Monocots and Dicots Worksheet - PowerPoint by mls18743

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									                                                         4/13/2011


      Title:               Biology             4/29/08
      Objectives:
       To review learning about fungi & learn about plants

     Class Topics
       • Plant Notes


                "When you fall, pick something up."
                                     Oswald Avery




Wednesday, April 13, 2011 10:03 AM                           Page: 1
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             After Quiz

• Pick up plant notes and worksheet.

• Start on worksheet until everyone is
  finished.




                                          Page: 2
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                  Food

• Over 350,000 plant species
  – 10,000 for food!
  – 20 species = 90% of food supply
• Agriculture – growing plants and
  animals for human use




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                  Food Crops

• Cereals – grasses that contain grains
  – Rice, wheat, corn, rye, barley, oats, etc.
• Root Crops – roots or underground stems
  – Potato, carrots, radishes, turnips, etc.
• Legumes – pea family (seeds in pods)
  – Soybean, peanut, bean, etc.
• Berries – fleshy fruits
  – Apples, cherries, tomatoes


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        Increasing crop yield

• Fertilizers
  – Provide plants with nutrients
• Pesticides
  – Chemicals that kill organisms that eat
    crops
• Herbicides
  – Chemicals that kill plants


                                                Page: 5
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                    Nonfood Uses
• Medicine
   – Aspirin (most widely used medicine)
      • From white willow tree
   – Still researching plants for medicine
      • Rainforest destruction is a problem!
      • Many of these medicines come from plants
• Clothing and Fabric Dyes
   – Cotton, rayon (processed wood fibers)
      • Tencel – rayon made completely from cellulose
   – Dyes also come from plant sources
• Fuels
   – Fossil fuels
   – Ethanol – fermented grains mixed with gasoline
• Landscaping, windbreaks, shade, tourism
• p. 566 more uses of plants
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                 Plant Ecology

• Plants are photosynthetic and multicellular
  –   Plant capture solar E
  –   Plants absorb CO2
  –   Plants produce sugars and starch
  –   Plants release O2
• Plants provide inorganic nutrients to other
  organisms
• Plants interact with animals and microbes


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             Harmful Plants

•   Tobacco
•   Coccaine
•   Opium
•   Alcohol
•   Poison ivy
•   Ragweed (hay fever and allergies)


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      Terrestrial Adaptations
• Water conservation
  – Cuticle - waxy coating of leaves
    • Prevents water loss, but keeps CO2 out
  – Stomata - pores on leaves for gas
    exchange
    • Lets CO2 in and O2 out
• Water Transport (not mosses)
  – Vascular tissue
    • Xylem- water and minerals up from roots
    • Phloem- food distribution

                                                   Page: 9
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Stomata




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       Terrestrial adaptations

• Meristems (tips of shoots and roots)
  – regions of cell division
  – Ability to grow up or out
• Spores and Seeds
  – Protect reproductive cells from drying
    out




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    Four main groups of land plants

•   Bryophytes
•   Pteridophytes
•   Gymnosperms
•   Angiosperms




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  How plants are related to algae

• Both are photosynthetic
• Both store E as starch
• Both have cell walls of cellulose




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      Vascular vs Non-vascular

• Vascular plants have an internal
  system of interconnected tubes and
  vessels
  – They supply water and nutrients
    throughout the plant
  – ie. xylem and phloem
• Non-vascular do not contain vascular
  tissues and do not have stems, roots,
  or leaves

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         Bryophytes
• Nonvascular plants (short)
   – No true vascular tissue
   – No true roots, stems, or leaves
   – Mosses, Liverworts, Hornworts
• Seedless
   – produce spores
   – Sperm swim to egg
      • needs water
• Pioneer plants
   – first species to inhabit barren areas
   – Mosses help create soil
      • Allows plants to colonize the area


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              Pteridophytes
           (tuhr-AHF-uh-fight)
• seedless vascular plants
  – no seeds (only spores)
  – ex. Wisk ferns, club
    mosses, horsetails,
• Ferns
  – Underground stem –
    rhizome
  – Fiddleheads – tightly coiled
    new leaves
  – Fronds – uncoiled
    fiddleheads (mature
    leaves)

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              Gymnosperms

• “vascular naked-seed plants”
• Seed
  – no fruit to protect seeds
    • In cones
       – Reproductive structure made of hard scales
  – more reproductive success than spores
• Ex: cycads, ginkgoes, and conifers
  (pine, spruce, fir trees)

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             Ginkgophyta

• Deciduous – lose leaves at end of
  growing season
  – Unusual for gymnosperms
• Fan-shaped leaves
• Tolerant of air pollution – urban
  settings
  – Ginkgo biloba - atomic bomb


                                       Page: 20
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                Coniferophyta

• Conifers
  – Pine, cedar, fir, spruce, cypress, etc.
• Sources of wood, paper, turpentine…
• Needle or scalelike leaves
• Most have male (smaller – release pollen)
  and female cones (larger – egg cells on
  scales of cone)
  – After fertilizes female cone closes up
     • Protects the developing seeds
     • Takes 1 to 2 years to mature


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               Angiosperms

• Generally flowering vascular seed plants
• Flower bears seeds within protective
  ovaries.
  – Fruit bearing
• More efficient vascular systems
• May use animal pollination
• May be monocots or dicots
  – Monoctos – 1 cotylendon in their embryo


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Monocots vs. Dicots




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           Basic organs

• Roots
• Stems
• Leaves




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                       Roots

• Functions
  – Anchor
  – Water and mineral absorption
  – Storage of nutrients (carrot)
• Dicots
  – Taproot
     • Dandelion
• Monocots
  – Fibrous root system
     • Grasses
  – Adventitious roots
     • Above ground – prop roots of corn
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                       Stems

•   Nodes- where leaves are attached
•   Internodes- stem segments between nodes
•   Axillary bud- potential to form branch
•   Terminal bud- where leaves develop at tip
•   Apical dominance- terminal bud inhibits
    growth of axillary buds
    – Taller = more light




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Upper parts of a plant:
1 = apical shoot
2 = node
3 = internode
4 = side stem
5 = main stem
6 = leaf blade
7 = petiole
8 = axillary bud




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                Leaves

• Photosynthetic organs
• Usually flattened blade and a stalk
  (petiole) attaching leaf to node of the
  stem




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                 The flower

• Most plants are angiosperms
  – The hallmarks of these plants are flowers
                                    Pollen grains

                                                    Stigma


                                                                  CARPEL


                                                    Ovary
                   STAMEN



                                                              PETAL




                            Ovule               SEPAL


                                                             Figure 17.9A, B

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                  Flower Parts

• Sepals – outermost
  whorl of flower parts
  that protect
  developing flower
  before it opens
• Petals – next whorl of
  flower parts, brightly
  colored if insect or
  animal-pollinated
  – Help ensure pollinate
                                  Page: 35
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                  Male Parts

• Stamens – male
  reproductive
  structures
• Anther – tip of
  stamen that contains
  pollen
• Filament – stalk that
  supports the anther


                                Page: 36
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                    Female Parts
• Carpel(s) – Innermost
  whorl, female
  reproductive structure
• Pistil – one or more
  carpels fused together
• Ovary – base of pistil
• Style – stalklike
  structure coming from
  ovary
• Stigma – tip of the style,
  usually sticky to catch
  pollen


                                    Page: 37
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Virtual Flower Dissection




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                 Pollination

• Transfer of pollen from anther to stigma.
• Many plants have both male and female
  reproductive parts in the same flower
  (self-pollination)
• Cross-pollination occurs between
  genetically different plants.
  – Increases genetic variation



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               Pollination

• Transfer of pollen from anther to
  stigma.
• Many flowers have male and female
  reproductive parts (self-pollination)
• Cross-pollination
  – genetically different plants
• Help the Honey Bees
• “60 Minutes” CCD

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            Fertilization

• Union of gametes following pollination
• Pollen tube grows to an egg (1-2 days
  after pollination in angiosperms)
• Zygote forms as sperm fuses with
  the egg
• Nucleus develops into embryo
• Endosperm supplies nutrients to the
  embryo (Corn is mostly endosperm)

                                        Page: 41
 The structure of a fruit reflects its         4/13/2011



        function in seed dispersal
• Fruits are adaptations that disperse seeds




                                   Figure 17.11A-C

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              Animals & Plants
• Angiosperms are a major source of food
  for animals
  – Animals also aid plants in pollination and seed
    dispersal




                                              Figure 17.13A-C


                                                    Page: 43
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Virtual Flower
  Dissection




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           Flower Dissection Lab

• Division of labor (label with initials before
  starting)
   – Three drawings
      • Each person must draw once
   – 12 questions
      • Each person must answer 4 questions
• One grade for each group
   – Check each other’s work!
• Tape each part (except pollen) to the lab sheet
• Microscopes
   – Stereoscope – for viewing stamen, carpel, & ovary
   – Compound light – for viewing pollen


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                Lab Safety

• Glassware
  – Slides and coverslips
    • If they’re chipped or broken, let me know
• Sharp Instrument Safety
  – Scalpel
    • Put it back in the protective sleeve when not
      in use
  – Cut towards the table
    • Hold flower parts with forceps


                                                   Page: 46
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          Postlab Activities

• Clean up your area when you get done!
• Work on the following:

  – Read Ch 31 sections 3 & 4
    • P. 608-618
  – Read Ch 32 sections 3 & 4
    • P. 634-640



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 3 Tissue Systems of Each Organ

• Dermal tissue/epidermis
  – Single layer of tightly packed cells
    covering all young parts of the plant;
    “skin”
  – Main function- protection
  – Can have other functions depending on
    organ
    • Secretes cuticle of leaves and stems
    • Root hairs absorb water

                                              Page: 48
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 3 Tissue Systems of Each Organ

• Vascular tissue
  – Transports materials between roots and
    shoots
  – Two Types
    • Xylem- water and minerals
       – dead
    • Phloem- food
       – living
  – Tracheids- water conducting elements of
    xylem

                                             Page: 49
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 3 Tissue Systems of Each Organ

• Ground tissue:
  – Neither dermal nor vascular
  – Dicots-
    • Pith- internal to vascular tissue
    • Cortex- external to vascular tissue
  – Functions:
    • photosynthesis, storage, support




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          Growth patterns

• Annuals: complete life cycle in one
  year or less
• Biennials: Complete life cycle in two
  years
• Perennials: Plants that live many
  years



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                  Growing

• Meristems- regions of growth
• Cells divide at high rates
• Apical meristems- at tips of shoots and
  roots for primary growth
• Lateral meristems- for secondary growth
  (thickening) cylinders of dividing cells along
  length of shoots and roots.
• Primary growth- youngest part of the plant


                                               Page: 54
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          Water movement

• Transpiration
• Transpiration II




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Leaf Anatomy- Page 734




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                    Test Review

•   Eat all plant parts
•   Cereal plants = grains
•   Legumes – add nitrogen to soil
•   Mycorrhizae – symbiosis – plants and fungi
•   Adaptations to land
    – Water conservation
       • Cuticle (waxy covering) & stomata (guard cells)
    – Reproduction – swimming sperm


                                                            Page: 59
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                Test Review

• Bryophytes
  – Moist habitat
  – Pioneer plants – create soil
  – Mosses, hornworts, liverworts
• Ferns
  – Not a bryophyte
  – No seeds
• Gymnosperms
  – Cones
  – 1st plants to have seeds

                                     Page: 60
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                    Test Review

• Angiosperms
  – Dicots
     •   Branching veins
     •   Flower parts in groups of 4 & 5
     •   2 cotyledons
     •   Taproot
  – Monocots
     •   Parallel veins
     •   Flower parts in groups of 3
     •   1 cotyledon
     •   Fibrous root



                                             Page: 61
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                    Test Review

• Roots
  – Root hair – absorb water and minerals
• Stems/Leaves
  – Attach at node
• Flowers
  – Reproductive structure
  – Color/scent/nectar to aid pollination
     • Animal pollinators
  – Pollen – anther (pic)
  – Pollination – anther to stigma (sticky)
     • Cross pollination – genetic variation
     • Pollen tube to ovary


                                                Page: 62
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              Test Review

• Seed
  – Form from ovary
  – Germinate to form seedling
    • When moisture and temperature appropriate
• Fruit – protection, disperse seeds,
  food for animals



                                              Page: 63
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                 Test Review

• Vascular Tissue
  – Interconnected tissues to transport fluids
  – Xylem
     • Transport water & minerals
  – Phloem
     • Move sugars
• Growth
  – Meristems (roots, stems)
  – Regions of active cell division


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             Plant animations

•   Transpiration
•   Transpiration II
•   Phosphorus cycle
•   Nitrogen in plants
•   Seed development




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