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									                                     THE BROOKINGS INSTITUTION
                                  CLIFFORD G. GADDY AND BARRY W. ICKES

                              [Draft. Do not cite without permission. May 18, 2000]

                   Russia’s Impossible Trinity

                  “Originally, I had hoped that economic growth and the development of
                  democratic institutions would halt this process [of national collapse]. But
                  life and practice showed that this did not happen.”

                                                       — Vladimir Putin, S pervogo litsa


         During the Soviet period Western observers sought to infer the future direction of
policy from signals such as the arrangement of politburo members atop Lenin’s tomb during
parades in Red Square. In modern Russia our information and access is unimaginably
greater. Yet, speculation about future policies still seems to focus on the identities and
personalities of the top leaders. Psycho-sociological assessments of Russia’s new president,
Vladimir Putin, are valuable. But to predict where Russia is heading, we need more than a
picture of Putin’s preferences. We have to understand the nature of Russia’s economic
problems, and hence the constraints that Mr. Putin faces.
        Since Russia’s financial meltdown in August 1998, analysts have been split in their
diagnosis. At that time, we argued that the Russian economy had mutated into a new type of
system: a virtual economy, we termed it.1 The essence of the virtual economy was an
adaptation of behavior to facilitate the transfer of value from productive sectors of the
economy to value destroyers. This allows the latter to survive, but it also created the fiscal
trap in which Russia still finds itself. The model of the virtual economy has proven useful for
understanding the Russian crisis. It is also critical to understanding how Russia can escape.
         Granting the virtual economy hypothesis, an optimist might nonetheless argue that
this is merely a pause on the road to the market. All that is needed is time to resume
progress. Our own, less optimistic view is that the crisis is more fundamental. The virtual
economy is not mere stagnation in the course of development to the market but rather an
evolutionary path away from the market. This means that that as time passes Russia is not
going to eventually just “grow out” of this phase of its development. Time is the enemy,
something that has been shown throughout the decade of the 1990s. Consequently, any

   1“Russia's   Virtual Economy,'” Foreign Affairs, September-October 1998, pp. 53-67.
Russia’s Impossible Trinity                            May 18, 2000                       page 2

attempt to seriously reform the economy today will, of necessity, have to be even more
radical than would have been the case several years ago.
         Still, if the will is there, might not a new Russian leader be able to implement reforms
of sufficient scope? We think not, because the issue is not will. The current impediment to
serious reform today stems from the interaction of the virtual economy with Russia’s overall
stability. Under Russia's present political and security circumstances, no Russian leader can
attempt to reform that economy to make it a normal market economy. The reason is that
progress in economic reform, paradoxically, works against an over-riding concern, that of
national security.
        Security concerns may seem an afterthought, or a topic only deemed necessary for
discussion because of the identity of Russia’s new president. We will argue, however, that
security concerns actually played a key role in the genesis of the virtual economy. They have
been part of the dynamic of its evolution. The virtual economy represents an adaptation of
behavior to what would otherwise be an unsustainable environment. The critical, but under-
appreciated, element shaping that environment was Russia’s national security situation. The
relationship between security and post-Soviet Russia’s reform agenda created what we call
Russia's “Impossible Trinity.”

The Impossible Trinity
An imperative for any state is national survival. The definition of national survival and the
cost of ensuring it depend both on the country’s external environment and on the dominant
vision of the nation shared by the leadership. What is critical, however, is to recognize that it
is impermissible to allow other policies, no matter how desirable in themselves, to seriously
threaten the very existence of the nation. National survival, guaranteed first and foremost by
national defense, is thus a policy imperative for Russia.
        Post-Soviet Russia’s goal of shedding its totalitarian past added two additional policy
imperatives: development of democracy and a modern market economy. As a result, Russia
faced a “trinity” of imperatives:
        •    national survival;
        •    democracy; and
        •    market economy.

        Under the specific circumstances that Russia was in when it entered its transition, the
three elements of this trinity were fundamentally irreconcilable. This was an impossible trinity.
Russia entered the transition with security needs inherited from the Soviet era. These were
exacerbated by the breakup of the Soviet Union and Russia’s new borders. But Russia had a
much-reduced capacity to meet those security needs. Its economy was only about 60 percent
of the size of the Soviet Union’s. Not only did Russia lose the Soviet alliance structure, but
some 30 percent of the Soviet defense-industrial base was now located in foreign countries
(the other former republics of the USSR). Hardly a single production chain remained intact.
       At the same time, Russia’s commitment to a democratic political order and a market
economy further constrained its ability to meet even a narrow definition of the security
imperative—one of national defense. In a true market economy, defense spending is
Russia’s Impossible Trinity                          May 18, 2000                       page 3

transparent, and the defense burden must be covered by (cash) taxes on the non-defense
economy. Citizens know what is required, and they can see what sort of sacrifices would be
required. Democracy/freedom means that the population as a whole cannot be compelled to
pay taxes in excess of what it freely chooses. Under Russia’s circumstances, the actual
defense burden exceeded what a free people can bear. The tax burden would require
        The collapse of the Soviet Union was, to a great extent, the result of an economy
incapable of satisfying only one element of the trinity: national security. The new Russia,
aspiring to have both democracy and a true market economy could not possibly fulfill all
three elements in the trinity. One of the imperatives—security, democracy, or market
economy—had to be abandoned.

The Initial Pretense…
Initially, the one that was sacrificed was security. As post-communist Russia focused its
attention on the two related goals of establishing a Western-style liberal democracy and a
Western-style free market economy, it essentially ignored the security imperative. In the new
Russia there was a broad view that with the end of the Cold War there was no need for such
a heavy emphasis on security as had been the case in the Soviet era. U.S. policy strongly
supported this reprioritization of Russia’s imperatives. The argument was that if Russia were
to reform its economy and develop democracy, then the nation’s security problems would
automatically solve themselves, since they would “become like us.” These are exactly the
ideas to which even Vladimir Putin initially subscribed, as he says in the quote that begins
this article: get the economy and democracy development right, and there will not be a
security problem.

… and the Reality
In fact, the downplaying of the security concerns was illusory. No other transition country
has had anywhere near the security burden that Russia has. China and Poland are two cases
in point. China does not have the insecure borders problem that Russia does, nor does it
face any serious threat of internal disintegration along ethnic lines. Post-Communist Poland
has had its security needs lessened due to the dismantling of the Warsaw Pact and its
inclusion in NATO.
         Much of the West’s behavior has only reinforced Russia’s burden. Western economic
assistance was not, and perhaps never could have been, sufficient to provide the buffer
Russia needed to carry out reform. On the security side, the West ended up contributing to
the problem by creating a hostile environment, which provided no breathing room. Russia’s
treatment by the West should be contrasted with that of the defeated powers after World
War II. Germany and Japan were offered a free ride on security in exchange for their
adopting democracy. Russia got no such deal. It had to bear the burden of national security
while it simultaneously pursued the goal of building a democracy and a free market
       An imperative can be ignored only so long as the pretense is viable. In the case of
Russian security this pretense wore thin rather quickly. NATO expansion and the first
Russia’s Impossible Trinity                            May 18, 2000                        page 4

Chechen war were the critical events that highlighted the discrepancy between Russia’s
security needs and its economic capacity. Rightly or wrongly, Russian perceived U.S. policy
as proof that it still was in an adversarial relationship with the West (something that was
apparent long before the NATO campaign in Kosovo). It became evident that security no
longer could be ignored. Directing more resources to defense was of course one priority. But
defense is only one of the centrally provided public goods that are necessary for a nation’s
survival. In Russia, concern for national security in a broad sense centered primarily on the
weakness of the state and threats to territorial integrity. But the important point is that once
the security imperative was acknowledged, one of the other two elements of the trinity—
democracy or market economy—had to be sacrificed.
        To their credit, Russia’s leaders in the 1990s, specifically Boris Yeltsin, refused to
abandon freedom. But the logic of the impossible trinity meant that Russia then could not
have a transparent market economy. It had to conceal the defense burden by measures of
nontransparency in the economy—offsets, barter, and the like—the kind of nontransparent
mechanisms characteristic of the virtual economy.
         This version of events has a couple of provocative implications. First, to the extent
that Russia was able to make serious moves towards the market in the first years of
transition, it was in part because pretense was concentrated on the security imperative.
Second, as it became increasingly difficult to ignore the security imperative, Russia could not
fully commit to its original liberal economic and political goals. It had to shift the pretense to
either democracy or the market economy. The fact that it chose the latter meant that the
price of preserving real freedom was the end of serious efforts to create a true market
         The virtual economy can thus be thought of as the result of trying to cope with three
inconsistent imperatives. As a compromise it managed to prevent further deterioration of
the security situation. This was achieved, however, at the cost of undermining the long-run
potential of the economy. The virtual economy is a system that prevents changes from
occurring that are necessary for economic performance to improve. It therefore ensures
stability but only in tenuous form. The country avoids collapse, but only while digging itself
deeper and deeper in a dead-end system. Throughout the 1990s the degeneration of the
virtual economy was causing the sorts of problems we have described elsewhere.2 But the
problems were largely hidden as institutions adapted to solve them on an individual basis.
           Then again, the long-term effects were not what caused concern. The real threat was
the acute effects of the virtual economy that resulted from the unorganized allocation of
value. The “bottom up” nature of the virtual economy was inadequate for serious revival of
specific sectors. Vital national interests could not be prioritized. The weakness of the public
sector, the state, was key. Not only was it underfunded at all levels, but the weakness of the
central government was exacerbated by the virtual economy’s natural tendency towards
more localism. The constituent units of the public sector began acting without control, for
reasons of pure survival. The danger in Russia of “regional autonomy” is not primarily
political fragmentation of the country. The more immediate threat is the one to national
security/national survival as a result of the economic consequences of the virtual economy:

        for example, Clifford G. Gaddy and Barry W. Ickes, Russia’s Virtual Economy, Brookings,

Russia’s Impossible Trinity                           May 18, 2000                        page 5

value is kept locally. Under such circumstances, it is impossible to have effective policies for
a national state, specifically for national security. In short, when the public sector—including
parts of the armed forces—deteriorates to the level of being the bureaucratic analogue of a
self-subsistence farm, the nation is clearly in trouble.

Mr. Putin’s Dilemmas
The first dilemma that faces any Russian leader in the current situation is how to satisfy the
security imperative and maintain democracy when the resulting virtual economy results in
erosion of the economic base. To improve long-run economic performance requires rolling
back the virtual economy. But how can this be done in the context of policies designed to
strengthen the state and enhance national security?
         The severity of this dilemma is enhanced by the status quo bias that is familiar from
economic analysis. While not optimal, the virtual economy does represent equilibrium
behavior on the participants in this system. That is, given that others are playing by the
virtual economy rules, it is not to the advantage of any individual participant to deviate from
them. Quite the contrary, the longer the virtual economy goes on, the more committed
people are to it. Not because the economy gets better, or even more tolerable. Rather, as the
economy deteriorates people and institutions become even more dependent on these
behaviors. Therefore, the added dilemma is that while Russia cannot afford to continue with
the virtual economy, it cannot dismantle it in favor of a market economy because the system
imposes an additional, critical constraint—namely, that the nation cannot extricate itself
from this situation by democratic means.
        The status quo bias is rooted in two characteristic features of the virtual economy.
The first is the “loot chain.” In the virtual economy, people’s incomes depend on a complex
and nontransparent process of redistribution of value that not even participants themselves
comprehend. Given their uncertainty over how they would fare in a transparent system, they
prefer to stick to the current state. Even if they believe that the aggregate economy would
improve from the move to the market, individual-specific uncertainty may cause people to
oppose any change. And because the virtual economy guarantees that such uncertainty will
be widespread, the status quo bias may be quite powerful.
        The second cause of the status quo bias is the process of “personalization” of social
safety nets in Russia. As value runs out in the degenerative virtual economy, the active part
of the economy shrinks. This shrinkage has negative effects on the manufacturing sector
(especially the waste of human capital), the household sector, and the government (public)
sector. As the public sector fails to perform its role as safety net and protector, the
population has to rely more and more on its personalized, household safety nets. They have
no other buffer. In effect, they self-insure. But this further exacerbates the bias against
reform because any serious effort to dismantle the virtual economy would threaten precisely
these informal networks that enable households to cope, albeit quite imperfectly, with a
shrinking public sector.
        Consider the bargain that households in Russia would face if they chose to eliminate
the virtual economy. A more transparent, market economy regime would increase aggregate
resources. In principle, then, publicly provided safety nets could replace personalized ones.
Because the former are more efficient than the latter, households would be better off if such
Russia’s Impossible Trinity                            May 18, 2000                       page 6

systems could be established. But this possibility is not sufficient to induce households to
support reform. Households would also have to believe that public systems would actually
be created, and would function effectively, to replace the personalized ones. In other words,
they would have to expect that the extra resources would not be diverted to other ends. In
the context of the Russian transition such an expectation would be very hard to generate.
         The status quo bias is thus reinforced by cynicism concerning government policies
that has developed during the transition, not to mention the Soviet period. This cynicism
implies that households will question policies that improve aggregate performance and
promise government support for those who lose in the bargain. Personalized safety nets may
be highly inefficient, but they have the advantage that the particular individuals are in
charge—there is no reliance on Moscow to deliver promised outcomes. The history of
Russian governments that have failed to pay pensions and wages on time makes it very
difficult for households to believe that they will be adequately insured if they choose to give
up their personalized safety nets.
        The status quo bias has made the desire for stability a new societal imperative in
Russia, a point no one has stressed more than Mr. Putin himself. In an open letter to the
Russian people from December 1999 he stated that Russians long for “stability, certainty,
and the possibility of planning for the future—their own and that of their children—not one
month at a time, but for years and decades.” He linked stability explicitly to the absence of
radical policy changes. “Russia,” he wrote, “has reached its limit as far as political and socio-
economic upheavals, cataclysms, and radical transformations are concerned.”
        If this desire for stability rules out market reform, what options are then left for
Russia? One approach would be to reject the goals of democracy and a market economy
altogether and return to the Soviet system of political repression and economic compulsion.
It does not appear that Mr. Putin or most Russians want to choose this path. Moreover, the
desire for stability itself would tend to rule out a return to a Soviet-type command
economy—at least, it rules out a sudden return. (Below, we argue that a gradual return is
         The alternative way out of the dilemma is to adjust Russia’s current political and
economic systems to make them more compatible with the security imperative. Rather than
sacrifice the goals of democracy and the market economy, this compromise, or “third way,”
approach would involve redefining these imperatives in a way that relieves much of the
burden. This seems in fact to be Mr. Putin’s solution. One can think of this as a new
experiment: a different, Russian-style democracy and a Russian-style market. He is in effect
proposing to replace the Impossible Trinity, in which democracy and a market economy
were defined in Western terms, with a new trinity of imperatives: (1) paramount emphasis on
national security; (2) a virtual economy reformed so as to suit the priority of the security
imperative; and (3) a political order based on stability, minimal personal liberties, and a blend
of patriotism and state-led collectivism he calls the “Russian Idea.” The new trinity is a true
Russian Trinity, and Mr. Putin is betting that it will be a possible one.

A Reformed Virtual Economy
What might Mr. Putin’s modified, reformed virtual economy look like? To make the virtual
economy compatible with the security imperative would mean addressing two particular
Russia’s Impossible Trinity                           May 18, 2000                       page 7

weaknesses of the degenerative virtual economy: excessive looting (or what we call “bad
leakage”) and an anarchic distribution of value. As for the first necessary step—cutting back
on the looting—it is straightforward to argue that reducing leakage will leave more resources
for preferred uses. The critical point is to reduce only the bad leakage. Recall that some
leakage is needed to induce value producers to contribute. If a crackdown on leakage hits the
wrong type of leakage, it could be counterproductive.
        A Russian government that acted to reduce the leakage would not only retain more
value for priority ends. It would also change the perception of the state in the eyes of society
and thereby help reduce the extreme self-protection of households and institutions that has,
among other things, made the public sector so fragmented and ineffectual. The virtual
economy emerged in part because increasingly throughout the 1990s, institutions,
enterprises, regions, and individuals realized they had to protect themselves from predators,
not only because the state failed to, but worse: because the state was itself authorizing the
predation and sanctioning the looters. Realizing that the biggest threat to their survival was
the state and its looting, enterprises and households reacted first of all by not paying taxes.
This created a vicious circle, when government institutions and employees had to steal in
order to survive. Regional governments used barter and offsets to try and keep some locally
generated wealth at home.
         Second, in a reformed virtual economy the government would have to assume some
control over the distribution of value in order to provide less scope for bottom-up,
spontaneous prioritization and shrinkage. An advocate of this approach might argue that
things have been too anarchic in this regard. Coordination is needed. Who is in and who is
out of the virtual economy regime needs to be determined from the top, on the basis of
national priorities, rather than through some raw struggle on the principle of survival of the
fittest (or best endowed). This will involve triage of the virtual economy. In a planned and
coordinated fashion, some parts of the economy will be “shrunk,” with priority placed on
other parts. Some sectors and perhaps some regions will be cut off from the value pumps in
order that this much more value can be concentrated on the priority defense industries, and
so on.
         Such a division of the economy into priority and nonpriority sectors of the economy
would superficially resemble the Soviet system. But there are important differences. In the
Soviet system, the priority sector exploited the nonpriority sector. Compulsion was
necessary. Here there would be, at least initially, less compulsion. The parts of the
nonpriority economy outside the virtual economy would not be directly exploited but rather
left to subsist on their own. They would be for all intents and purposes not only outside of
the rest of the economy (engaging in minimal or no exchange) but also outside of the state’s
responsibility. They would receive nothing from the state, but also contribute nothing to it.
There would therefore be no forced requisitioning or forced labor. Inside the virtual
economy, things would continue in principle as before, albeit with new, more explicit
priorities (and undoubtedly also with new mechanisms for value distribution yet to be
invented). This is a program for a reformed, more efficient, and streamlined virtual
economy. It would not be a command economy, because it would not be administered from
the top down, or from the center out. The watchword would be “coordination.”
Russia’s Impossible Trinity                          May 18, 2000                      page 8

Can It Succeed?
Assuming such a program for a reformed virtual economy could ensure stability—precisely
because it preserves the virtual economy—could it also succeed in its goal of more resources
for security? In other words, could it produce “growth with stability”?
         Recent developments in the Russian economy might suggest that the chances of
success are good. The post-August 1998 “recovery” is being taken as a model for combining
growth and stability. In a period when no policy reforms at all were adopted, the economy
appeared to be performing better than it had in years. GDP, industrial output, and
employment all recorded higher growth in 1999 than in any year since Russia began its
transition. The country then entered the new year with a new president and the promise of
political peace, factors that are bound to have a positive effect on the confidence of both
foreign and domestic businesspeople. If indicators such as industrial output growth are the
relevant performance measures, the new policy of increased defense orders will also provide
a major boost. Russian defense industry is reported to have increased its output by no less
than 30 percent in 1999 as compared to 1998.
         The question is, how long can a “Putin miracle”—social stability plus growth—last?
The evidence suggests, not long. The positive results of 1999 were a windfall, due almost
exclusively to the huge amount of extra value injected into the Russian economy by the
devaluation of the ruble in August 1998. The increase in the ruble value of Russia’s dollar-
denominated exports in 1999 compared to 1998 was nearly one trillion rubles. This increase
was due overwhelmingly to the increased value of the dollar relative to the ruble (oil price
rises accounted for less than 10 percent of the total). While we can be certain that a large
amount of the extra export earnings remained abroad in the form of flight capital, the overall
ruble total of increased export earnings is huge. It is the equivalent of more than 21 percent
of the nation’s 1999 GDP and equal to around 80 percent of the revenues of all budgets—
federal, regional, and local—in the country in that year. Most all of that value accrued to a
relative handful of resource companies (oil, gas, metals, and forest products). Meanwhile, the
devaluation continues to have devastating effects on the welfare of the population. Real
incomes in the first quarter of 2000 remained 28.5 percent below what they had been in the
first quarter of 1997. The real value of pensions was barely half of what it had been three
years before. All of this has pushed households into ever greater dependence on their
personalized safety nets.
        This suggests that the need for reduced looting and more directed channeling of the
remaining value (triage of the non-priority elements) is urgent. There is evidence that even
this year’s industrial growth is already straining domestic energy supplies. Speaking to
representatives of Russia’s fuel and energy sectors on March 3, 2000, Mr. Putin warned: “In
some sectors of production large enterprises are even laying off workers. In the first phase
they recruited workers and increased sales, but then in connection with the fact that they
lacked electrical power or heat, they had to cut back on production and lay off workers.”
There are similar anecdotal reports even of labor constraints. The period within which one
can get growth—even illusory growth—without change may therefore be very short indeed.
Russia’s Impossible Trinity                             May 18, 2000                         page 9

Stability Versus Change
The long-term problem of the Russian economy remains the legacy of fundamentally value-
subtracting enterprises. Even by official Soviet standards, a huge proportion of equipment in
Russian industry was physically obsolete when reform began in 1992. The Russian economy
needed massive modernization. It has not had it. As a result, a physical plant that was
generally old and noncompetitive to begin with is now eight years older and even less
competitive. Less drastic, but still important, has been the loss of human capital. The people
who worked in those non-competitive industries who felt that they had a chance in the new
market economy left and tried their chances there. The people who have remained behind
tend to be the least productive.
         In the short run a reformed virtual economy will achieve growth from lack of change,
absence of radical transformation. But this is self-limiting. The inherent contradiction is that
part of the growth will be virtual (in other words, it represents more value destruction). Even
an increase in market (value-adding) production will not necessarily crowd out value-
subtracting activity, but actually allow more of it to take place. To get sustained growth, the
value destruction will have to cease. But consider the implications of that. It would mean
shutting down old industries, opening new ones, and moving people massively from their
factories, their cities, and their regions. This is not the stability and predictability that is the
societal imperative in Russia today; it is revolutionary change.
         Reconciling rapid growth with stability is thus a circle that cannot be squared. It is
not enough to gear up the old Russian economy. The country must modernize and radically
reallocate resources. But then the stability-enhancing mechanisms of the virtual economy
themselves become the obstacle, and a new dilemma emerges. This dilemma can be seen in
the problem of labor mobility and the household economy in Russia and the manner in
which attitudes towards these phenomena differ in a reformed virtual economy solution and
a totalitarian, command-administrative solution.
         For the Soviet system, household garden plots and petty street vending were
anathema. It learned to live with both but remained in constant tension with them. Although
the population’s personal safety nets helped bail out the communist system economically,
they threatened it ideologically. They gave citizens a sense of independence that was
dangerous to the regime. In the virtual economy, on the other hand (including a reformed
virtual economy), these coping mechanisms are even more essential than they were in the
Soviet era. And of course, they represent no ideological threat at all. They are essential
because they help reduce the ultimate cash constraint in the system: the better that
households are able to provide for themselves, the less critical is the cash wage from the
enterprise or from the government. The coping mechanisms will be absolutely crucial for a
“reformed,” shrunken virtual economy. They ensure the survival of the parts that are triaged
and have to undergo shrinkage.
         In line with the imperative of social stability, there will be no forcible relocation of
people in a reformed virtual economy. In the virtual economy, a major reason that people do
not move is because of their attachment to their plots and their housing. Again, this is a
result of personalized safety nets. People cannot afford to move from family, plot, or
apartment. There is no larger entity that can provide for them. But if the experiment with a
reformed virtual economy should fail and Russia’s leaders have to move towards a
totalitarian command economy solution, this will require compulsory labor mobilization and
Russia’s Impossible Trinity                           May 18, 2000                      page 10

labor mobility. Especially if there is pressure to resurrect conventional arms production and
a conventional army, it will go to a full-scale command-administrative economy. It cannot
afford to leave any potential resource out and that means compulsion.

A Better Way Out?
Russia’s fundamental dilemma is the discrepancy between its security needs and its economic
capacity. If that discrepancy is not eliminated but merely covered up, Russia is likely to
proceed through a series of steps to a much less benign outcome than is now the case. Its
true economic capacity will continue to decline. The effort to sustain the defense apparatus
(to fulfill the first imperative) will demand an ever-larger share of true national wealth. With
security imperatives pressing on a steadily decreasing economic capacity, the options
available to Russian leaders are not very pleasant. Given that the security imperative must be
met, resort to heavier dependence on nuclear weapons will reduce the cost of meeting this
goal. This means that reliance on a more dangerous means of meeting the imperative. The
problem is that cheaper forms of maintaining national security are more dangerous.
         Two things are required to avert that scenario. (1) Russia’s security needs have to be
lowered; and (2) its economic wealth must be increased. But the message of this discussion is
that the steps must come in this order. Russians will never be able to abandon the pretense
of the virtual economy in favor of a true, transparent market economy until they can be
certain that their national survival is not at risk.
       This is the reality. The West has two choices. We can let Russia try to solve its
impossible burden by itself. This is to abandon realistic prospects for a modern market
economy or liberal democracy in Russia. It means no hope for a dialogue on Chechnya.
Worse, it means the risk that Russia will abandon even the “third way” and take a full turn
towards a totalitarian system—repression and coercion and command methods in the
economy. The West’s other choice is to take substantial steps to help ease the security
pressure on Russia. This would make it possible for forces inside and outside Russia to talk
and work seriously about democracy and human rights and about real market reform.

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