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					                        Unit 1

1 What is the scientific method? What is it for?

2 Do you remember all five steps of the scientific method?

3 Do you think that only scientists need the scientific
method?

4 Read the text.

        Application of the Scientific Method

     While the scientific method is necessary in developing
scientific knowledge, it is also useful in everyday problem-
solving. What do you do when your telephone doesn‟t work? Is
the problem in the hand set, the cabling inside your house,
hookup outside, or in the workings of the phone company? The
process you might go through to solve this problem could
involve scientific thinking, and the results might contradict
your initial expectations.
      Like any scientist, you may question the range of
situations in which the scientific method may be applied. From
what has been stated above, we determine that the scientific
method works best in situations where one can isolate the
phenomenon of interest, by eliminating or accounting for
extraneous factors, and where one can repeatedly test the
system under study after making limited, controlled changes in
it.
      The scientific method is associated with science, the
process of human enquiry that pervades the modern era on
many levels. While the method appears simple and logical in
description, there is perhaps no more complex question
than that of knowing how we come to know things . The

                              3
scientific method distinguishes science from other forms of
explanation because of its requirement of systematic
experimentation.

Find in the text and translate into Ukrainian:
contradict, expectations, determine, eliminate, extraneous,
repeatedly, enquiry, pervade.

                            Unit 2

1 How often and for what purposes do you use a computer?
How do you feel if your computer is broken?

2 What kinds of information do you look for and use mostly?

3 Have you ever considered your computer skills as a tool of
career choices?

4 Read the text.

                     Information Systems

    There are two tools that are used to convert data into
information and communicate it to the people. They are
computers and information systems. A system is any set of
components that work together to perform a task. An
information system is a set of components that work together to
manage      the     acquisition, storage,  manipulation    and
distribution of information.
     Information systems designed to be used by many users
are called multiuser information systems. They are found in
most businesses and organizations. Information systems
designed for use by an individual are called personal


                               4
information systems. You might set one up on your
home computer to manage your financial portfolio.
     An information system has three basic functions: (1) to
accept data (input), (2) to convert data to information
(process), and (3) to produce and communicate information in a
timely fashion to users for decision making (output).
     Many of todays‟s        products could not be produced
without the effective use of information systems. Aerospace,
automotive and industrial manufacturers use information
systems to automate production and streamline engineering,
speed developing time, reduce costs, keep up with the
competition. These industries invest a lot in information
systems to compete in cost, quality and delivery. Computers and
information systems can also improve your productivity which
refers to the amount of time and resources required to gain a
desired result.
      As you examine potential career choices, you will find that
many require knowledge and understanding of computers
and information systems as well as the ability to use them.
Possessing knowledge and understanding of computers and
information systems in combination with the ability to use them
is called computer literacy.
       Information is the life-blood of the company. Most
activities performed by managers - such as problem
identification and solution, control and decision-making- are
based on information. Automation systems technology is
growing rapidly as a business. It can be divided into three
major segments: communications, data processing and office
automation.


1 Answer the questions:
a) Where are multiuser information systems usually found?
b)What are personal information systems designed for?

                              5
c) In what way can information systems be useful in industry?
d) Why is it important to have a basic level of knowledge,
understanding and skills in using computers and information
systems?
e) What activities do managers perform?

2 Give definitions or simply complete the sentences:
a)An information system is . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
b) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .are called multiuser information systems.
c). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .are called personal information systems.
d) Three basic functions of any information system are. . . . . . e)
Industries invest a lot in information systems to . . . . . . . . .
f) Productivity refers to. . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . .. … .. … . . .. . ..
g) Computer literacy means . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
h) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .are based on information.


                                   Unit 3

1 Make up a list of all chemical elements you remember in
English. Share your list with your groupmates.

2 Explain difference between renewable and nonrenewable
natural resources.

3 Give examples of fossil fuels. Where do they come from?

4 Make sure that you understand the words from the text
through their definitions:
abundant , adj – more than enough.
fertilizer, n – chemical food for plants.
ammonia ,n – strong, colorless gas with sharp smell used in
refrigeration and for production of explosives and fertilizers.
occur, v – take place, happen.

                                      6
5 Build up derivatives:
new, nature, place, exist, electric.

6 Practice the pronunciation of the words from the text:
hydrogen, oxygen, ammonia, fertilizer, electrolysis,
electrolyte.

7 Read the text.

Renewable and Nonrenewable Resources: Hydrogen

             Natural resources may be either renewable or
nonrenewable. Renewable resources are those that are
replaced in nature at a rate close to their rate of use.
Nonrenewable resources exist in fixed amounts or are used
up faster than they can be replaced in nature.
        Hydrogen is one of the most abundant elements on the
Earth. Yet it was not until the 1700s that scientists first
proved its existence, and it was later still that they recognized its
value. Finally, by the mid-1800s, people started using
hydrogen to light and heat cities across the US and Europe.
Later, it became useful in the production of ammonia,
fertilizers, glass, refine metals, vitamins, cosmetics, cleaners,
and much more.
          Hydrogen launched many rockets into space. Over the
last 30 years researchers have been looking at ways to use
hydrogen as a fuel for everyday life.
           Hydrogen can be renewable or nonrenewable
depending on how it is produced. If it comes from a
renewable resource ( such as water ) and is produced using
electricity from renewable energy, it is renewable. Otherwise,
the hydrogen is considered nonrenewable. Most hydrogen
produced today is nonrenewable.


                                 7
          Hydrogen is the third most common element on the
Earth but it does not occur naturally by itself. Instead, it is
always found in combination with other elements. Water, for
example, is a compound made of hydrogen and oxygen.
Hydrogen joins with carbon to make fossil fuels such as
natural gas, coal, and petroleum.
          In order to use hydrogen we must separate it from the
compounds in which it is bound. Once freed, it can release
a great deal of energy. Scientists have developed different
ways to produce hydrogen, electrolysis being one of the
methods.
         Electrolysis was first closely studied in the 1830s by
English scientist Michael Faraday. In this process electricity is
passed through water and the electric charge causes the
hydrogen and oxygen to split apart turning into gases. A
chemical called an electrolyte is often added to the water to
help conduct electrons through it.
          Water used in electrolysis is a renewable resource,
but for the renewable resulting hydrogen the electricity for
this process must also come from a renewable source. In the
future electrolysis systems might be installed at renewable
energy power plants.


1 Sort out the statements into TRUE or FALSE:
  a) People have enough hydrogen for energy production.
  b) The value of hydrogen does not grow with years.
  c) Hydrogen has already come to our houses.
  d) Hydrogen can be considered as both renewable and
nonrenewable resource.
  e) If hydrogen joins with carbon then water results.
  f) Electrolysis was invented in America.
  g) Electrolysis makes water turn into gas.


                               8
2 Answer the questions:
  a) What is hydrogen used for?
  b) When is hydrogen considered renewable/nonrenewable?
  c) What are two other common elements which come before
hydrogen?
  d) What combinations of hydrogen do you know?
  e) Is it easy to produce hydrogen? Why?
  f) What is electrolysis from chemical and physical point of
view?
  g) What problems can renewable energy power plants solve?

3 Match the verbs below with their synonyms:
  split                        install
  bind                         release
  place                         separate
  come                          occur
  free                         join

4 Fill in gaps with proper prepositions:
  a) Hydrogen does not exist in nature . . . itself.
  b) . . . the last 30 years scientists have been looking . . . ways
to use hydrogen . . . a fuel . . . everyday life.
  c) Hydrogen is one of the most abundant elements . . . the
Earth.
  d) An electrolyte is often added . . . to the water.
  e) . . . the mid 1800s people started using hydrogen to light
and heat cities. . . the US and Europe.
  f) It was not . . . the 1700s that scientists first proved
hydrogen existence.
 g) Renewable resources are replaced . . . rate close . . . their
use.
  h) Hydrogen is always found . . . combination . . . other
elements.
  i) Electrolysis was studied . . . Michael Faraday.

                                 9
 j) In electrolysis electricity is passed . . . . the water.

5 Use the words below in the sentences of your own. Use
each word first as a noun and then as a verb:
  light, heat, value, start, result.


                                Unit 4

1 Enlist all kinds of energy people use today.

2 What are sources of these kinds of energy?

3 Do you need energy to work on this English text? What
kind of energy exactly?

4 What are the main problems we face when using energy of
nature?

5 Make sure you understand the words and word
combinations from the text:
primary/secondary energy source, conversion of energy,
built alongside of waterfalls, to perform work, electricity
generation, electric bulb, indoor lighting, electric utility
industry, wire, rotating shaft, to induce electric current,
steam engine, internal combustion engine.

5 Read the text.
                        Electricity

    Electricity is a form of energy involving the flow of
electrons. Electricity is a basic part of nature and one of the
most widely used forms of energy. We get electricity, which is a
secondary energy source, from the conversion of other sources

                                 10
of energy, like coal, natural gas, oil, nuclear power and other
natural sources, which are called primary sources.
Many cities and town were built alongside waterfalls (a
primary source of mechanical energy) that turned water
wheels to perform work. Before electricity generation began
over 100 years ago, houses were lit with kerosene lamps,
food was cooled in iceboxes, and rooms were warmed by
wood-burning or coal-burning stoves. In the mid 1800s
everybody‟s life changed with the invention of the electric bulb.
This invention brought indoor lighting to our homes.
   An electric generator ( long ago named “dynamo”) is a
device for converting mechanical energy into electric energy.
The process is based on the relationship between magnetism and
electricity. When a wire or any other electrically
conductive material moves across a magnetic field, an
electric current occurs in the wire. The large generators used by
the electric utility industry have a stationary conductor. A
magnet attached to the end of a rotating shaft is positioned
inside a stationary conducting ring that is wrapped with a
long piece of wire. When the magnet rotates, it induces a
small electric current in each section of wire as it passes. All the
small currents of individual sections add up to one current of
considerable size. This current is used for electric power.
     An electric utility power station uses either a turbine,
engine, water wheel, or other similar machine to drive an
electric generator or a device that converts mechanical or
chemical energy to electricity. Steam engines, internal-
combustion engines,          gas combustion engines, gas
combustion turbines, water turbines, and wind turbines are the
most common methods to generate electricity.

1 Say if the following statements are TRUE or FALSE:
  We take electricity from nature.
  Water belongs to the sources of energy people used first.

                               11
  Refrigerators we use today appeared 200 years ago.
  Electricity generation is not a very complicated process.

2 Find in the text synonyms to the words:
  transform, typical, connect with, great, placed, burning.

3 Answer the questions:
 a) What did people in the past have instead of devices we use
today?
 b) How long have we been using electricity?
 c) What is dynamo? Is it a football team?
 d) What are the most common methods to generate electricity?
 e) What kinds of conversions does electricity generation
involve?

4 Explain how the electric current is produced in industry.

5 Make up a list of “electricity” words in English.


                              Unit 5

1 What do we call the energy of the sun and the earth?

2 Is energy of the sun, earth and wind used in Ukraine?
   Where and in what way?

3 What are advantages and disadvantages of these kinds of
energy?

4 Read three texts about different kinds of energy.




                               12
                     Text A. Solar Energy

     Solar power systems generate no air pollution during their
operation. Today we often discuss them when considering
environmental, health and safety issues. Energy is required to
manufacture and install solar components. Materials used in
some solar systems can yet create health and safety hazards for
workers and anyone else coming into contact with them. If
regulated effectively, the dangers can be kept at a very low level.
     The success of solar power will depend on the answer to
the following question: “What do you do when the sun goes
down?” The simple answer is to build a system that will store
energy when the sun is out.
     The ocean is a natural reservoir of solar power and
could be used as a source for thermal energy. If we can draw
warm water from the surface and cold water from the depths, an
ocean thermal plant could operate 24 hours a day.

                     Text B. Wind Energy

        Wind is an indirect form of solar energy. It is hard to
imagine a safer source to the environmental that wind power. It
produces no air or water pollution, involves no toxic or
hazardous substances and poses no threat to people. Yet there is
public opposition today over a visibility and noise of wind
turbines and their impacts on wilderness areas. In reality,
however, the wind turbines occupy only a small fraction of
land area, and the rest can be used for other purposes or left in
its natural state. In California cows can be seen peacefully
grazing in the shadow of wind turbine towers. The leasing of
land can bring benefits to landowners. In other regions wind
power development can cause serious land-use conflicts.
Wind projects in forested areas and near populated areas
often run into opposition of people.

                               13
                 Text C. Geothermal Energy
   Geothermal energy is heat contained below the earth‟s
surface. The only type of geothermal energy that has been
widely developed is hydrothermal energy, which consists of
trapped hot water or steam.
    Geothermal resource types raise a set of environmental
issues. Air and water pollution are two leading concerns.
Many hydrothermal reservoirs are located in or near
wilderness areas of great natural beauty. To develop
hydrothermal projects in the future reasonable compromises
have to be reached between environmental groups and
industry.

1 Say whether statements below are TRUE or FALSE:
a) Solar, wind and geothermal energy belong to the alternative
kinds of energy.
b) People have no doubts as for production and use the energy
of the sun, earth and wind .
c) Farmers get profit from the wind energy generation.
d) Location of the energy generators is the biggest concern of
the environmentalists.

2 Suggest your compromises as for effective energy use.

3 Discuss in the group the environmental problems related
to your speciality. Say if you can see their fast and effective
solution.


                        Unit 6

1 What are the biggest environmental problems which Sumy
citizens are facing today? Can you suggest any ways to solve
them?

                              14
2 What parts of Sumy are considered to be the most
polluted? Do you happen to live there?

3 Have you taken part in the international conference
“Economy for Ecology” that the department of economics
holds annually? If yes, share your impressions.

4 Read the text.

                   Indoor Pollution

     A large-scale pollution is generally the result of poor
government planning in many developing countries or the
short-sighted , selfish policies of the already industrialized
countries which encourage a minority of the world‟s
population to squander the majority of its natural resources.
     While many events such as the deforestation of the
Amazon jungle or the nuclear disaster in Chernobyl continue to
receive high media exposure, a large proportion of the
world‟s pollution has its source much closer to home.
      Avoiding pollution can be a fulltime job. Try not to
inhale traffic fumes; keep away from chemical plants and
building-sites; wear a mask when cycling. It is enough to
make you want to stay at home. But that would also be a bad
idea. Research shows that levels of pollutants such as
hazardous gases and chemicals are usually higher indoors
than out, even in the most polluted cities.
       The latest study suggests that it is the process of
keeping clean that may be making indoor pollution worse.
Baths, showers, dishwashers and washing machines can be
significant sources of pollution, because they extract trace
amounts of chemicals from the water that they use and
transfer them to the air.


                             15
       Using gas cookers or burning candles, for example,
both result in indoor levels of carbon monoxide and
particulate matter that are just as high as those found outside,
amid heavy traffic. Overcrowded classrooms with poor
ventilation system contain levels of carbon dioxide that
would be regarded as unacceptable on board a submarine.
“New car smell” is the result of high levels of toxic
chemicals, not cleanliness. Laser printers, computers, carpets
and paints all contribute to the noxious indoor mix.
       The implications of indoor pollution for health are
unclear. It makes sense to consider the small-scale pollution at
home and welcome international debate about this.

1 Explain in English what the following word combinations
mean, make translation if necessary:
a large-scale pollution, to receive high media exposure,
to inhale traffic fumes, hazardous gases, particulate matter,
noxious indoor mix.

2 Answer the questions:
a) What are the main causes of global pollution?
b) What kind of home dangers must we be aware of?
c) Do you do anything to avoid indoor pollution?
d) What can you recommend others for the same purpose?

3 Find in the text the derivatives of the words below:
 accept, clean, chemistry, crowd, pollute, expose, industry,
 major, minor, courage, nation.

4 Give antonyms of the following words:
  clean, hazardous, heavy, significant, polluted

5 Have a classroom debate on the topic.


                              16
                             Unit 7

1 What would you chose if proposed a job either in designing
or production? Do you feel more a “creator” than a
“producer”? Or maybe a manager? Give your arguments.
What is easier: to make an invention or to put it into use?

2 Read the text about inventions, inventors and some
practical recommendations that one might follow.

           How to be a successful inventor

     Well, good timing for a start. You can have a great idea
which the public simply does not want … yet. Take the
Italian priest, Giovanni Caselli, who invented the first fax
machine using an enormous pendulum in the 1860s. Despite the
excellent quality of the reproductions, his invention quickly
died a commercial death. It was not until the 1980s that the fax
machine became an essential piece of equipment in every office
. . . too late for Signor Caselli.
      Money also helps. The Frenchman Denis Par (1647-
1712) had the idea for a steam engine almost a hundred years
before the better remembered Scotsman James Watt was
even born . . . but he never had enough money to build one.
       You also need to be patient ( it took scientists nearly
eighty years to develop a light bulb which actually worked) …
but not too patient. In the 1870s, Elisha Gray, a
professional inventor from Chicago, developed plans for
telephone. Gray saw it as no more than a “beautiful toy”,
however. When he finally sent details of his invention to the
Patent Office on February 14th 1876, it was too late; identical
designs had arrived just two hours earlier . . . and the young man
who sent them,            Alexander     Bell, will always be
remembered as the inventor of the telephone.

                              17
   Of course what you really need is a great idea – but if you
haven‟t got one, a walk in the country and a careful look at
nature can help. The Swiss scientist, George de Mestral, had the
idea for Velcro when he found his clothes covered in sticky
seed pods after a walk in the country. During a similar walk in
the French countryside some 250 years earlier, Rene Antoine
Ferchault de Reaumur had the idea that paper could be made
from wood when he found an abandoned wasps‟ nest.
   You also need good commercial sense. Willy Higinbotham
was a scientist doing nuclear research in the Brookhaven
National Laboratory in Upton, USA. In 1958 the public were
invited to the Laboratory to see their work; but both parents and
children were less interested in the complicated equipment
and diagrams than in a tiny 120cm screen with a white dot
which could be hit back and forth over a “net” using a button
and a knob. Soon hundreds of people were ignoring the other
exhibits to play the first ever computer game – made from a
simple laboratory instrument called an “oscilloscope”.
Higinbotham, however, never made a cent from his invention:
he thought people were only interested in the game because the
other exhibits were so boring!

1 Answer the questions:
a) Did Caselli‟s fax machine actually work?
b) Who designed the first steam engine?
c) Who built the first steam engine?
d) Why does the story of the light bulb show that inventors need
to be patient?
e) Who invented the first telephone?
f) What did the inventors of Velcro and of paper have in
common?
g) What was the purpose of the exhibition at the National
Laboratory at Upton in 1958?
h) What was the first computer game like?

                              18
i) Did Professor Higinbotham understand the potential of his
„computer game‟?

2 See the words below and find their synonyms in the text:
 necessary, very small, same, made up of many parts, really,
dull, left.

3 Complete the sentences:
a) People come to the museums to see . . .
b) The inventors register their inventions at the …
c) Paper could be made from . . .
d) We often ignore things which are not interesting because we
find them . . .

4 Indicate the nationality of each inventor:
  George de Mestral –
  Denis Par-
  Giovanni Caselli-
  Willy Huginbotham –
   Elisha Gray –
   Alexander Bell –
   Rene Antoine Ferchault de Reaumur –
   James Watt –

5 Tasks for discussion in the class.
 a) Make a list of inventions mentioned in the text and rank
them due to their current use. Share your ideas on the point with
your classmates.
 b)Say which information in the text you already knew.
 c) Find the most surprising information.
 d) Give examples of modern inventions or inventors.




                              19
                              Unit 8

1 Do you have things made of TEFLON at home? What
things exactly?

2 Do you know how TEFLON got its name ?

3 Read the text.
                      TEFLON

   TEFLON was discovered in 1938 by scientist-chemist from
the company “DoPont” in the American state New Jersey. The
full chemical name of this material is politetroftoretilen. The
scientist received TEFLON accidentally when he was learning
fluorine liquids and got the material stable to the high
temperatures and mechanical influence. In two years after this
discovery the new material was called TEFLON and put into
production. For a long time it was used only in military and
space industry. For example, the first moon capsule that
disembarked people on the Moon had Teflon covering.
   TEFLON is known for its low coefficient of friction, a
nonstick surface, stability to the chemical, stability in the
range of the temperatures from – 100C to 260C, durability and
lasting. It cannot be destroyed by ferments and microbes.
Due to these characteristics it is irreplaceable in chemical,
technical, food, light and medical industries, in building of
devices and machines, without saying anything about the
military and space industries.

1 Translate into Ukrainian:
accidentally, fluorine liquids, to disembark, irreplaceable,
durability, put into production, range of temperatures.
2 Answer the questions:
a) When, where and by whom was TEFLON discovered?

                               20
b) Why was TEFLON used widely in the military and space
industry?
c) What product are made of TEFLON?
d) Can you enlist the main characteristics of TEFLON?


                             Unit 9

1 Do you know much about Alfred Nobel, Nobel Prize and
its winners?
Who were the Nobel prize winners in your field?

2 Have you ever watched the Nobel award ceremony on
TV? What did it look like? What did the participants have
to wear? What impressed you most?

3 Check whether you know the words and word
combinations below:

destructive power, contributions to mankind, to foresee,
original legacy, illuminated diploma, to determine, minority.

4 Read the text.



               Alfred Nobel and Nobel Prize

     After inventing dynamite, Swedish-born Alfred Nobel
( 1833-1896) became very rich. He foresaw universally
destructive power of his invention too late. Nobel preferred not
to be remembered as the inventor of dynamite, so in 1895,
just two weeks before his death, he created a fund to be used for
awarding prizes for people who had made great

                              21
contributions to mankind. Originally the prizes were awarded for
outstanding work in physics, chemistry, medicine, literature
and the promotion of peace. Economics was added in 1968, just
after sixty-seven years after the first awards ceremony.
      Nobel‟s original legacy of nine million dollars was
invested, and the interest on this sum is used for the awards
which vary from $30,000 to $125,000. No awards were
presented from 1940 to 1942 at the beginning of World
War II. Some people have won two prizes, but this is rare;
others have shared their prizes.
     Every year on December 10, the anniversary of Nobel‟s
death, the awards (gold medal, illuminated diploma and
money) are presented to the winners. Sometimes politics
plays an important role in the judges decision.
      The first Nobel Prizes were awarded in 1901. In that
year and for several subsequent years, the winners in the
three science categories were Europeans. The first American
scientist to win a Nobel Prize was Albert Abraham
Michelson.Michelson, who was born and educated in Europe,
won the 1909 prize in physics for determining the speed of
light. Five years passed before another American received a
Nobel Prize in science. Theodore W.Richards won the 1914
chemistry prize for determining the atomic weight of many
chemical elements. It was not until 1930 that an American
scientist won a Nobel Prize in physiology. In that year Karl
Landsteiner was awarded a prize for his discovery of human
blood groups. Though from 1901 through 1950 Americans were
in a definite minority in all three science categories, this pattern
started to change in physics by the late 1930s and in the other
two categories by the late 1940s. Their literary prizes were
relatively few. From 1950 through 1985, more American
scientists have won Nobel Prizes than the scientists of all other
nations combined.


                               22
1 Say whether the following statements are TRUE or
FALSE:
a) Alfred Nobel managed to make a big profit of his invention.
b) Physicists, chemists and mathematicians can win the Nobel
Prize.
c) The original amount of money made less than ten million
dollars.
d) Scientists share their Nobel Prizes quite often.
e) A political factor is of no importance when the Nobel Prize
winners are chosen.
f) Americans can be proud of their Nobel Prize winners.

2 Answer the questions:
a) What contributions to mankind did American scientists who
won the Nobel Prize make?
b) What do the winners actually get at the award ceremony?


                            Unit 10

1 Have you ever done research? What field did it belong to?
Did you do it for money? Did you work alone or in a group?

2 Are there amateur scientists among the people you know?
What is the main thing that drives and inspires them in their
investigation? What do other people think and say about
them?

3 Read the text.

                   In Praise of Amateurs

    Only in the past century or two has it become possible to
make a living from investigating the workings of nature.

                              23
Modern science was, in other words, built on the work of
amateurs. Today, science is an increasingly             specialized
subject, the domain of experts who know more and more
about less and less. Perhaps surprisingly, however, amateurs-
even those without private means- are still important. A
recent poll found that amateurs are actively involved in
astronomy,      acoustics,    ornithology,      hydrology       and
palaeontology. Amateur scientists are often in close touch
with professional, some of whom rely heavily on their
cooperation.
     Some fields are more open to amateurs than others.
Anything that requires expensive equipment is a no-go area.
Some kinds of research can be dangerous. But amateurs can
make valuable contributions in fields from rocketry to
palaeontology and the rise of the Internet made it easier than
ever before to collect data and to distribute results.
      There is a long tradition of collaboration between
amateur and professional sky watches. Numerous comets,
asteroids and even the planet Uranus were discovered by
amateurs. They continue to do valuable work observing the
brightness of variable stars and detecting new ones. Amateur
astronomers outnumber professionals and they are distributed all
over the world.
      Another field in which amateurs have traditionally
played an important role is palaeontology. Despite high-
tech equipment, the best sensors for finding fossils are human
eyes– lots of them.Amateurs have contributed to ornithology.
There are about 60 million birdwatchers in America alone.
      However collaboration          between       amateurs     and
professionals is not without difficulties. Not everyone is
happy with a term „amateur‟ The new term „citizen scientists‟ ha
been coined. Some feel let down when their observations are
used in scientific papers, but they are not listed as co-authors.


                               24
    The amateurs provide enthusiasm and talent, while the
professionals provide guidance. Having laid the foundations of
science, amateurs will have much to contribute to its ever-
expanding edifice.

Questions for discussion.

1 Is research a business or a hobby?
2 Why do some people take amateurs quite negatively?
3 Why do amateurs cooperate with scientists?
4 What are the most common fields of their cooperation?
5 What are the problems which appear between professionals
and amateurs?
6 Can you offer any legislation improvements to solve these
problems?
7 Can you name some scientific journals that are popular with
amateur scientists in Ukraine?
8 What TV programs can tell us about amateurs scientists?
9 Do you watch them regularly?
10 What is the field that you‟d like to contribute to it as an
amateur? Explain why.
11 Can your comment/enlarge on the last passage of the text?



                            Unit 11

1 Do you know the world known company Michelin?
What do they produce? Do we have their products in
Ukraine?

2 Read the text about the history of this company.



                              25
           From Strength to Strength through Years
   Very few companies are not committed to innovation than the
French tyre giant Michelin. It has been in business much longer
than most people might think. Michelin started off making
rubber-based products for the agricultural industry. One day,
in 1889, a cyclist came to them with punctures in both tyres. It
took hours to fix them because in those days they were glued
to the wheel. Unfortunately the tyres were punctured again but
it inspired the brothers to find a better way of fixing. Soon,
Edouard Michelin came up with a solution: a detachable
tyre which one could take off and repair in just 15 minutes.
They patented it and then sponsored a cyclist for the Paris to
Brest cycle race. In secret, the brothers put lots of nails
along the route. Not surprisingly their cyclist arrived        8
hours earlier than the other competitors. Within a year,
10,000 people were using their tyres. Soon after, the firm
brought out tyres for carriages and cabs.
     The big breakthrough for the Michelin brothers was when
they came up with pneumatic car tyres. Other car tyres were
solid, but pneumatic tyres were filled with air. Soon they had a
factory in Italy, and in 1908, the United States. 1898 saw the
birth of the world-famous Michelin man, otherwise known
as Bibendum. He was born when E.Michelin saw a pile of tyres
at an exhibition and thought that with arms and legs it would
look just like a person. Ever since, Bibendum has been used to
represent the superbrand. He has changed a little over the years.
Now, he consists of fewer fatter tyres, which reflect the
changes in tyre design.

1 Answer the questions:
a) Can you explain the Michelin continued success?
b)What victories did they gain on their way to today‟s success?
c) Did they invest heavily in research and innovations?
d) Have you ever met Bibendum? What is he like?

                              26
e) Do you find the text surprising?
f) What does the text prove?

2 Look through the text again to find at least 5 irregular
verbs in it. Arrange them alphabetically:
   c_ _ _
   b____
   p_ _
   t___
   t____

3 Fill in proper prepositions:
a) Michelin started . . . making rubber-based products.
b) The cycle race was . . . Paris . . . Brest.
c) . . . secret, the brothers put lots . . .nails . . . the route.
d) … . a year, 10,000 people were using their tyres.



                                 Unit 12

1 The words “management” and manager” are spoken and
heard so frequently. Do people really know what they mean?

2 Is management necessary only for students of economics?

3 Do you have any managerial skill? Prove it if you do.

4 Read the text.

                The Roles of Managers

   A manager is a person responsible for using available
resources – people, materials/equipment, land, information,

                                   27
money – to achieve the goals of an organization. Managers are
the     key decision makers and           problem solvers    in
companies. In order to perform most efficiently and
effectively, managers must receive the information they need in
a timely manner.
   Managers work toward goals through five major functions:
          Planning
          Staffing
          Organizing
          Directing
          Controlling resources
   Planning is the future-oriented process of developing
courses of action. Staffing is assembling and training
personnel. Organizing provides resources and a structure.
Directing supplies leadership in supervising personnel. It
works through communication and motivation. Controlling
involves development of procedures to measure            actual
performance.
    Management is divided into three basic levels:
      1) Strategic ( top-level managers )
      2) Tactical ( middle-level managers )
      3) Operational ( low-level managers )
    Strategic managers make decisions involving the long-range,
or strategic goals of companies. Top-level managers spend most
of their time planning and organizing. They need summarized
information that covers past and present operations as well
as future projections. Information from internal sources gives
them views of the internal situation in the company. External
information permits them to evaluate industry trends, world
economic trends, government regulations and other outside
activities.
   Tactical managers are concerned with short terms, tactical
decisions directed toward accomplishing the organizational
goals. Middle-level managers work on budgets, schedules and

                             28
performance        evaluations and need           fairly detailed
information. They require mainly internal information but
also use some external information. Today many companies
reduce the number of tactical managers and cut costs through
computerization.
    Operational managers are involved with day-today
operations of business. They are responsible for seeing that the
tactical decisions of middle-level managers are implemented
by personnel at the operations level. For them the information
must be detailed, current and focused. It comes from
inventory lists, historical records and procedures manuals.

1 Complete the sentences below:
a)A manager is responsible for. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
b) Managers are . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .decision makers.
c) Managers must receive . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . they need in a .
. . . . . . . . manner.
d) Managers work through five major functions: . . . . . . . . . .
e) Directing supplies leadership in . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
f) Controlling involves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
g) Three basic levels of management are . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
h) Strategic managers make decisions involving . . . . . . . . . . .
i) Tactical managers are concerned with . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
j) Operational managers are directly involved with . . . . . . . . .

2 Take a particular industry that you know better than
others and try to describe the decisions of all the three basic
levels of its management.


                                     Unit 13

1 Name ten world known brands. Then name five more
which are the best known in Ukraine.

                                        29
2 Which of the brands you know belong to long-lasting
brand names?

3 What must be done to launch a new brand or relaunch an
existing one to appeal to new generations of consumers?

4 Do you feel like you can manage a business and launch a
particular product? What kind of product?


5 Read the text.

                    Brand Management

   People often wonder what makes a brand different from a
product? Quite simply, in marketing terms, products are not
brands. Products are general, while brands are something
quite unique. Brand identity consists of far more than the
physical product itself. It includes all the psychological
features that we have learnt to associate with it. Top brands
form a personal relationship with consumers; they are able to
make us feel more confident, more powerful, healthier, and
happier. Brand are promises and people buy what they
believe in.
    A brand has USPs (Unique Selling Propositions), specific
features which set it up apart from its competitors. For
example, Barbie was the first doll to look like a young
woman, and a metal river was the unique feature of Levi
jeans. Both brands have had numerous imitators, but a „me-too‟
product will not achieve the success of the one it follows.
     Competent managers have to know how to position their
brand in relation to the competition, in terms of factors like
price and quality of the product. Managers should relate the
brand‟s values in a meaningful way to the consumers they

                            30
have targeted. With worldwide brands this may mean
changing your message from country to country.
      The product life-cycle is a familiar one in marketing. A
product is launched, developed, goes through the period of
growth, enters maturity, declines, and eventually dies. A top
brand should go on and on if it is well managed. A brand
manager is like a doctor or plastic surgeon, who can keep the
brand healthy and looking fresh down the years. Knowing
what stage your branded product is at this cycle may help you
decide when to launch a line extension – or if you ought to
relaunch it with „added-value‟ features.

 1 Agree or disagree:
  a) Consumers need top brands because they bring them
comfort.
  b) Brand is a sort of religion.
  c) Management has nothing to do with psychology as it is just
a very practical thing.
   d) A manager has to design a perfect message and this will
guarantee him success all over the world.

2 Answer questions:
 a) What is the difference between brand and product?
 b) What makes a brand so personal?
 c) How to manage competition in business?
 d) What life does any product live?
 e) What are brand managers paid money for?

3 Look through the text again and find the words which
  a ) belong to management
  b) are used indirectly to make the information more emotional
and illustrative.



                             31
4 Say which of the slogans(brand messages) we have on
Ukrainian TV today you consider really meaningful.

5 Do you think that the rules and recommendations given in
the text should be concerned only by managers?



                            Unit 14

1 Would you like to have a business of your own? What kind
of business exactly?

2 What features of yours make you feel you can run this
business?

3 Do you know many female managers? Do they have to
break some social stereotypes and to compete with men in
doing their business? Give your examples.

4 Make sure that you understand the words below:
subordinate, flexible, executive, counterpart, gender,
overweigh, gene.

5 Read the text.

                Are Women Better Managers?

  Not so long ago women who wanted to rise ranks in
business were told to wear dark suits, speak with authority, and
“act more like men”. Female managers were criticized for
being too flexible and open with subordinates.



                              32
   A new management theory claims that men should act
more like women. It states that a “female “ management style is
stronger on teamwork, negotiation and consensus-building.
    Do women really manage differently? One study finds
that women do it better. Another indicates that leadership is
more common in female executives than in their male
counterparts. Still other studies claim that women are better
team players than men.
    The women-do-it-better theory has its critics too. Today
many say that women have to behave in a certain way
because of a new wave of feminism, others disagree that men
and women are born to be different and state that the human
brain is genderless.
     The fundamental question is asked on the way to best
management. A democratic leadership style seems to be
more effective in modern business environment. The most
successful managers can adapt to the needs of the company
and both men and women are capable of doing this.
Similarities among men and women managers overweigh the
differences. Managers, like everybody else, should be judged
according to their abilities, not their genes.

1 Answer the questions:
a) What management evolution is considered in the text?
b) What are different views on female management?
c) What is the most successful manager?

2 Agree or disagree with the statements from the text:
a) Female management style is stronger on negotiations.
b) Female executives compete more commonly.
c) Women are better team players than men.
d) Any person should be charged by his abilities.



                             33
3 Discuss in the class the following topics:
a) Feminism in Ukraine .
b) The problems of the so-called “sexism”.
c) Top managers: business and personal life.



                           Unit 15

1 Do you know anyone buying things through his computer?
How does he feel about this kind of purchasing?

2 When did you start practicing the World Wide Web?
What was your personal purpose for that? Do you consider
yourself an experienced WWW user? What makes you think
so?

3 Read the text paying special attention to definitions.

        Marketing on the World Wide Web

       Marketing on the World Wide Web is currently a great
experiment. The Web‟s potential has drawn tens of thousands of
companies on-line.
       The Web presents major opportunities for marketers. A
large and growing number of individuals access the Web.
Web users also represent an attractive target market, and
individuals are beginning to buy products.
        The business-to-business market opportunity appears to
be even greater than the consumer one.
       In fact, the World Wide Net is a well-known offspring of
the Internet. It is a multimedia (text, sound, and graphics)
subset of the Internet as a whole. After the Internet was first


                             34
established, it spread to universities where scientists used it to
exchange data and messages.
       In 1989 a scientist at the European Particle Physics
Laboratory in Geneva, Switzerland, put forward a proposal to
establish a single standard across all computer platforms that
would allow users to easily view and exchange data. Sites
that adopted this standard became part of the World Wide
Web.
        A Web site is a set of multimedia materials that
computer users can access electronically.
       A Web page is a single document at a Web site.
       A link is a selection of highlighted text or a image on a
page that, when the visitor clicks on it, it gives the
visitor access to another page. Virtually al l Web pages
contain links that connect visitors to different pages on the
site and to interesting pages on other Web sites.
      Browsers are programs that automatically read and
display information from a Web site. They also allow a
visitor to move from one Web page to another by pointing
and clicking on a link to access a new page.
       A search engine is a computer program that searches
for information on the Web. An individual visits one of the
engines and types in a keyword or phrase. The engine then
displays titles and brief descriptions of all Web sites that
contain this word or phrase in the text.

1 Give definitions of the terms below. If necessary give some
additional information:
  the Internet, the World Wide Web, a Web site, a Web page, a
link, a browser, a search engine.

2 How many of the words you’ve just defined sound the
same in your native language? Can you explain?


                              35
3 Share your views about advantages and problems that the
Internet advertising brings.

4 Translate into English:
a) Велика кількість людей, так само як організацій, мають
доступ до Інтернету.
b) Веб-сторінка – це окремий документ на веб-сайті.
c) Браузери – це програми-оглядачі, які автоматично
зчитуютьі подають на дисплей інформацію з веб-сайту.
d) Програма- пошук створена для пошуку інформації в
мережі.
 e) Веб-сайт – це мультімедійний матеріал, доступ до якого
користувачі мають через комп‟ютер.



                             Unit 16

1 Do you do shopping on-line? What do you buy preferably?
Where do you receive necessary information?

2 What goods are bought mostly on-line in Ukraine today?
How much does an average discount make?

3 Read the text.
                   E- Commerce

    E-commerce is growing with meteoric speed, powered by
Internet retailers that expanded beyond selling books on-line to
offering toys, consumer electronics, videos, music, auctions,
gifts and electronic greeting cards and prepared to enter into on-
line grocery business. E-commerce sites continue to pop up as
the investors seem to believe that     e-commerce will provide
big paybacks in the future.

                              36
    Technology is being developed that will make shopping on-
line more attractive. Among the new techniques are three-
dimensional on-line catalogs that allow products being
viewed on the screen to be rotated so they can be viewed
from any angle. In addition, models with the same physical
measurements as the viewer‟s can “try on” clothes and be
viewed on the computer screen. Booksellers use software to
track the buying preferences of customers; the software
recommends a book to a customer on the basis of buying
habits of other customers with similar tastes.
    Other forms of commerce allow an investor to buy
stocks at lower commissioning price and to trade stocks
when the stock exchanges are not open. These stock-trading
sites have proved to be very popular, recording hundreds of
thousands of stock trades daily.
      Non-Web       businesses are also getting into the e-
commerce. Banks are said to have an interest in allowing
consumers to pay bills on-line because it allows the banks to
control transactions.
      Not everyone is happy about the growth of e-commerce.
State governments fear losing substantial sales tax revenues to
on-line purchases that are not currently fixed.
      The arrival of e-commerce raised concerns about
medical ethics when it became clear that some doctors were
writing prescriptions for people on the Net whom they had
never examined or ever met and some on-line pharmacies
were shipping drugs across state lines without the proper
authority.
    European and U.S. trade negotiators are in dispute over
data-privacy issues because consumer privacy must be
protected.

1 Are the sentences TRUE or False?
 a) Internet retailers stopped selling books on-line.

                               37
 b) E-commerce is very profitable because investors receive big
paybacks.
 c) On-line investors can buy stocks at lower prices.
 d) Governments are not allowed to collect taxes from on-line
sales.

2 Answer the questions:
 a) What are the biggest advantages that e-commerce has
introduced?
 b) What are the biggest threats that have resulted?
 c) What on-line consumer groups can be indicated after
reading the text?
 d) Can you offer any idea as for e-commerce legislation?

3 See the list of nouns and adjectives on the left and pair
them with the verbs having the same root:
   consumer -
   prescription -
   investor -
   preference-
   measurements-
   arrival-
   attractive –


                            Unit 17

1 What kind of a credit card have you got? Where can you
use it?

2 Do other members of your family have credit cards? What
privileges do they give them?



                              38
3 Are there any disadvantages that credit cards can have?
What are they? Share your personal experience.

4 Do you think that all Ukrainian people are ready to use
credit cards?

5 Read the text.

                     Plastic Money

      Credit cards have become a widespread method of
payment. In the Western European countries as well as in the
USA, it is usual to have more than one credit card depending on
its use. Usually credit cards are divided into travel and
entertainment and bank credit cards.
       Most banks issue credit cards either to the VISA,
ACCESS or MASTERCARD systems, enabling a wide
national or international application. No charge is made for the
issuing of a card, however, an annual fee will be charged for the
running of the account. The customers receive a monthly
statement indicating the purchased items of the previous
month.
      Normally, banks issue credit cards which can be used up
to a certain sum daily. Usually up to J500 can be
withdrawn in a foreign currency and up to J200 from the VISA,
ACCESS or MASTERCARD dispensers.
      Apart from the three large card organizations
mentioned, large department stores, oil companies and car
rental firms also offer the use of their own credit cards. Such
cards can only be used to purchase the particular products or
services.
      Credit cards are not only a convenient method of
payment which provide a high degree of security, credit card
companies have developed a wide range of services which go far

                              39
beyond the payment of goods and the withdrawing of money
at the cash dispenser. The MASTERCARD, VISA or ACCESS
systems provide a wide range of insurance services which cover
the most important risks.
      Additionally, credit cards can be used to make
telephone calls without the use of cash.

1 Give English equivalents:
банківська кредитна картка,       кредитна картка для
подорожі, кредитна картка для оплати розваг, брати
плату, обслуговувати рахунок, місячний звіт, брати гроші з
рахунку, страхові послуги.

2 Answer the questions:
a) What are the main advantages of credit cards compared to
cash payment?
b) What types of credit cards are in use today?
c) What companies and organizations offer to use credit cards?
d) What advantages does a credit card holder get when
traveling abroad?
e) What rules and limitations should be remembered about credit
card use?

3 Translate into English:
a) Більшість банків видає кредитні картки.
b) За утримання рахунку виплачується річний внесок.
c) Страхові послуги охоплюють найважливиші статті
рисків.
d) Кредитні картки використовуються для оплати
телефонних розмов.
e) Зручність користування кредитною карткою в тому, що
витрачається менше часу на покупку.



                             40
                           Unit 18

        Robert Goddard: The Father of Space Age

1 Answer the questions before reading the text:
a) What do you know about the great achievements in space
exploration and rocketry?
b) What outstanding scientists famous for their contribution to
the conquest of outer space do you know?
c) K.E. Tsiolkovsky is considered to be the father of Russian
cosmonautics. Do you know any American scientists who
played the same role in this sphere? Would you like to get to
know about one of them?

2 Then read the text about Robert Goddard.
 Mind notes.
To be fascinated – бути зачарованим
to take chance – ризикувати
beyond the limits – надможливості
Ph.D. = Doctor of Philosophy – доктор філософії
Bazooka – реактивний протитанковий гранатомет
America‟s defence forces – Збройні сили Америки.

Vocabulary
      Launching – пусковий
      Frame – споруда
      Piping – труби
      Fragile – тендітний
      Nozzle – сопло
      Blast – вибух, потік повітря, форсунка
      Roar – гуркіт, рев
      Moderate – невеликий
      To persuade – переконувати
      to gain - одержувати

                              41
       workshop – майстерня
       gyroscope – гіроскоп
       deflector vane – дефлекторна лопатка
       missile – ракета
       deadly – нещадний
       altitude – висота
       sign – напис

        It happened on a cold afternoon in March, 1926 in
Massachusetts. Dr Robert Goddard, professor of physics at
Clark University, was about to make a rocket experiment. He
set up a launching frame of metal piping. On it sat his rocket, a
fragile skeleton of tubing about ten feet long, supporting a
motor and the nozzle. He started the motor, released the rocket
and quickly moved behind a metal shelter for protection from
the blast. Suddenly, there was a series of quick, sharp
explosions, followed by a low roar which, after a few seconds
stopped suddenly. The rocket rose 41 feet and went 184 feet in
two and one – half seconds.
        Today, space scientists, flight engineers, and tecnicians
consider Goddard‟s 1926 rocket flight an event as important as
a man's first successful flight.
        Born in 1882 in Worcester, Massachusetts, Robert
Goddard had been interested in space exploration and rocketry
from childhood. Due to various illnesses that often kept him
out of school, he did much reading at home. Among his books
on mathematics and the physical and chemical sciences were
such science fiction works as H.G.Well's “War Of The
Worlds” and Jules Verne's “Journey from the Earth to the
Moon”. His diary and early notebooks show that he was
fascinated with the idea of space travel.
        As young Goddard grew into manhood, he developed
tuberculosis. Although the disease remained inactive for many
years, it kept him in physically weak condition. He once wrote

                               42
a friend, "It's shocking how short life is and how much there is
to do. We have to take chances and do what we can."
        Robert Goddard took many chances, physically,
professionally, and financially. He worked far beyond the
limits of his poor health. Receiving his Ph D. in physics from
Clark University in his hometown in Worcester in 1913, he
chose a career in university teaching and research. He ignored
public criticism and the doubts of other scientists. Most of his
moderate income from teaching he added to the small amount
he received from the Smithsonian Institution to finance his
rocket experiments.
        It was the famous aviator Charles Lindbergh who
eventually persuaded millionaires Daniel and Harry
Guggenheim to provide the financial support Goddard needed
to expand his research work In 1929, only two years after
Lindbergh's flight alone across the Atlantic, the young aviator
heard about Goddard's experiments. Lindbergh visited the so-
called moon man and was quickly convinced of the great
importance of Goddard's rocket research.
        Having at last gained enough financial support,
Goddard worked to make his dream of conquering space come
true. Almost 50 years old, he moved to the dry and sunny
southwest, near Roswell, New Mexico, in 1930. It was an ideal
place for his workshop and rocket launching tower. It also
proved to be ideal climate for controlling his tuberculosis.
There, during ten years of brilliant work, he developed and
experimented with guided and stabilized rocket flights.He was
the first to use a gyroscope; the first to use deflector vanes in
the rocket motor blast to guide the missile; and in 1935, he
was the first to launch a rocket which flew faster than the
speed of sound.
        Then in 1939, while Goddard was struggling with the
problem of reducing rocket engine weight, World War II
began. A year later, he left his New Mexico laboratory to

                               43
return to the East coast of the United States to work with
America's defence forces. He contributed many advanced
ideas to help the war effort, among which was the basic plan
for the bazooka, the rocket launcher which was eventually
used as an antitank weapon. Most of his other efforts,
however, were politely ignored by his own country. Goddard
was especially discouraged when he learned that the rocket
bombs used by Hitler's forces near the end of the war were
based, ironically, on some of his own early rocket ideas and
patents.
        Gradually, under pressure of work and worry,
Goddard's health again began to fail. His old illness, tuber-
culosis, reappeared, but there was another far more deadly
enemy – cancer. On August 10, 1945, Robert Goddard died
following the operation for cancer of the throat.
        If Goddard had lived only 17 years longer, he would
have seen his life's work crowned with success. He had
predicted in studies written as long ago as 1919 that rockets
would be used to explore high altitudes and be able to set
down upon the lunar terrain. In 1962, John Glenn piloted
America's first spacecraft in orbit around the Earth; and seven
years later, Neil Armstrong became the first man to set foot
upon the moon. Such achievements were possible only by the
amazing power of liquid-fuel rockets which Goddard's
research had made possible.
        Today at the Goddard Space Flight Center in
Maryland, which is dedicated to the memory of this great
space pioneer and scientist, a small sign displays the statement
he once made: "It is difficult to say what is impossible, for the
dream of yesterday is the hope of today and reality of
tomorrow.




                               44
1 Are the sentences true or false according to the text?
Correct the false sentences:
 a) Dr. Robert Goddard, professor of physics at Clark
University was about to make a scientific experiment.
 b) He prepared all special equipment to make a rocket
experiment.
 c) His rocket didn‟t rise at all.
 d) Modern scientists consider Goddar‟s 1926 rocket flight to
be a very important event.
 e) Robert Goddard was born in the United Kingdom.
 f) He was a very strong and healthy man.
 g) He had been interested in space travelling from childhood.
 h) Robert Goddard spent his own money on the scientific
research.
 i) The scientist moved to New Mexico to teach at the local
university.
 j) Goddard contributed many advanced ideas to the military
sphere.

2 Put the sentences in the right order:
a) It was the famous aviator who persuaded millionaires to
provide the financial support to Goddard.
b) Robert Goddard had been interested in space exploration
and rocketry from childhood.
c) Almost 50 years old, he moved to the dry and sunny
southwest, near Roswell, New Mexico, 1930.
d) Gradually, under pressure of work and worry, Goddard‟s
health again began to fail.
e) Lindbergh visited the so-called moon man and was quickly
convinced of the great importance of his rocket research.
f) It was an ideal place for his workshop and rocket launching
tower.



                              45
g) Receiving his Ph.D. in physics from Clark University in his
hometown in Worcester in 1913, he chose a career in
university teaching and research.
h) A year later he left his New Mexico laboratory to return to
the East coast of the United States to work with America‟s
defence forces.
i) As young Goddard grew into manhood, he developed
tuberculosis.
j) There, during ten years of brilliant work, he developed and
experimented with guided and stabilized rocket flights.
k) If Goddard had lived only 17 years longer, he would have
seen his life‟s work crowned with success.

3 Make up questions to the answers:
   a) In Worcester, Massachusetts.
   b) Of space travel.
   c) Far beyond the limits of his poor health.
   d) A career in university teaching and research.
   e) Charles Lindbergh.
   f) To expand his research work.
   g) In1930.
   h) To work with America‟s defence forces.
   i) Under pressure of work and worry.
   j) His life‟s work crowned with success

4 Find the following numbers in the text. What do they
   refer to? Make a sentence about each number:
             1926 41 184 1882 1913 1929
             50 1930 1939 1945 17

5 Finish each of the following sentences with the words and
   word-combinations from the text:
   a) Dr. Robert Goddard, professor of physics at Clark
University was about…

                             46
  b) Robert Goddard had been interested in…
  c) The disease kept him in…
  d) In 1913 he chose a career in…
  e) Having gained enough financial support, Goddard
worked…
   f) New Mexico was an ideal place for…
   g ) He was the first to launch a rocket which…
   h) He left New Mexico laboratory to…
   i) He contributed many advanced ideas to…
   j) If Goddard had lived only 17 years longer, he…

6 Divide the article into logical parts and make a plan of it.

7 Tell as much as possible of what you have learned about
   the prominent American scientists using your plan.


                             Unit 19

1 Do you know anything about Silicon Valley? If yes, make
 up a list of words you associate with Silicon Valley. Try to
 remember where you have got information about this
 place.

2 Before reading the text about Silicon Valley make sure
 that you remember/understand the words and word
 combinations below:

a) heartland, semiconductor, editor, circuit, pocket, county,
settler, rancher, orchard, magnate, acre, godfather, core, gift
b) semiconductor chips, fundamental product, integrated
circuit, cordless telephones, digital watches, civilian
communities, severe disease, brain drain, explosive growth,
leasing program

                               47
c) to hide, to coin, to spawn, to dedicate, to intend,
 to donate, to hire, to lease, to employ

3 Give three forms of the irregular verbs from the text:
  come –           chose-         catch-
  hide-            build-         spend-
  make –           become-        teach-
  give-            grow -         know-

4 Build up as many derivatives of the words below as you
 can:

    conduct-                         calculate -
     civil –                         success -
     fund –                          settle -
     operate –                       govern -
     skill –                          explode -
    academy -                        part -

5 Read the text.

               Silicon Valley – What is That?
        This question may come to many people‟s mind
when them come across the term Silicon Valley. What
hides behind it is mostly unknown to them, although the
revolutionary inventions and developments, which have
been made in this “Valley”, affect everyone‟s daily life, and
it is hard to imagine our modern civilization without them.
Silicon Valley is the heartland                of the micro-
electronics industry that is based on semiconductors. It saw
the     development of        the integrated        circuit, the
microprocessor, the personal computer and the video game
and has spawned a lot of high-tech products such as pocket
calculators, cordless telephones, lasers or digital watches.

                                48
         Geographically, it is the northern part of the Santa
Clara County. In the 19th century, Spanish settlers, who have
been the first white visitors to California, founded civilian
communities and gave them Spanish names such as San
Francisco, Santa Clara or San Jose. This area came to be used
by farmers and ranchers cultivating orchards.
         The name Silicon Valley was coined in 1971 by
Don C. Hoefler, editor of the Microelectronic News, when he
used this term in his magazine as the title for a series of
articles about the semiconductor industry in Santa Clara
County. “Silicon” was chosen because it is the material
from which semiconductor chips are made, which is “the
fundamental product of the local                 high-technology
industries”.
         The story of the Silicon Valley starts with Stanford
University in Palo Alto, which has been of fundamental
importance in the rise of the electronics industry in Santa Clara
County.
         In 1887, Leland Stanford, a wealthy railroad
magnate who owned a large part of the Pacific Railroad,
decided to dedicate a university to his son‟s memory who had
died due to a severe disease shortly before he intended to go to
University. Leland Stanford and his wife built Stanford Jr.
University on 8,800 acres of farmland in Palo Alto and also
donated 20 million dollars to it. The University opened
in 1891 and became one of the world‟s great academic
institutions.
         Frederick Terman, who is known today as the
“godfather of Silicon Valley” was the son of a Stanford
professor. He had grown on the campus. After graduation from
Stanford University he went to the Massachusetts Institute
of Technology (MIT), which was the leading university in
technology then. A severe case of tuberculosis, which he
caught on his visit home, forced him to spend one year in bed.

                               49
This made him stay then in Palo Alto and teach at Stanford
University because of the better climate in California.
       Terman became the head of the department of
engineering by 1937 and established a stronger cooperation
between Stanford and the surrounding electronics industry to
stop brain drain caused by many students who went to the
East after graduation, as they could not find a job in
California then. The Varian brothers are an example of
such cooperation between university and industry. After
graduation they founded a company upon a product they had
developed at the Stanford laboratories.
       After World War II, the Stanford Research Institute
(SRI) was founded. Its aim was to provide the industry with
more skilled students to increase the number of companies in
Santa Clara County. Terman wanted companies to settle next
to the university. In 1951 he founded the            first high-
technology industrial park, The Stanford Research Park,
where business, academic and government interests could
come together. The companies were offered close contacts to
the SRI and could lease land for 99 years at a fixed price.
More and more firms – among them Hewlett-Packard as one
of the first      residents – settled their Research         and
Development departments and they became the core of the
early explosive growth of Silicon Valley. During the
Korean War the US government placed Stanford with a lot of
their projects, which made more and more electronic
companies ( among them IBM and Lockheed) open their
R&D departments in Santa Clara County . Due to his
leasing program Terman received more than $18 million and,
moreover, many companies gave the university gifts, which
Terman used to hire qualified professors from all over the
USA. Thus, he created the mechanism which increased the
settlement of the electronics industry. The successful


                              50
Stanford Research Park has served as a worldwide
model for a lot of other high-technology parks.
       Today there more than 90 firms in Silicon Valley
employing over 25,000 people.

1 Guess the words from the text by their definitions:
   a)contract by which the owner of land or a building agrees to
let another have the use of it for a certain time for a fixed
money payment.
  b) person who prepares for publication another person‟s
writing or who is in charge of part of a newspaper.
  c)wealthy leading man of business or industry; person who
has power through wealth or position.
  d) have in mind as a purpose or plan.
  e) central or most important part of anything.
  f) subdivision of a state in the United States.
  g) produce in great numbers.
  h) the people living in one place, district or country,
     considered as a whole.
  i) a person who owns, manages or works on a large farm.
  j) to give money to a charity.
  k) to invent a new word.
  l) to find or meet by chance.
 m)movement of trained technical and scientific personnel
 from one country to another because of better opportunities.

2 Sort out the statements below into TRUE or FALSE:
 a) The term “Silicon Valley” is well known to everyone.
 b) One can find Silicon Valley in California.
 c) Silicon valley was born in the magazine but not in the map.
d) Spanish settlers were the first to develop
    microelectronic industry in Silicon Valley.
e) Stanford was not a place name first.


                              51
f) The Stanfords built a university because of their very
personal reasons.
g) Leland Stanford is known as the “godfather of Silicon
Valley”.
h) Fredric Terman graduated from MIT.
i) People who have tuberculosis need a warm and sunny place
for living.
j) Before 1937 many Stanford graduates had problems with
finding jobs.
k) It was the Stanford Research Institute that combined
business, study and politics.
l) Many companies came to Silicon Valley because of some
governmental privileges.
m) The ideas of Frederic Terman have been used and practiced
all over the world.

3 Answer the questions:
a) When and how did the name Silicon Valley appear?
 b) What role did L.Stanford play in the foundation of
      Stanford University?
 c) What is the life story of Frederic Terman?
 d) Why was cooperation between university and industry
   so important?
 e) What innovations in technology and business did
   Frederic Terman introduce?
 f) What were the main goals of Stanford Research
    Institute and the Stanford Research Park?
 g) What companies have been cooperating with
    Stanford?
 h) What does Silicon Valley symbolize today?

4 Give English equivalents:
  спадати на думку, впливати на життя кожного з нас,


                            52
 як заголовок до низки статей, напівпровідникова
промисловість, кишеньковий калькулятор,присвятити,
тяжка хвороба, хрещений батько, встановити міцну
співпрацю, заснувати компанію, збільшити кількість
компаній, за фіксованою ціною, наймати кваліфікованих
професорів, створити механізм, всесвітньо поширена
модель.

5 Match the modifiers on the left ( adjectives and nouns)
with the nouns on the right as they go together in the text:
  railroad                               professors
  skilled                               growth
  brain                                 model
  explosive                              magnate
  semiconductor                          circuit
  revolutionary                          civilization
  modern                                students
  academic                              importance
  integrated                             drain
  qualified                             chips
  civilian                               industry
  microelectronics                       inventions
  fundamental                           communities
  worldwide                             institutions

6 Find in the text topical words which may belong to:
  education
  farming
  technology
  business and commerce
  science
  geography
  mass media


                             53
 7 Have a quick look at the text again with the primary
 focus on dates and numbers. Check your memorizing skills
 when commenting on the dates and numbers given below:
 1937, 1887, 1971, 1891,1951
  25,000, 8,000, 99, 90, 20,000,000, 18,000,000.

8 Complete the sentences with the nouns below in bold:
  a) Microelectronics industry is based on . . .
  b) Spanish settlers were the first white visitors to. . .
  c) Spanish settlers founded civilian . . .
  d) Leland Stanford was a wealthy railroad . . .
  e) L.Stanford dedicated a University to his son‟s . . .
  f) Stanford University opened in 1891 and became one of
    the world‟s great academic . . .
  g) Terman established a stronger cooperation between
    Stanford and the surrounding electronics …

  h) The aim of the Stanford Research Institute was to
     provide the industry with more skilled . . .
  i) The companies could lease land for 99 years at a fixed
      ...
  j) Many companies gave Stanford University . . . .
   ( gifts, semiconductors, institutions, magnate, price,
   California, industry, communities, students, memory )

9 Fill in the gaps in the sentences from the text:
  a) The name Silicon Valley was coined in . . . by Don C.
  Hoefner, . . . . . . .., when he used this term . . . . . . . . as
  the title for the series of articles about . . . . . . . . .. . . in Santa
  Clara county.
  b) . . . . . ., Leland Stanford, . . . . . . . who owned . . . . . . . . .. .
  . .. . . ., decided to dedicate a university. . . . . . . . . . . . .
   who died due to a severe disease shortly before he . . . . . .
   . . . . . . . .University.

                                      54
c) In 1951 he founded . . . . . . . . . . . ., the Stanford Research
Park, where . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .interests could come
together.
d) . . . . . . . . . Terman received more than . . . . . . . . and,
moreover, . . . . . . . . . . gave the university gifts, which
Terman used . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .from all over the USA.

10 Translate into English:
 a) Коли ми говоримо про Силіконову долину, ми
маємо на увазі високотехнологічне виробництво.
b) Іспанські фермери першими прийшли на території, що
сьогодні звуться Силіконовою долиною.
 c) Стенфорд-молодший прожив коротке життя, але
завдяки його батьку весь науковий світ знає його ім‟я, бо
саме батько присвятив побудову університету пам‟яті
свого сина.
 d) Фредеріку Терману вдалося налогодити тісну
співпрацю освіти, науки та виробництва.
 e) Науковий та бізнесовий досвід Стенфордського
дослідницького парку використовується в усьому світі.

11 Choose one of the topics below to prepare an oral
presentation in the class:
a) History of Silicon Valley.
 b) Leland Stanford as a person and a businessman.
 c) Frederic Terman‟s role in the formation and
 development of what we call Silicon Valley today.
 d) Stanford Research Park and the biggest companies
  working for it today.
 e) Silicon Valley as the heartland of modern
 microelectronic industry.




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