ELA GHSGT Review – Mrs

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					Mrs. Rawlings English GHSGT Review Packet

Literary Terms (A to Z)
                                           WHAT DOES IT LOOK LIKE? OR

               The                          consonant
      Alliteration repetition of beginning The falling flakes fluttered to the groun
               sounds                      The swift, silent snake slithered along.
               to create rhythm and aid memory

      Allusion A brief reference to a historical or allusions are frequently used in
               literary                   English
                                          literature; a writer may refer to Adam,
               person, place, object, or event
                                          Eve, Serpent,
                                          or The Garden to tap into associations th
                                          exist for the reader

                                          The antagonist is not always a person; it
     AntagonistA person or thing that opposes the
                                          may    a
               protagonist or her/heroine of a bstory
                                          force of nature or a corrupt institution.
                                          Vader is a good example of an antagonist.

    Assonance                              Andy acting antsy
                The repetition of vowel sounds found
                                           “They adverse party is thy advocate”
                anywhere in a word in a line of poetry

               a                          This is an
    Autobiographywriter’s story about his or her own example of a primary source.

    Ballad                                   story
                Songlike poem focusing on a “The Ballad of Jesse James”

   Biography                                 of is an
                a writer’s story or account Thisanother example of a secondary source.
                person’s life

                                          Most of the
   Blank Verse Unrhymed, but otherwise regular verse, text in Shakespeare’s plays i
               usually iambic pentameter written in
                                          blank verse, although he often liked to
                                          rhyme the
                                          last couplet of a scene so the audience
                                          would know
                                          it was ending.

               The                        Six elements
  Characterization process by which a writer develops used to create a character
               a                          are:
               character                  physical description, speech,
                                          actions/reactions, what other characters
                                          say about
                                          them and possible direct comments from

  Climax                                  At The
               The turning point in a story. the climax of the play the true villai
               rising action              was revealed
                                          to the audience; no one suspected her at
               reverses and becomes the turning point
               or                         all.
               denouement (resolution).

  Coherence                               When writing an essay, ideas should flow
               The parts of a composition should be
               arranged in a logical and orderly
               manner so                  from one to another. During the revision
               that the meaning and ideas are clear
               and                        check to make sure your message is as cle
               intelligible               and
                                          precise as possible.

  Conceit                                    love hate relationship results in a man
               Usually in love poems, when Aopposite
               words                       describing his
               describe conflicting emotionlove for a woman as bright smoke, cold fi
                                           and so on.

                                          WHAT DOES IT LOOK LIKE? OR

               The problem or struggle that the are 2 types of conflict:
 Conflict      characters                  Internal Conflict takes place within a
               have to solve or come to grips with by
               the                             character (man vs. himself)
               end of the story            External Conflict is caused by forces
                                          outside of a
                                             character (man vs. man; man vs. society
                                          man vs.fate)

 Connotation                              A less
               Figurative, less specific and red apple in a poem could have differen
               direct                     meanings;
               meaning of a word          the color red could symbolize passion,
                                          fertility, anger. –
                                          Anything one could associate the color re

  Consonance                                sounds
               The repetition of consonant The “t” sound in “Is it blunt and flat?”
               found at
               the ends of words, often used in poetry

  Couplet                                 “Tiger!
               In poetry (verse), two consecutive Tiger! Burning bright
               lines that                 In the forests of the night,”   (Blake)

  Denotation   The literal or basic       The denotation of the word “died” is “to
               meaning of a word (the     cease living.
               dictionary definition)

 Denouement                               In play or
               The resolution or outcome of a the denouement of the play, the loose
               story                      ends of the
                                          plot get tied up or answered.

 Dialogue      The conversation between    To indicate dialogue in a
               two or more characters in   novel, characters’ exact
               a work of literature        words are enclosed in quotation
                                           marks, but in a play,
                                           where all the lines are made up
                                           of dialogue, the playwright
                                           does not need to use quotation

  Drama        A story told by actors      If the actors in a drama give a
               who play the characters     great performance,
               and reveal the conflict     they seem to become the
               through their actions and   characters they are taking
               dialogue                    on and we get emotionally hooked.

  End Rhyme                                 of did
               In poems, words at the ends “Youlines not walk with me
               rhyme                       Of late to the hilltop tree.”     (Hardy)

  Epic                                    The Illiad
               A long narrative poem; tells a story and The Odyssey are great epic

  Exposition   The introductory section    Exposition helps the reader to
               of a play or novel that     get a sense of the
               provides background         who, when, and what a story or play is
               information on setting,     about.
               characters, and plot

  Falling Action last section of a         During the falling action in a
              play or story that works     tragedy, the hero’s fortunes
              out the decision arrived     will take a turn for the worse
              at during the climax         and often end in disaster or

              Consists of two end
  Feminine Rhyme                           lazy/hazy
              rhymes of more than one
              syllable each.

                                           WHAT DOES IT LOOK LIKE? OR

  Fiction                                 Most
               A narrative writing, which means often used to describe novels and sh
               telling a                  stories.
               story. Writers draw on imagination
             than recount actual events.

             Expressive language that
Figurative Language                        Writers use figurative language
             is written to create a        to add depth and
             special effect or feeling     interest to their pieces.
                                           Similes, metaphors, and
                                           imagery are examples of figurative langua

Flashback    Insertion of a scene or       A novelist may include a
             event that took place in      flashback to reveal a childhood
             the past for the purpose      incident in the life of an
             of making something in        adult character.
             the present more clear

Foil                                    In the
             A character who is the opposite of tragedy Hamlet, the
             another                    characters of Laertes
                                        and Fortinbras serve as foils
             character, often the main character
                                        for the main character
                                        Hamlet; they offer a contrast
                                        since they are able to
                                        take swift action, which Hamlet cannot do

            The suggestion or hint of
Foreshadowing                              Gray clouds at the beginning of
            events to come later in a      a story may foreshadow turmoil
            literary work                  or conflict that occurs later.

Free Verse   Verse written without         For centuries, many poets used
             rhyme, meter, or regular      regular patterns of
             rhythm                        rhyme, meter, and rhythm in
                                           their poetry, but in the
                                           18th century they began to free
                                           themselves from
                                           these strict conventions.

Genre        A French word that means      The most common literary genres
             type or form of               are: essay, drama,
             literature                    poetry, novel, screen play, short story,

Hyperbole    A type of figurative          I’m so tired; I could sleep for years.
             language that makes an
             exaggeration to create an

            A line
Iambic Pentameter of poetry that           “And we / are put /on earth / a
            contains five iambic           litt / le space,
            feet; an iamb is a foot        That we / may learn / to bear /
            consisting of an               the beams / of love.”
            unaccented syllable            (William Blake)
            followed by an accented
  Imagery     The use of descriptive      The tree roots clutched the
              words or phrases to         ground like gnarled
              create vivid mental         fingers.
              pictures in the minds of
              the reader, often           The frightened screech of an
              appealing to sight,         unseen animal tore
              sound, taste, or smell      through the night.

              Rhyme is found inside a
  Internal Rhyme                          “Poor Jesse had a wife to morn his life”
              single line of poetry

  Irony: Dramatic the reader/audience     Horror films use dramatic irony
              knows something that the    to create suspense;
              characters in the           the audience knows that the ax
              literary work do not        murderer is in the
              know, which creates         closet, but the unsuspecting
              tension                     victim is totally unaware
                                          …until it is too late!

                                          WHAT DOES IT LOOK LIKE? OR

              A situation or event that
  Irony: Situational                      It would be ironic if a
              is the opposite of what     lifeguard had to be saved from
              is or might be expected     drowning.

  Irony: Verbal difference in what is     When a late-comer is told
              stated and what is meant    sarcastically, “Thanks for
                                          joining us.”

  Lyric       A short poem that           Types of lyrics include the
              expresses the personal      elegy, epitaph, ode and
              feelings and thoughts of    sonnet.
              a single speaker

              Consists of two end
  Masculine Rhyme                         lone/bone
              rhymes of only one
              syllable each

  Metaphor    A comparison of two         The girls were tigers on the
              unlike things without       playing field, devouring
              using “like” or “as”        the competition.
  Direct Metaphor
              When the writer directly    Life is a long road with many twists and
              states both of the things   turns.
  Indirect Metaphor compared

              When the writer states      You have come to a fork in the
              one of the things and the   road and cannot go
               reader must infer the       back.

  Metonymy     The substitution of an      Instead of referring to a
               object closely associated   monarch, often you might
               with a word for the word    hear a reference to “the crown.”

  Mood         The feeling a piece of      The mood of the murder mystery
               literature arouses in the   was suspenseful
               reader                      and scary.

  Myth         A traditional story that    The Greek myth of Demeter and
               presents super-natural      Persephone was created to
               beings and situations       explain how the seasons came
               that attempt to explain     about.
               and/or interpret natural

  Narrator     The person who is telling   See point of view for the different choic
               the story                   of narration

  Nonfiction   Subject matter is           Primary Sources -– diaries, journals,
               factual.                    letters, personal
                                           essays, autobiographies

                                           Secondary Sources - newspaper, magazine,
                                           encyclopedia, biographies

  Novel        Covering a wide range of    Because of the length of a
               prose materials which       novel, the reader has the
               have two common             opportunity to see a character
               characteristics: they are   grow and develop as
               fictional and lengthy       a result of events or actions.

  OnomatopoeiaA type of figurative         bang, buzz, crackle, sizzle, hiss, murmur
              language in which words      and roar
              sound like the things
              they name

Oxymoron                                  Jumbo shrimp, dear enemy, sweet sorrow,
               A self-contradictory combination of
               words                      bittersweet
               (usually paired)

                                           WHAT DOES IT LOOK LIKE? OR

Parable        A short descriptive story   Many religious works will use
               whose purpose is to         parables to teach the
               illustrate a lesson or      beliefs of that religion.

 Paradox      A statement that at first   “I must be cruel, only to be kind.”
              seems contradictory, but    (Shakespeare)
              in fact, reveals a truth

 Parody       When a writer imitates an   The television show, Saturday
              already existing form for   Night Live, uses parody
              the purpose of humor        to poke fun at famous people and politica

               A type of figurative       The sun smiled down on the
Personificationlanguage that gives        village.
               animate (living)           The leaves danced in the wind.
               characteristics to         The thunder growled in the distance.
               inanimate (nonliving)

 Plot                                    There the
              All of the events that occur from are five basic parts or
              beginning                  elements that make up
              to end of a story          the plot line or plot
                                         structure: exposition, rising
                                         action, climax, falling action
                                         and resolution (denouement).

 Point of View:                           Writers
               From whose angle the story is being think very carefully
               told                       about their choice of
                                          point of view since it has a
                                          tremendous impact on
                     1                    the story.
Person         The narrator tells the story; uses “I”
                                          I strolled into the classroom,
                                          not knowing what to
               Usedndin nonfiction,
                  2                       expect on my first day of class.
Person         primarily for the purpose
               of writing instructions    When you are a new teacher, you
               or directions, using       should try to be as
               “you”                      well prepared and as confident as possibl
Person         When the narrator is
               telling the events from    The young teacher strolled into
               “outside” the story from   his classroom looking
               a neutral or unemotional   confident and competent.
               viewpoint, using “he,”
Omniscient     “she,” etc.
                                          The teacher was giving himself
               The narrator is all        a silent pep talk
               knowing of all characters about making his first day
                                          great. Casey, who always
       Limited Omniscient                 sat by the window, thought he
                                          looked like a pretty
                                          nice guy.
              The narrator tells the
              story knowing only the      The teacher’s head was spinning
              Thoughts of 1 or 2          with what he should
              characters                  say first; Casey, who sat by
                                          the window, glanced up
                                          to take a look at the new teacher.
              The main character in a     The protagonist will never have
Protagonist   work; the action revolves   a hard time finding an
              around this person and      antagonist since their struggle
              the antagonist (opposing    is what creates the
              force)                      conflict and action of a story.

 Repetition   Repeating a word or group   There in the sudden blackness,
              of words for emphasis or    the black pall of nothing,
              effect                      nothing, nothing - nothing at

Resolution    The portion of a play or    Resolution does not always mean
              story where the problem     a happy ending; in
              is solved                   some stories or plays,
                                          especially tragedies, the
                                          resolution of the conflict may
                                          end sadly.

             A question asked only for
 Rhetorical Question                      How much longer will we put up
             effect or to make a          with this injustice?
             statement, but not to get    Isn’t it time that we took action?
             an answer

Rising Action The portion of a play      Because rising action leads to
              after the initial          climax, there is usually
              incident (introduction of building tension throughout the rising
              the conflict) where the    action.
              action is complicated by
              the opposing forces
              ending with the climax;
              in a novel, play, or
              movie, the rising action
              moves the
              story along and the plot usually
              more complicated.

Setting       The time and place of a     The setting often plays an
              story, which usually play   important role in a story,
              an important role in the    influencing characters,
              events that occur.          conflicts, and themes. In the
                                          case of Call of the Wild by
                                          Jack London, for example,
                                          the northern, snow-covered
                                          tundra plays an important role
                                          in the outcome of the story.

Short Story   A relatively brief          Edgar Allen Poe’s short stories
              fictional narrative in      often delight readers
              prose (500- 12,000 words)   with their intrigue and suspense.

Simile                                   Her using
              A comparison between two things eyes gleamed like stars.
              “like” or “as”             The house was as large as a castle.

Slant Rhyme   In poetry, words that almost -hearddon’t buzz when I died –
                                         I but a fly
              quite                      The stillness in the room
                                          sounds the stillness in the air
              rhyme. The final consonant Was likeof
              the                        Between the heaves of storm.
              words rhyme, but the final vowel sounds

Soliloquy     A long speech given by a    One of Shakespeare’s most
              character alone on stage    famous soliloquies
              that reveals his/her        begins with the line, “To be,
              innermost thoughts and      or not to be, that is the
              feelings                    question . .” spoken by the main characte

Sonnett       A 14-line poem ending with aElizabeth Barrett Browning used
              (last                       the line, “How do I
              two lines rhyme)            love thee? Let me count the
                                          ways,” as the opening to
                                          her famous love sonnet for her
                                          husband Robert

Stanza        A group of lines in a poem Kinds of Stanzas: couplet (2 lines); trip
                                         (3 lines);
                                         Quatrain (4 lines); Quintet (5 lines); et

 Stereotype   A generalization about a    For many centuries, women were
              group of people,            stereotyped as delicate and
              objects, or situations.     helpless creatures that needed
                                          a man to
                                          come in and rescue them from

Style         This refers to how the      Style is a combination of a
              author writes (form)        writer’s diction, tone, and
              rather than what he/she     syntax.
              writes (content)
                                          WHAT DOES IT LOOK LIKE? OR

Symbolism     Any object, person,         A rose symbolizes beauty.
              place, or action that       Darkness symbolizes evil or the unknown.
              stands for itself and
              something beyond itself

Synecdoche    A figure of speech in       All hands on deck for duty!
              which a part represents     The law came to his door to
              the whole or when the       issue a warrant for his
              whole represents the part   arrest.

Theme                                      of writing.
              The central idea of a piece Courage can be the topic or
              It is                       subject of a piece of
                                           work is
              the message that the entire writing, but the statement, “It
                                          takes a great deal of
              communicating to the audience/reader
                                          courage to stand up against
                                          one’s peers,” is a theme.

Tone          The attitude of the         Comic, serious, formal,
              author toward his/her       informal, solemn, playful,
              subject and audience        sarcastic, intimate, distant,

Tragedy       Classical tragedy: A        Oedipus Rex and Antigone are
              dramatic work where a       classical tragedies
              noble hero’s tragic flaw    that deal with the fall of
              causes him/her to break a   their respective hero and
              moral aw that leads to      heroine due to a series of
              his/her downfall            seemingly unavoidable
              Modern tragedy: A
              dramatic work where the     The Crucible, Death of a
              hero is often an ordinary   Salesman, and All My Sons
              person who faces            are modern tragedies written by Arthur
              circumstances with          Miller.
              dignity and courage of

Understatement                           To say "It
              Opposite of hyperbole. Stressing the is on warm side in July and
  (Meiosis)                              August on
              importance of an issue by minimizing the
              the                        Gulf Coast" would be an understatement.
              expression of it.          fact, it is
                                         blazingly hot on the Gulf Coast.

              Common human experiences. Must
Universal Theme                           Good vs. evil
              transcend                   War and peace
              time and place; it must address human
                                          Coming of age
              experience that is not unique to a
              particular                  Life and death
              time period or cultural boundary.

                         Conventions & Writing
Students should be able to:
1.) demonstrate understanding of proper English usage, including:
     • idioms                                     • cognates
     • formal language                   • informal language
     • literal meanings of words                     • figurative
     meanings of words
2.) determine the appropriate use of grammar, structure, diction,
or syntax in sentences and paragraphs
3.) determine appropriate development of logic and coherence in a
written piece
4.) evaluate written work for its appropriateness to specific
audiences, specific purposes, or specific contexts
5.) determine the most appropriate research strategy for:
     • developing appropriate research questions
     • accessing primary and secondary research material

                   American Fiction: Time Periods and Themes

  Early American Fiction (1492 -1789):
     • Native American Lit: oral tradition, creation myths, reverence for
     • Explorers: journal entries, nonfiction, an accounting to the
  king/patron financing
       the expedition. Christopher Columbus, Captain John Smith
     • Early Colonial Period:
          Puritan Lit (1600’s): New England, religious in nature,
  emphasis on work
           ethic, sermons, ask God to solve your problems, life is a test
           good and evil. Anne Bradstreet, Jonathan Edwards
          Slave Lit (1700’s): narratives describing slave experiences.
          Phyllis Wheatley
  Revolutionary Period (1776- 1820): political writing on justice and
  freedom, almanacs, satire, mock epics. Themes related to: Age of
  Reason/Enlightenment, common sense, scientific investigation rather
than religious doctrine, democracy instead of monarchy. Benjamin
Franklin, Thomas Paine, Patrick Henry

Romanticism (1820- 1860): reaction to the Age of Reason, novels,
poems, short stories, heroic characters. Themes related to: intuition
ruled over fact, imagination dominated, emphasis on individualism and
the common man, nature or the natural world. Nathaniel Hawthorn,
Edgar Allen Poe, Herman Melville
    • Transcendentalism (1840 -1855): stressed individualism, and
mature and self-
       reliance. Themes: God is in nature, Nature and man are basically
good, death
       is just a part of life, go to nature to heal and become rejuvenated.
      Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau
    • Anti-Transcendentalism (1840-1855): (Dark Romantics): Man is
basically evil
      (Original Sin), Nature(woods) are full of sin/Satan; intense guilt;
insanity and
      hallucinations. Washington Irving, Edgar Allen Poe, Nathaniel
Realism & Naturalism (1860-1914): began with the Civil War (1861 -
1865) and ended with the beginning of WWI (1914 -1918); reaction to
   • Realism: realistic writings, humor, social problems, a look at
America as it
      really is -–dirt and all. Mark Twain, Henry James
   •Naturalism: an extreme of Realism, Nature is beautiful but savage,
     lives are shaped by forces they cannot control. Stephen Crane,
Jack London
Modernism & Experimentation (1914 - 1945): highly experimental,
rejecting the traditional, authors seek a unique style of writing, loss of
the American Dream. F. Scott Fitzgerald, Ernest Hemingway, Robert
Frost, John Steinbeck
    • Harlem Renaissance (1920’s): celebration of arts in the Harlem
     blues/jazz infusion. Langston Hughes, Zora Neal Hurston, Richard
Realism & Innovation (1945-present): Contempory period, Themes
related to changes of the era: technology, anti-war protests, affluence,
and changing values. Different types of writing: sci-fi, fantasy, etc..
Stephen King, Toni Morrison, J.D. Salinger
1. Always read the questions first. This will help
you to focus your attention and
   direct you to the parts of the reading passage
that are most important for you
   to understand.
2. Make sure you understand exactly what each
question is asking. STOP and take
    A moment to think about what you will need to
look for in the reading passage.
    Sometimes it helps to put the question in your
own words or circle key words in
    the passage, such as not, least, cause, effect,
first, last, etc.
3. If you don’t know the correct answer, use the
process of elimination to narrow choices.
4. Never choose an answer that is not supported by
something in the selection or your own
    background knowledge.
5. If the answer you choose is in the reading
passage, make sure that it answers what the
    question asks. This could be a trick - a choice
that has information from the passage but
    does not answer what is being asked.
     Many times, students think that they are
  choosing the correct answer just because they read
     this same sentence in the reading passage. Just
  because it’s in the passage does not mean that it
     is the correct answer to the question you are
  trying to answer. Many reading tests do this to
     prevent students from just skimming the passages
  for the answer and not reading carefully.
6. Skimming means to glance quickly at a reading
passage to get a sense of the topics and
     important ideas. It should never be used a
substitute for careful reading of the passage.
     However, it can be an important strategy, which
  you can use throughout the test. Here’s an
     example: A test question asks about the setting
  of a story. Once you have read the passage all
     the way through, go back and skip through the
  paragraphs that discuss other ideas or events.
     Skim the paragraphs until you find the ones that
  discuss the time and the place, which together
     would make up the setting. Now, read this part
  of the passage carefully.
7. Don’t expect to always know the answers to most
questions after only one reading.
          Good test takers learn how to go back into
the passage again and again to find specific
          information. This is one of the most
important strategies for a reading test -–knowing
         information you need and rereading until you
find it.   (Use your skimming skills here)
8. If the question says According to the passage… or
Presented in the passage…, make sure
    that the answer you choose is based on
information you read in the passage.
     This can also be a trick for students who think
  they can get by without doing the necessary
9. Never choose an answer that contains any wrong
information. If any part of an
     answer choice is wrong, do not choose this
10. Understand that part of an incorrect answer is
often correct, but may not be complete
     enough to be the best answer.
       You want to make sure that you always choose
  the most complete and correct answer,
       especially when you are working on main idea
11. Be aware that the answer to a question is often
stated in words that are a little bit
    different from the exact words used in the
reading passage. (This is to test your
    comprehension, not just word recognition skills.
      Here’s an example: A passage about the Civil
  War discusses the casualties of war, but the
      answer choice uses the word fatalities. By
  choosing the answer choice that contains the word
      fatalities, a good test taker is also
  demonstrating understanding or reading
12. For main idea questions, always reread the first
and last sentences. Also, skim through the
     reading passage to see how many times each of
the answer choices is discussed.
           Here’s an example: You are trying to
decide whether the main idea is about soccer or
           football, so you skim through the passage
and learn that soccer is mentioned four times. (Be
           sure to include the pronouns in your
count.) However, the writer only mentions football
           times. You can be pretty confident that
the main idea is about soccer. (Underline the words
          football and soccer in your test booklet
as you skim. This way, you know you have made the
          correct choice.)
13. Don’t confuse a supporting detail with the main
idea. Remember that a supporting detail
     just explains or gives more information about
the topic.
          Think about the paragraphs you have written
in class when your teachers have told you to be
           sure to write about 8 or 10 sentences that
explain about your topic sentence or main idea.
14. When you finish a reading passage, try to sum up
everything in one sentence. This should
      be very close to the main idea.
           You can do this the same way you would
tell a friend about a new movie.
15. For time and sequence questions, don’t always
expect to find all of the events given to
    you in correct order in the passage. These
directions are not in order: “Pass up your
    homework after you sit down.” The correct order
is -first, sit down, and second, pass up
    your homework. Something like this can fool you
on a test.
           Remember to use your clue words for time
and sequence: first, then, before, finally, last,
17. For vocabulary questions, when you have to choose
the correct meaning of a word, it
     is helpful to read the following:
            - The sentence that the word is in
           - The sentence right before
           - The sentence right after
  This area of the passage surrounding the word is
  called the context. Context clues are the words,
  phrases, and sentences that surround the word you
  do not know.
        Many sentences and paragraphs contain enough
  information for you to use the clues that the
        writer has left to figure out the meanings of
  many words you do not know.
18. Multiple choice answers that are often wrong:
          • Answers that seem humorous or ridiculous
    • Answers that contain extreme or absolute
statements (all, always, never, no one,
              everyone, impossible, must, absolutely,
    • Answer choices that are almost exactly alike or
say the same thing in different
19. When you are answering questions that contain the
word NOT or EXCEPT, always
        read through your answer choices carefully.
You can answer three of the answers
        choices with a yes based on what you read in
the passage. The one answer choice
        that you can answer with a no will be the
correct answer.
20. Be aware of the three types of questions you will
have to answer:
    1. Right there questions where the answer can be
       found right there on the page.
    2. Think and search questions where you must look
       in two or more places for the   answer and
       then make an intelligent guess.
    3. On your own questions where you must combine
       your own background
            knowledge with the information given in
    the reading passage.


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