1940’s Notes WWII The Greatest Generation The War in Europe in 1940 • Hitler’s “Blitzkrieg unleashed: > April 1940: * Denmark and Norway fall in 1 week > June 1940: * Hitler attacks and defeats the Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg. > Hitler now turns to France. > Attacks from the North, avoiding the Maginot Line. > France fell by end of June 1940. - Nazi’s defeat British and French at Dunkirk. * 1/3 of million soldiers > Hitler takes Paris: - Installs Vichey Government. > Only England stands in Hitler’s way. WWII in the Pacific • Japan signs treaty with Germany and Italy. > Japanese gain confidence > Have control over Asia > can create Greater East Asia Co- Prosperity Sphere • Japanese go after Burma Road > object is to cut off Allied supply route. > it also opens door: - to taking China - Indochina (Vietnam) - East Indies • The U.S. responds by: > placing an embargo on Japanese > Freezes Japanese assets in U.S. > U.S. and Japan begin talks about China: - U.S. aid to Chaing Kai Shek - Japanese withdraw from China U.S. Prepares for WWII • FDR and Churchill (GR. BR.) meet to discuss Europe. > Create the Atlantic Charter: - no territorial gains - self determination to be protected - creation of a new permanent system of security. > Institutes Cash and Carry to aid British • At Home: > FDR gets Congress to approve the first peacetime draft. (conscription) > Asks for funds to: - increase the size of the navy - motorize the army - build more planes Battle of Britain • Hitler decides to attack Britain. (Operation Sea Lion) > German Luftwaffe (air force) begins its attacks on Britain. - aim is to knock out the RAF. - Bombing is around the clock. > The German Navy would surround the British Isle > Germany would then invade from France. • Churchill vows to fight to the death! • FDR fearing the British would would fall, begins Lend-Lease Program for Britain. • The Battle of Britain ends when Hitler is held off. • This is because the British had developed: > ULTRA: machine to break German codes. > Radar: allowed British to track incoming German planes. The Election of 1940 • The Republicans nominate Wendell Wilkie. • The Democrats renominate FDR. • Both Candidates: > support aiding the nations fighting the Axis powers. > Vow not to send troops to fight a foreign war. • FDR states that the U.S. needs to become an “Arsenal for Democracy” • Wilkie attacks Roosevelt for seeking a third term! • FDR is able to win the election! • FDR becomes the first and only man to win the Presidency three times and they are consecutive! WWII Heats UP! • June 1941, Germany breaks treaty with Russians. > Operation “Barbarossa” begins • Russian troops overwhelmed, they pull back (retreat) > used “Scorched Earth” policy to protect homeland. • FDR extends Lend-Lease to the Russians. • U.S. and Japan begin talks in November 1940. > concern of Japanese Asian conquests >Talks collapse between the two nations. • Japanese are being watched carefully for any signs of war! Attack on Pearl Harbor • Japanese Admiral Yamamoto is given task of planning attack. • American Military puts Pacific on alert. > 30 day of drills. > Believe attack will come on Guam or Philippines. • U.S. and Japanese talks held in November and early December 1941 end with no results. • Japanese attack Pearl on December 7 1941! • All U.S. ships were either sunk or hit in the Harbor. > Only the aircraft carriers were spared. > Most remembered U.S.S. Arizona - 2400 died • FDR calls an emergency meeting of Congress on Dec. 8, 1941 > “A day that will live in infamy” • Congress votes to go to war with Japan. • On December 11th, Germany and Italy declare war on U.S. > U.S. responds with declaration of war after Germany and Italy declare. The Main Players in WWII • Axis Powers: > Germany: <Italy: Mussolini > Japan: Tojo • Allied Powers: > U.S.: FDR <Great Britain Churchill > USSR: Stalin < France: DeGualle Converting From Peacetime to Wartime • Americans rushed to enlist after the attack at Pearl Harbor. (5 Million) • The Selective Service Board uses draft to bolster the size of the military. > men ages 20-44 are drafted • War Production Board was established: > were to oversee all war time production Rationing • Americans begin to ration to conserve items needed for the war effort. > coupon books were issued > Items such as food, clothing, gasoline, metal, rubber, and more were rationed. Factories convert to Wartime • Many factories changed to making war needed items. • War brought full employment to the U.S. • Women took on jobs once thought to be for men only! • By: > 1942, U.S. production was equal to the Axis powers > 1944, U.S. productions was 2X that of the Axis powers. > Why? No attacks on U.S. soil during the war years. U.S. Military • Majority of U.S. servicemen were made up of white males, but minorities played an important role. • Women: volunteered to fill non-combat roles > Army Air Corps.: served as test pilots ferried planes to bases. (WAAC’s) > WAC’s: U.S. Army > WAVE’s: U.S. Navy > SPAR’s: U.S. Coast Guard • Other Minorities served with honor in WWII: > African Americans: - over 1 million served - were kept in segregated units. - Famous African Americans from WWII: * Dorie Miller: credited withshooting down 4 planes during Pearl attack * Tuskegee Airmen * Dr. Charles Drew: developed the use of Blood Plasma > Hispanic Americans: - almost ½ a million served in both Europe and the Pacific. > Japanese and Chinese Americans also served in WWII: - Nisei Battalion: sent to fight in Europe. > Native Americans: many different tribes took part in the war. - One of the best known is the Navajo Code Talkers Racial Tension During WWII • A. Philip Randolph organizes march on D.C.: > protesting wartime hiring practices > FDR issue Executive Order outlawing discrimination in government or defense factories. • Race Riots hit many American cities during WWII: > Detroit was the site of one of the worst. • Japanese Americans were removed from the West Coast: > fear that they were spy’s > Internment Camps in remote parts of U.S. • German and Italian Immigrants: > Those without citizenship treated as aliens of an enemy nationality. > Could not travel without permission > Could not have: - guns, maps, or short wave radios - kept out of restricted areas > FDR eases restrictions on the Italians as the 1942 elections get closer. • Zoot Suit Riots: Young Hispanic males are targeted by service- men and attacked. > Los Angeles passes law banning the wearing of the clothing. > many young Hispanics arrested > Servicemen were held on base. Paying for the War • 41% of Taxes collected went to pay for the needs of war. • Other means are used to get money: > War Bonds are sold! • Rally’s and stars are used to sell Bonds: European War First • The “Big Three” decide to concentrate on liberating Europe first! • Early years the Axis nations are in command. • The tide turns for the Allies in 1942. • Late 1942, the Allies win the Battle of the Atlantic. - U-boats sunk with the use of sonar. • The Allies decide to attack Africa. - cut off German supply lines - Germans are led by General Erwin Rommel. * Afrika Corp * Great Panzer commander * enjoyed a lot of success in Africa. • Allies start “Operation Torch” • Rommel pushed his way to the Suez Canal and more oil fields. • Gen. Eisenhower (Supreme Allied Commander) - sends a combined force to stop Rommel. • At the Battle of El Alamein the Germans are defeated. - the Allied forces were led by Gen. Bernard Montgomery (BR) - Gen. George Patton combined forces with the British and drove Rommel to the sea in Tunisa. • Rommel was rescued so as not to be captured! • The Battle of Stalingrad: - After a 6 month siege, the Russians began to defeat the Germans. - This was Stalin’s center of industrialization. - The fighting turned into hand to hand combat! • After victory in Africa, the Allies decide to take Italy. - Europe’s “Soft Underbelly” - Churchill and FDR decide to attack through the islands first! • July 1943, the Allies land forces on Sicily. - German and Italian troops flee to mainland • Allies move onto the Italian peninsula: - Italy sends out peace feelers • Mussolini tried to flee Italy. - He was caught and killed by his own people. • Hitler sent in German troops to bolster the Italian army. - it was unsuccessful • Italy signs an armistice with the Allies in 1943 - They are the first Axis nation to pull out of WWII. The Invasion of France • Stalin had been calling for a long time for a second front in Europe. • Allied Command plans attack after successes in Africa and Italy. - Gen Dwight D. Eisenhower is the Allied Supreme Commander. • Allies has begun saturation bombing on mainland earlier in 1941. • Once the U.S. enters pinpoint bombing of Germany begins. - Concentrate on war an transportation sites. • Germany’s response was to send flying bombs (V1 and V2 rockets) at GR. Br. • Code name for the Allied Invasion was “Overlord” - The Allies will land on beaches of Normandy. - The German’s thought the attack would come from Calais. * Led by Gen. Patton. • On June 6, 1944: The invasion begins. * 600 Warships * 4,000 landing craft * 11,000 Paratroopers sent behind the lines. • Hitler did not send German reinforcements, this wasn’t the real invasion. • Within a week the Allies would land over: - 326,000 men, 50,000 vehicles, and 100,000 tons of supplies. • Paris is liberated within 6 weeks of the invasion. - Aided by the Free French Resistance - Gen. Patton’s troops moving quickly against the Germans. • Within days of Paris liberation, Belgium is freed from German control. • General Hale attacks Germany through the Siegfried Line. • The Battle of the Bulge: - The Germans last ditch attempt to save Germany - Fought in the Ardennes Forest in winter - Allies were moving faster than their supplies could keep up with. - Gen. MacAulliffe is asked to surrender * He replied “Nuts” -Patton raced his troops to save the Allied troops at the Bulge. - Hitler lost over 200,000 men and 600 tanks trying to win this battle. • While the U.S. and Gr. Br. are pushing into Germany, the Russians are winning in the east. War in the Pacific • After Pearl Harbor, the Japanese took over other areas in the Pacific. • General Douglas MacArthur was driven out of the Philippines. -Bataan Death March: 76,000 POW’s were marched by the Japanese to a work camp. * 10,000 died on the march. • By 1942, the Allies were pushed all the way back to Australia and New Guinea. - The Pacific was to be a Holding Action until Europe was liberated! • 1942, U.S. gets a big victory at the Battle of the Coral Sea. - The two fleets battled without seeing each other. • Doolittle's Raid: Colonel Doolittle led a raid on Tokyo. - It was aircraft carrier based. (a first) - The pilots crashed in China. - While little damage was done, the raid humiliated the Japanese military. • The next U.S. success was at the Battle of Midway - Using a code breaking machine “Magic”, the U.S. was able to know of the Japanese plans for the island. - With the loss of the Island, the Japanese plans for other action is abandoned. • The Allies decide to adopt the strategy of Island Hopping • The Allied Victories continued to mount! • Battle of Leyte Gulf: - It was the largest naval battle in world History - The U.S. wiped out the Japanese fleet. - It allowed MacArthur to keep his vow to return to liberatethe Philippines. • In China, the Nationalists and Communists united to fight the Japanese. - Chaing Kai Shek - Mao Tse Tung - Japanese lost many men trying to keep control • With growing victories, the Allies began to think of Japan. The Election of 1944 • FDR decides to run for a fourth term in the White House. - FDR is showing the strain of the office. - The Democrats unanimously accept. - But the nominee for Vice President is very important! * FDR chooses a new man for the job. - Senator Harry Truman is chosen to run with FDR. • The Republicans have a battle between two candidates: - Wendell Wilke - Thomas E. Dewey - Dewey took the nomination at the Republican convention. • FDR won a decisive victory in the election of 1944! Yalta Conference • The Big Three had met on several occasions to discuss the strategies of the war. • The Yalta Conference would be the last attended by FDR. • They agree: - German surrender must be unconditional! - Germany will be divided into 4 zones of occupation. * Which includes the capital of Berlin. - Germany will pay huge war reparations. * USSR wanted ½ of the money collected • Stalin also wanted: - territory in Asia • In return, Stalin pledged: - to declare war on Japan after Hitler’s defeated - Will join a new peace organization - not to interfere with free elections in Eastern Europe after WWII. The End of Nazi Germany • By March of 1945, the Allies are ready to enter Berlin. • Eisenhower must chose who will get to take the city first! - Russians - Great Britain - United States • But before it can happen FDR dies. -April 1945. - Blood vessel in FDR’s brain burst. - Died in Warm Springs, Georgia. • Truman takes office as President • 13 days later, April 25, 1945: Russian and U.S. troops meet in Berlin - Hitler is dead - Fighting is house to house. • May 8,1945: VE Day: Germany surrenders unconditionally! The Pacific Theater • Despite the loses, the Japanese put up great resistance. • Two Battles show how hard the Japanese will fight to protect their homeland. • Battle of Iwo Jima: - Best remembered for the flag raising at Mt. Suribachi. - 5,000 Americans died trying to take this island. - 1000’s of Japanese either fought or committed suicide rather than give up • Now the Japanese introduce the “Kamikaze” - means “Divine Wind” - Men volunteered to fly suicide missions to sink Allied ships. • The Battle of Okinawa convinced U.S. leaders that taking Japan would be very costly. - It was the last major battle in the Pacific. -It was also one of the bloodiest: * 12,000 Americans died. * 110,000 Japenese died. The Manhattan Project • In 1941, FDR created the the Office of Scientific Research and Development. (OSRD) • 1938, Fermi, Einstein, and Szilard alert FDR to Germany’s work on Atomic fission. • 37 different sites were used to develop the Atomic Bomb. - Only a few top officials knew of the project. • Upon FDR’s death, Truman was told of the project. • July 1945, the U.S. detonates the first atomic bomb. (New Mexico) Potsdam Conference • Final meeting between the main Allied leaders: - Churchill - Stalin - Truman • All agree that Germany be demilitarized after the war • Stalin wants $10 billion from Germany - The others think its too much. • Truman lets Stalin know that the U.S. has a new destructive weapon. - Stalin does not react to the news, if you got it use it! Using the Bomb • Truman is advised that attacking the Japanese mainland will cost many lives. • Truman decides to offer the Japanese the chance to surrender: - A warning is issued, a weapon of mass destruction will be used unless there is a surrender. * no response • Truman issues a 2nd warning. - Still no response. • August 6, 1945: A B-52 called the Enola Gay drops an atomic bomb, called “Little Boy” on Hiroshima. - The blast leveled 4 square blocks of the city - 75,000 died instantly - 20 American POW’s were killed - Still the Japanese did not respond! • Aug. 8, 1945: the Russians declare war on Japan. • On Aug. 9, 1945: A 2nd bomb is dropped on the city of Nagasaki. - The bomb is called “The Fat Man” - 60,000 are killed instantly. Japanese Surrender • August 14, 1945, (VJ day): Japanese announce surrender. • Formal surrender took place aboard the U.S.S. Missouri. - Gen. Douglas MacArthur accepted for the U.S. The Holocaust • Genocide: The extermination of a group of people for no reason other than race, religious, or ethnic reasons. • Henrich Himmler: head of the Nazi SS was given the job to round up the European Jews. - He was also to round up those who were not wanted by the 3rd Reich. • Ghetto’s, ethnic neighborhoods, were established to hold the undesirables. • Soon Hitler ordered the death’s of these people. - This included the rounding up and execution of these peoples. - This became a very expensive process. • Hitler wanted a “Final Solution” • Adolph Eichman was given the job of developing the “Final Solution” - 6 Death camps were established: * Auschwitz was one of the best known. - Gas chambers were used to kill large groups of Jews at one time. - The dead were then taken to furnaces and their bodies were burned. • At the end of WWII, many camps were liberated! • Eisenhower ordered that photo records be made so that what had happened would not be forgotten! War Trials • War trials were held to punish Axis leaders for their crimes against humanity. • At Nuremburg: Nazi leaders were put on trial for their crimes. > 12 Nazi leaders were sentenced to death for crimes against humanity. • Tokyo War Trials: > Japanese leaders were also put on trial for crimes against humanity. > Many were also given a death sentence, The United Nations • FDR and Churchill discussed forming a new world peace keeping organization in the Atlantic Charter. • At Dumbarton Oaks: a conference is held to create a world peace keeping organization > A Charter was written with peaceful settlement of all disputes as its goal, before war! > 51 nations ratified the agreement > The organizations structure was set up. • The UN was made up of: > Secretary General > General Assembly > Security Council • The 1st meeting was of the UN was held in the late 1940’s in SanFrancisco, California. • Later the headquarters was moved to New York City. Marshall Plan • George Marshall: formally head of the army, was named Secretary of State. • He was given the task of rebuilding Europe after WWII. • Creates a “New Deal” plan for Europe called the European Recovery Plan. > Plan called for the United States to put a billion dollars into the rebuilding Europe. • All nations invited to participate. > USSR and the nations of Eastern Europe do not accept the offer. > Why? Containment • 1946, Stalin announces that the USSR will take all steps necessary to protect itself. > Future wars are inevitable > Eastern Europe will remain under the control of the Soviets. • Churchill proclaims that an “Iron Curtain” had dropped over Europe. • George Keenan, writes Truman an 8,000 word memo. > He proposes a policy of “Containment” in dealing with USSR. > Idea is to not try and end communism where it was, but to stop the spread of it to other nations in the world. Truman Policy • Truman creates this policy to try and contain the spread of communism. > This policy offers aid to free peoples in the world trying to resist totalitarian regimes. • It looked as if this would be first used to aid Iran to battle a Soviet takeover. • But the first use would be in Greece and Turkey. Berlin Blockade • City of Berlin was divided among the Allied Powers after WWII. > City was deep in the Russian sector. • In 1948, France, Great Britain, and the United States felt it was time to reunite the entire country. > Stalin was against this! • Stalin orders all land and rail routes closed from the West. > How will the West respond? • Massive Airlifts of materials begin! • Airlift last for almost a year. > Planes were landing every 3 minutes with supplies. Israel is Created • 1948, Gr. Britain gives Palestine, in the Middle East, to the Jews. • This is to create a Jewish homeland. • In 1949, the United States recognizes the right of Israel to exist as a nation. China becomes Communist • 1949, China falls into the hands of Communist leader Mao Zedong. • Chinese leader Chiang Kai Shek is forced to the island of Formosa. NATO • NATO is created! • North Atlantic Treaty Organization. * Aimed at stopping spread of communism in Europe. * 1st NATO Military Commander is Eisenhower. Truman’s Domestic Issues • Truman takes actions to stop strikes in the U.S.: * Steel * Coal * Railroads • Taft-Hartley Act Passed: * gave President the power to order striking workers back to work for 90 days. * Was so that negotiating could continue. Other Important Legislation • McMahon Bill Passed: * Establishes the a civilian agency, Atomic Energy Commission to oversee all fissionable material. • GI Bill of Rights: * allotted money for Veterans to buy farms, homes, go to college. * unemployment insurance for 1 year. • 22nd Amendment: * Passed by Congress in the late 1940’s. * Put term limits on the number of terms a President could serve. > 2 Terms or 10 years * Would be ratified in the early 1950’s. Election of 1948 • Trouble in the Democratic Party: > Fight over the nomination: Truman v. J. Strom Thurmond > Issue is Civil Rights > Truman wins the nomination • Thurmond becomes the candidate for the Dixiecrat Party in this election. • The Republicans nominate Thomas Dewey. • All the Polls showed that Dewey was going to be the big Winner!!! • When the final results were announced: Truman had won by over 2 million votes! 1940’s Social History • Medicine: * Jonas Salk invents Penicillin. * 1st Eye Bank was established. • Commercial TV became available to the American Public. • ENIAC the first digitial computer was developed. * It stood 2 stories high and weighed 30 tons. • Architecture: * Glass and steel structures dominate new office buildings. * Levittown: • Music and Radio: > Big Bands: * Duke Ellington * Benny Goodman > Big Band Singers: > Radio Comedians: Literature • War Novels dominated reading: • Dr. Spock: Fads • Jitterbug: • Rosie the Riveter: • Pinup Girls: • Kilroy was Here: • Frozen TV Dinners: > Tupperware and Aluminum Foil >Slinky: > Seventeen Magazine > Term Juvenile Delinquent is coined Zoot Suits: > Women’s Fashions: Theater and Film • Theater: • Films: • Animation came to be: Stars of the 40’s • Stars: TV comes to our Homes • First TV’s were 5” and Black and White • Some of the Top rated shows were: • Children’s TV became big: Sports • Baseball: • All American Girl’s Baseball League: • Football: - 2 Platoon Football is introduced - The Penalty Flag is adopted - Paul Brown introduces the play book to football. NBA is Created • It was first created as the BAA in 1946. • In 1949, the BAA merged with the NBL to form the NBA. • Its first 2 big stars were: - Joe Fulks: who scored 63 points in one game - George Mikan who was the first 7 footer in the NBA. Boxing • Boxing had its super stars: Joe Louis Sugar Ray Robinson Golf • The WPGA was formed: - Babe Didriksen Zaharias - Byron Nelson was the # 1 racked Men’s golfer.
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