       The game will begin with a short animation, introducing the game. Once the
       game title “Sing Tycoon” pops up, the player will be prompt to press any
       button to begin the game.

       Afterwhich, there will be 3 options, “CONTINUE”, “START NEW GAME”
       and “HOW TO PLAY”.

       The option “CONTINUE” will launch the previously saved game.

       The option “START NEW GAME” will launch a new game.

       The option “HOW TO PLAY” will display the gameplay instructions.

       At the beginning of a new game, the player will get to choose his preferred
       color to represent himself on the game board. A simplified posh toy car is the
       game seed.

       Once the player has chosen the colour, the game board will appear, and the
       player will have to press any button to roll the dice to begin the game.

       There will be a total of 2 dice of six faces to be rolled each turn. After the dice
       is rolled, the seed will automatically move over a number of steps on the game
       board as shown by the dice. Depending on the type of tile that the seed lands
       on, the player will be presented a set of options to make.

       If the tile is not owned by anybody, the player will be given the option to
       purchase it if he/she lands on it. By having ownership of the tile, the player
       will be given the title deed of the piece of land that this tile is tagged along
       with. Afterwhich, the player is entitled to develop this piece of land. However,
       he will only be able to do so only on the next round when he lands on this
       same tile again.

       If the tile has been owned by another player, the current player who landed on
       the tile will have to pay the owner. The amount will be determined by the
       level of development on the land.

       As a piece of land spans over a few tiles, the first player who owns any tile of
       a piece of land gets the title deed and full control of the development of the
       land. If the owner of the land gets control of all the tiles that belong to the
       same piece of land, he will earn additional 20% revenue of the entire revenue
       recorded on the title deed.

       On the other hand, if other player wishes to buy a vacant tile, but the land
       already belongs to another player; he can still do so, but at a cost in relative to
       the level of development done on the specific piece of land.




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       The revenue, in this case, will be calculated at a rate of 20% of the recorded
       revenue on the title deed based on the level of the development done on the
       piece of land.

       1.3     Game Play Elements

       Seeds
       A posh toy car will be the seed used in this game. Blue, Green, Red and
       Yellow are the four representing colours that represent each player.
       Depending on which color the human player has chosen, the other 3 will be
       allocated to the other 3 A.I.s.




        Figure 1.1: Game seeds




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       Game Board
       The Singapore map is the main element on the board. 40 tiles make up 1
       round the map. 5 different plots of land are available on the map for
       development. Every 1 round the map will trigger an evaluation of profit
       against maintenance fee based on the assets that the player has.




                      Figure 1.2: Game board



       Game Tile
       There are 3 types of tiles; one that grants the owner the option to develop the
       specific land; another that has the word “LUCK” written on it. This sets the
       player to receive random news based on the “LUCK” card revealed; The last
       type is a resting tile, which triggers no event.




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        Land
        5 types of land are available for the players to purchase and develop. The land
        can be developed till a maximum of 5 levels.




Figure 1.3: Hotel Land Type




  *As this development is for the prototype, focus is only on one of the Land Types -
  the Hotel Land Type.




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       Title Deed
       This is given to the player who has ownership to the specific land. Each type
       of land will have a title deed. This card states the revenue of each level of
       development done on the land.

       Dice
       2 dice of six sides will be rolled on every player’s turn. The total sum of both
       dice will be the number of tiles that the player moves over.




                      Figure 1.4: Dice



       Monies
       Money used in this game. All the money will be deposited in a virtual bank
       allocated to each individual player.




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       1.4     Game Physics and Statistics

       The game will be developed using LTE Game Engine version 2.2.

       As the game is entirely in a 3-Dimensional environment, LTE Game Engine is
       one of the better opensource solution that provides support for 3D graphics.

       The camera will be automatically set. It will follow the player who is currently
       having his/her turn.

       The graphical user interface is organised in such a way that the main game
       play will be at the left side of the screen, while the right column is reserved
       for game elements - dice rolled result, title deeds and amount of monies that
       the player has in his possession.

       At the top of the screen, a bank icon with all 4 players’ monies will be
       displayed and updated at all times during the game.


       Any player in the game will always be shown a short animation of dice being
       rolled when it is his/her turn. He/She can press any button to skip to the dice
       rolled results immediately.

       Once the dice rolled results are displayed, the player’s seed will move over a
       number of tiles in accordance to the dice rolled results.

       Depending on the tile type, there will be different options available to the
       player.

       Land Tile

       Scenario 1 – Vacant Tile and Land

       If the tile has not been owned by any other player, he/she will be given the
       option to purchase it. The price is predetermined by the title deed of the land
       that is tagged along with it. On top of it, the player will be given the
       ownership of the land. In this case, only this player can do the development on
       this piece of land that he owns.

       Scenario 2 – Vacant Tile but owned Land

       In this situation, the player will still be granted the option to purchase the tile,
       but with a price that is based on the level of the development done by the
       owner of the land. The benefit of having ownership of a tile without the land
       is that the player can still gain 20% of the revenue generated by the land.




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       Scenario 3 – Owned Tile

       The player who lands on this type of tile will have to pay the owner based on
       the development done on the land. All amounts are recorded on the title deed
       of the land. If the player is the owner of the land, he will be given the option
       to level up the development of the land, at a cost written on the title deed.

       *Note: If the owner of the land is able to secure all the tiles that the land is
       tagged with, he will be able to receive 20% more revenue from other players
       that step on the tiles.

       LUCK Tile

       This tile type grants the player a chance to either be wealthier or poorer. It is
       randomised on every new game. In other words, it all depends on “luck.”

       Rest Tile

       Players who land on this tile type will have no decisions to make. The turn
       will automatically shift to the next player.
       There are a total of 5 different lands for development. Each development
       differs in terms of genre, and costings.

        Land Title

        Level of             Revenue           Upkeep            Tile Cost
        Upgrade
       Table 1: Title Deed Information

       Each title deed will have similar information as stated in the table.

       At the end of every round the Singapore Map, players will get a grant of 200
       monies by the bank. A calculation of all the assets’ upkeep of a player will be
       done at this point as well.

       If a player, at any point of the game, does not have enough money to pay the
       rental fee or the upkeep, he will be forced to sell away his assets, at a rate of
       50% of the buying price.

       If a player after selling all assets, and is still unable to pay, he/she will be
       declared bankrupt and kicked out of the game. The last player to remain
       behind is the winner of the game.




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       1.5     Artificial Intelligence

       A function is created to check what type of tile the A.I. has landed on.

       On any type of tile that the A.I. has landed, the first condition will be to check
       if it has sufficient monies to make a purchase, either an upgrading to the
       development of his own land, or make a purchase of the tile. A successful
       purchase will be made as long as it has more than 4 times the cost of the
       purchase.

       If the A.I. has landed on another player’s tile, a function will determine the
       amount payable and deduct from the A.I.’s bank. In any case whereby the A.I.
       does not have sufficient monies to pay, it will be forced to sell his assets back
       to the government, in the below level of priority:

       1st Level - Tiles that has no link to any development land it owns
       2nd Level - Level of Development Upgrade




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CHAPTER TWO - USER INTERFACE

        2.1      Flowchart

        The following flowchart illustrates the navigation through the various screens
        and windows.


                                     Introduction Short
                                         Sequence


                                   A. Game Title Screen




    B. CONTINUE                    C. START NEW GAME                   D. HOW TO PLAY




    Load previously                   C1. Selection of                    D1. Instructions
     Saved game                           Colour




                                      C2. Game starts




                                           Is player the   No   C4. Game Over
                                             last in the
                                                                Short Sequence         Yes
                                               game?

                                                    Yes

                                    C3. Winning Short                Restart
                                        Sequence                     Game?



                                                                                       No



Figure 2.1: Flow of the Entire Game Play




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       2.2     Functional Requirements

       A. Game Title Screen
       This screen will consist of 3 options, “CONTINUE”, “START GAME” and
       “HOW TO PLAY”. These options are placed at the bottom of the screen.
       Each option will navigate the player to the next screen / pop-up box.

       B. CONTINUE
       The option “CONTINUE” will load and continue the previously saved game.

       C. START NEW GAME
       This option will bring the player to the colour selection screen C1.

       C1. Selection of Colour
       This screen will start off with a screen divided into 4 columns, each displaying
       a different colour – blue, red, yellow and green. Once the player has selected
       his representative colour to be used in the game by pressing “O” on the PSP,
       the game will begin on the following screen C2.

       C2. Game starts
       This screen will display the entire gameplay.

       C3.Winning Short Sequence
       If the player has beaten all the other A.I.s, a short animation on winning the
       game will be displayed. After which, the player will be asked whether he/she
       wants to replay the game once again. If he/she chooses positive, he/she will be
       brought back to screen C2 and everything restarts again. Otherwise, he/she
       will be brought back to screen A.

       D. HOW TO PLAY
       This option will bring up a pop-up box D1.

       D1. Instructions
       This pop-up box will display the playing instruction.




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        2.3      Screens

        The below screenshots are the static interfaces for the game:




Figure 2.2: Splash Screen




        Figure 2.3: Winning Screen




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       Figure 2.4: Game over Screen

       2.4    GUI Objects

       A. Game Title Screen
       “CONTINUE” option – loads previously saved game.

       “START NEW GAME” option - bring the player to choose his representative
       colour to be used in the game.

       “HOW TO PLAY” option - display a pop-up box with the game instruction.

       C1. Selection of Colour
       Seeds – The player will be asked to select his/her colour of the seed to be used
       in the game in this screen. Players will be using seeds to move around the
       game board.

       C2. Game starts
       Game board – The entire game play will be on this board area.

       Dice - The game begins with the player’s turn. Dice rolling animation will be
       displayed. After the dice come to a stop, the player’s seed will move across
       the board’s tiles as indicated by the dice.

       Game Tiles – There are a total of 60 tiles, out of which 40 are Land Tiles, 5
       are LUCK Tiles, and 15 are Rest Tiles.

       Land Tiles - Landing on a Land Tile will display a pop-up box asking the
       player whether he wants to make a purchase of the tile.



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       LUCK Tiles – Landing on a LUCK Tile will bring up a pop-up showing a
       LUCK card. This card either grants the player more monies or taxes the player
       to pay monies to the government. There are a total of 20 different LUCK
       cards, which will be randomised to appear upon landing on such tile type.

       Land Title Deed - If he/she is the first to buy the tile of a tagged development
       land, the title deed of the land will pop up and then appear at the left column
       of the screen.

       Land Types – There are 5 types of land, namely Housing Development Land,
       Shopping Centres Land, Hotels Land, Factories Land and Cinemas and
       Theatres Land. Each land differs in the costing and revenues.

       Building Structures – As there are 5 types of land, there will be 5 groups of
       building structures. In each group there will be a main building structure,
       which marks the first level of development. As for the subsequent upgrades,
       the add-on building structures will be similar to each other.

       Tax Sheet – This is a window box which will pop-up when players pass the
       last tile of the game. It will show the following details:

        Player Name

        200 Monies from Bank

        Upkeep of Assets

        Total

       Figure 2.4: Tax Sheet Example

       After the calculation is being made, depending on whether the player has
       made a profit or loss, the amount will be credited or deducted from his virtual
       bank automatically before he ends his turn.




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CHAPTER THREE - TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

        3.1     Target System Requirements

        The game will be developed and targeted on Sony PSP only. Firmware
        version of the system will be set to 3.90.

        3.2     Game Development Kit

        Graphics Development will be through Blender3D, which will encompass all
        the 3D models and GIMP will be the application that will be used to create all
        the static screens. Game Engine Development will be done using LTE Game
        Engine version 2.2.

        All the above applications are opensource solutions.

        3.3     Game play Logics

        Development will be done using the opensource development – LTE Game
        Engine version 2.2. The entire documentation of this opensource solution can
        be found on http://irrlicht.sourceforge.net/ .

        Main Game play


                                     Load Level Map



                                   Load Level Objects



                                       Game begins



                                     Player Interaction



      Winning                           Player wins
      Screen
                        Yes
                                                  No
                                    Computer A.I.’s turn



      Losing                        Computer A.I. wins
      Screen
                        Yes                                    No

Figure 3.1: Flow of the Main Game Play Logics



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       Action                        Description

       Load Level Map                Initialise the game map, i.e. the board with the
                                     land tiles, background, and lightings.

       Load Level Objects            Initialise the objects such as Player seeds,
                                     Computer Artificial Intelligence (A.I.), total
                                     monies, dice, and the buildings to be constructed
                                     on purchase.

       Player actions                Functions which involve movement around the
                                     board, buying/upgrading of their own properties
                                     and paying rental to other players.

       Computer A.I. actions         Functions which involve movement around the
                                     board, buying/upgrading of their own properties
                                     and paying rental to other players.

       Win / Lose                    Functions to track whether the player wins or loses
                                     the game by comparing the criteria needed to win
                                     the game.

       Table 3.2: Description of individual game play action




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       Player Actions



                                         Player rolls dice


                                       Player Seed moves



                                       Player lands on a tile




       Luck Tile                             Land Tile                              Rest Tile




    Random event              Owned by                    Vacant Land               Player turn
       happens               other players                                             ends
     (Good / Bad)




                                          Self-Owned
                                             Land




                                                                                  Pay to own


         Pay rental           Pay for
                              Co-Ownership
                                                             Pay to upgrade




    Figure 3.3: Flow of Player Logic




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       Action                         Description

       Player rolls dice              Determine the number of tiles a player moves over

       Player Seed moves              Player Seed moves according to the dice result
                                      automatically

       Luck Tile                      When the game seed lands on a Luck Tile, a
                                      random luck event will occur. For example,
                                      gaining more monies, tax exemption or paying
                                      more tax to the bank.

       Land Tile                      When the game seed lands on a Land Tile, a
                                      function is to check whether the Land Tile is
                                      already owned. If it’s already, another function
                                      will check whether it’s owned by another player,
                                      or the current player who is on the tile at this
                                      instance. Otherwise, he/she can pay the land cost
                                      to own the land for future development.

       Land owned by other            He/She will be asked to pay the rental, or given an
       players                        option to co-own the land with the owner, with a
                                      calculated cost based on the level of development
                                      done by the owner.
       Self-Owned land                He/She will be given the option to do development
                                      of the land.
       Rest Tile                      When player lands on a Rest Tile, his/her turn will
                                      automatically end and the next player will roll the
                                      dice.


    Table 3.4: Description of individual player action




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                                  Computer A.I. rolls dice


                                Computer A.I. Seed moves



                                Computer A.I. lands on a tile




      Luck Tile                            Land Tile                                Rest Tile




  Random event              Owned by                    Vacant Land               Computer A.I.
     happens               other players                                            turn ends
   (Good / Bad)




                                            Self-Owne
                                            d Land




                                                                                  Pay to own


                                   Pay for
        Pay rental              Co-Ownership

                                                                 Pay to
                                                                upgrade




Figure 3.5: Flow of Computer A.I. Logic




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       Action                        Description

       Player rolls dice             Determine the number of tiles a player moves over

       Player Seed moves             Player Seed moves according to the dice result
                                     automatically

       Luck Tile                     When the game seed lands on a Luck Tile, a
                                     random luck event will occur. For example,
                                     gaining more monies, tax exemption or paying
                                     more tax to the bank.

       Land Tile                     When the game seed lands on a Land Tile, a
                                     function is to check whether the Land Tile is
                                     already owned. If it’s already, another function
                                     will check whether it’s owned by another player,
                                     or the current player who is on the tile at this
                                     instance. Otherwise, he/she can pay the land cost
                                     to own the land for future development.

       Land owned by other           He/She will be asked to pay the rental, or given an
       players                       option to co-own the land with the owner, with a
                                     calculated cost based on the level of development
                                     done by the owner.
       Self-Owned land               He/She will be given the option to do development
                                     of the land.
       Rest Tile                     When player lands on a Rest Tile, his/her turn will
                                     automatically end and the next player will roll the
                                     dice.


       Table 3.6: Description of individual computer A.I. action




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         3.4 Inputs/ Controls

         Player Inputs are from PSP control button.

         Direction Arrows         – Move selections
         Cross                    – Cancel Selection
         Triangle        –        End turn
         Circle                   – Confirm Selection
         Square                   – Roll Dice
         LButton                  – Camera rotate Left
         RButton         –        Camera rotate Right




         Camera rotate Left
                                                              Camera rotate Right
                                                  Roll Dice


“Up” for Option Select                                                End Turn




                                                                             Confirm Selection




                                                                         Cancel Selection

“Down” for Option Select




         Figure 3.7: Sony Playstation Portable




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CHAPTER FOUR - SOUND AND MUSIC

        The sound and music used for this game will be light-hearted to bring out the
        relaxed and casual atmosphere, example of such music could be diner dash,
        miss management etc...

        1 looping background music will be used for the entire game. Short sound
        clips will be used for the following game action:
             Dice rolling
             Buying of property
             Paying rental

CHAPTER FIVE - LEVEL REQUIREMENTS

        The following table list out the type of Land item that the player will have
        access to and the number of upgrades each Land type is entitled to.

 Land          Class         Upgrade Levels          Monies         Monies - rental
 Type                                                (cost)         (total)
   Hotel       High          Level 1 – Main          10000          1000
                             Level 2 – 1 x Sub       5000           1500
                             Level 3 – 1 x Sub       5000           2000
                             Level 4 – 1 x Sub       5000           2500
                             Level 5 – 1 x Sub       5000           4000
  Cinema       Middle        Level 1 – Main          7000           500
                             Lever 2 – 1 x Sub       1000           600
                             Level 3 – 1 x Sub       1000           800
 Shopping      Middle        Level 1 – Main          5000           400
                             Lever 2 – 1 x Sub       6000           550
                             Level 3 – 1 x Sub       7000           700
                             Level 4 – 1 x Sub       8000           1000
    Flats      Low           Level 1 – Main          2000           200
                             Level 2 – 1 x Sub       2500           250
                             Level 3 – 1 x Sub       3000           300
                             Level 4 – 1 x Sub       3500           350
                             Level 5 – 1 x Sub       4000           400
                             Level 6 – 1 x Sub       4500           450
                             Level 7 – 1 x Sub       5000           700
  Land &       Low           No Upgrades             4000           1000
 Transport
Table 5.1: Game assets




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CHAPTER SIX - INSTALLING ON PLAYSTATION PORTABLE
  Software Requirements

      Minimalist PSPSDK
      LTE Development Kit

   Installation

   1. Install Minimalist PSPSDK - accept all default settings
   2. Extract LTE to C:\LTE

   Minimalist PSPSDK can be downloaded at the below website:
   http://sourceforge.net/projects/minpspw/

   Follow the instructions and install to C drive.

   Afterwhich, download LTE Game Engine from the below website:
   http://www.psp-hacks.com/file/762

   Extract everything into C Directory.

   Compilation

   To compile the game, two files are essential. One is the entire game code file,
   which is named as main.cpp. This file contains the entire C++ coding of the game.

   The other file, named Makefile, is created with the below code:

   TARGET = SingTycoon
   OBJS = main.o

   INCDIR = -I ../../include/
   CFLAGS = -G0 -O2
   CXXFLAGS = $(CFLAGS) -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti
   ASFLAGS = $(CFLAGS)

   BUILD_PRX = 1
   PSP_FW_VERSION = 390
   PSP_LARGE_MEMORY = 1

   LIBDIR = -L ../../libs
   LDFLAGS =
   LIBS= -lengine -lpspwlan -lglut -lGLU -lGL -lpspvfpu -lm -lstdc++
   -lpsppower -lpsprtc -lpspaudio

   EXTRA_TARGETS = EBOOT.PBP
   PSP_EBOOT_TITLE = Sing Tycoon

   PSPSDK=$(shell psp-config --pspsdk-path)
   include $(PSPSDK)/lib/build.mak

   This set of code is used for most homebrew PSP games. It contains the settings
   for the PSP, as well as the configurations.


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    1. Open a command prompt window and change directory to
       C:\LTE\examples\singTycoon". Type "make", it will produce a EBOOT.PBP
       under the same folder.




Figure 7.1: Sample screenshot of game being compiled in MS-DOS mode



    2. Copy the created EBOOT file to the ms0:\PSP\GAME\ on the PSP's memory
       stick, creating a new directory called "singTycoon" (i.e.
       ms0:\PSP\GAME\singTycoon\).

    3. Copy the entire media folder to the ms0:\. This folder contains the graphical
       elements to run Sing Tycoon.

    4. Run the PSP and under Memory Stick, choose singTycoon. It should display
       the following screen:




Figure 7.2: Sample screenshot of game startup



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D. Test Cases


                                 Test Case 1: Game Start

 Title: Game Start
 Purpose           To test the whether all the game elements can be loaded
 Test steps            3. Open game

 Result             Success
                              Test Case 2: Colour Selection

 Title: Colour Selection
 Purpose            To test the Colour Selection
 Test steps              1. Open game
                         2. Press Start to bring out game menu
 Result             Fail
                                  Test Case 3: Roll Dice

 Title: Roll Dice
 Purpose            To test the Roll Dice function
 Test steps             1. Open game
                        2. Press Start to bring out game menu
                        3. Press Rectangle
 Result             Success
                                 Test Case 4: Seed move

 Title: Seed Move
 Purpose          To test the Character Movement
 Test steps           1. Open game
                      2. Press Start to bring out game menu
                      3. Press Rectangle
                      4. Seed moves automatically
 Result           Success
                Test Case 5: Seed moves according to the dice rolled

 Title: Seed moves according to the dice rolled
 Purpose           To test the Character movement according to the dice rolled
 Test steps            1. Open game
                       2. Press Start to bring out game menu
                       3. Press Rectangle
                       4. Seed moves automatically
 Result            Success




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                                 Test Case 6: Buy Land

 Title: Buy Land
 Purpose            To test the Buy Land
 Test steps             1. Open game
                        2. Press Start to bring out game menu
                        3. Press Rectangle
                        4. Seed moves automatically
                        5. Seed lands on a vacant Land Tile
                        6. Press Circle
 Result             Success
                           Test Case 7: Property upgrading

 Title: Property upgrading
 Purpose           To test the Property upgrading
 Test steps            1. Open game
                       2. Press Start to bring out game menu
                       3. Press Rectangle
                       4. Seed moves automatically
                       5. Seed lands on self owned Tile
                       6. Press Circle
 Result            Success
                                 Test Case 8: Pay Rental

 Title: Pay Rental
 Purpose           To test the Pay Rental
 Test steps            1. Open game
                       2. Press Start to bring out game menu
                       3. Press Rectangle
                       4. Seed moves other player’s property tile
                       5. Monies is deducted immediately accordingly
 Result            Success
                              Test Case 9: Receive Rental

 Title: Receive Rental
 Purpose            To test the Receive Rental
 Test steps             1. Open game
                        2. Press Start to bring out game menu
                        3. Press Rectangle
                        4. Seed moves other player’s property tile
                        5. Monies is deducted immediately accordingly
                        6. Monies credited to the owner (Player / Computer A.I.)
 Result             Success




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                       Test Case 10: Computer A.I. rolls Dice

 Title: Computer A.I. rolls Dice
 Purpose         To test the Computer A.I. Roll Dice
 Test steps           1. Open game
                      2. Press Start to bring out game menu
                      3. Player play
                      4. Press Cross to end turn
                      5. Computer A.I. rolls dice
 Result          Success
                      Test Case 11: Computer A.I. seed moves

 Title: Computer A.I. moves
 Purpose         To test the Computer A.I. seed moves
 Test steps           1. Open game
                      2. Press Start to bring out game menu
                      3. Player play
                      4. Press Cross to end turn
                      5. Computer A.I. rolls dice
                      6. Computer A.I. moves accordingly
 Result          Success
                    Test Case 12: Computer A.I. buys Property

 Title: Computer A.I. buys Property
 Purpose         To test the Computer A.I. buys Property
 Test steps           1. Open game
                      2. Press Start to bring out game menu
                      3. Player play
                      4. Press Cross to end turn
                      5. Computer A.I. rolls dice
                      6. Computer A.I. moves accordingly. If the seed stops at a vacant
                          Land Tile, and Computer A.I. must have more than 500000 monies
 Result          Success
                 Test Case 13: Computer A.I. upgrades Property

 Title: Computer A.I. upgrades Property
 Purpose         To test the Computer A.I. upgrades Property
 Test steps           1. Open game
                      2. Press Start to bring out game menu
                      3. Player play
                      4. Press Cross to end turn
                      5. Computer A.I. rolls dice
                      6. Computer A.I. moves accordingly. If the seed stops at his owned
                          property and he has more than 500000 monies
 Result          Success




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           E. Work Breakdown Structure

ID Task Name                                                        Duration Start              Finish
1    1 Brainstorming of game concepts                               5 days     Tues 10/2/09     Sun 15/2/09
2          1.1 Sketches of game flow                                2 days     Tues 10/2/09     Thurs 12/2/09
3          1.2 Mindmapping on game elements                         3 days     Thurs 12/2/09 Sun 15/2/09
4    2 Finalising on game idea                                      2 days     Sun 15/2/09      Mon 16/2/09
5    3 Literature Research and Review                               30 days    Fri 20/2/09      Sat 21/3/09
6          3.1 Market Survey                                        10 days    Fri 20/2/09      Sun 1/3/09
7          3.2 Existing game research                               10 days    Sun 1/3/09       Wed 11/3/09
8          3.3 Existing opensource solutions research               10 days    Wed 11/3/09      Sat 21/3/09
9    4 Project Plan                                                 7 days     Sat 22/3/09      Sat 28/3/09
10         4.1 Writing initial proposal plan                        2 days     Sun 22/3/09      Mon 23/3/09
11         4.2 Writing Game Design Document                         5 days     Mon 23/3/09      Sat 28/3/09
12 5 Skills upgrading                                               90 days    Wed 1/4/09       Wed 1/7/09
13         5.1 Reading on documentations of the opensource solutions 90 days   Wed 1/4/09       Wed 1/7/09
14         5.2 Testing on development of simple actions             90 days    Wed 1/4/09       Wed 1/7/09
15 6 Prototype Development                                          60 days    Sat 20/6/09      Thurs 20/8/09
16         6.1 Game Graphics Development                            20 days    Sat 20/6/09      Fri 10/7/09
17         6.2 Game Engine Development                              25 days    Sun 5/7/09       Thurs 30/7/09
18         6.3 Integration of graphics with the engine              5 days     Fri 31/7/09      Tues 4/8/09
19         6.4 Alpha Testing                                        2 days     Wed 5/8/09       Fri 7/8/09
20        6.5 Beta Testing, after first round of changes            5 days     Sat 8/8/09       Thurs 13/8/09
21        6.6 Opening Animation Creation                            7 days     Fri 14/8/09      Thurs 20/8/09
22 7 User Acceptance Test                                           7 days     Tues 1/9/09      Tues 8/9/09
23         7.1 Conducting and consolidating the reviews             2 days     Tues 1/9/09      Wed 2/9/09
24         7.2 Changes made to the prototype, for final draft       5 days     Wed 2/9/09       Tues 8/9/09
25 8 Presentation                                                   14 days    Mon 14/9/09      Mon 28/9/09
26         8.1 Website Creation                                     14 days    Mon 14/9/09      Mon 28/9/09
27         8.2 Poster Creation                                      1 day      Sun 27/9/09      Sun 27/9/09
28 9 Documentation (Final Report)                                   21 days    Thurs 1/10/09 Wed 21/10/09




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F. Gantt Chart




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