Formal Report Business Communications by lju16692

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   Business
Communications


Chapter Thirteen




                   TYPICAL BUSINESS
                        REPORTS
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                   What Is a Business Report?
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Chapter Thirteen




                    Oral presentation or document that—
                    – Gives information
                    – Requests funding or approval
                    – Analyzes company or market data
                    – Makes recommendations for change
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                              What Are Business
                                  Reports?
Chapter Thirteen




                     Business reports are systematic
                     attempts to answer questions
                     and solve problems. They include
                     the following activities.

                   Planning      Research   Organization   Presentation
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Chapter Thirteen




                      Functions
                   And Purposes of
                       Reports
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   Business
Communications          Functions of Reports
Chapter Thirteen       There are Two Types of
                          Business Reports
                    1. Information reports

                    Are written to present data without
                     analyses or recommendations.
                    Examples:
                      – Trip reports
                      – Compliance reports
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Chapter Thirteen           Analytical reports
                   Analytical reports provide data analyses and
                     conclusions on the issue that the writer has
                     been asked to investigate.
                   Such reports often provide recommendations
                     for the readers to consider, but only on
                     request.
                   Examples
                      – Feasibility reports
                      – Justification or recommendation reports
                      – Yardstick reports
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Chapter Thirteen        Purposes of Reports
                    Type of Report     Purpose of Report

                                     Informational report contains
                   Provide           objective statistical data or facts.
                   information       Writer does not interpret or draw
                                     conclusions from data

                                     Analytical reports may suggest
                   Analyze data      possible interpretations of data or
                   and               offer solutions to problems
                   information

                                     Persuasive reports present and
                                     interpret data and suggest a
                   Persuade          course of action
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Communications        Types of Informational
Chapter Thirteen             Reports
                                    (1 of 2)
                                  Written by one person, sent
                                   internally to one or more people
                   Memos
                                  Give brief, general information

                                  Describe status of projects
                   Progress or    State work done, to be done
                   interim        Identify potential problems


                                   Offers proof that business
                                   meets government regulations
                   Compliance
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                                Types of Informational Reports
Chapter Thirteen                            (2 of 2)


                                       Describe developments of
                                        organization during past year
                   Annual
                                       Valuable public relations tool

                                       Outlines, explains, and sets
                   Policy and           terms for company policies
                   procedure
                                       States how to comply

                                       Details actions, discussions in
                                        business meetings
                   Minutes             Reminds meeting participants;
                                        updates non-participants
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Chapter Thirteen
                   Tips for Creating
                    Good Business
                        Reports
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                   Ten Truths About Business
                            Reports
Chapter Thirteen




                      Everyone writes reports.
                      Most reports flow upward.
                      Most reports are informal.
                      Three report formats are most common:

                         Memo format
                         Letter format
                         Manuscript format

                    Reports differ from memos and letters.
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                   Ten Truths About Business
                            Reports
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                    Today’s reports are written on
                     computers.
                    Some reports are collaborative
                     efforts.
                    Ethical report writers interpret
                     facts fairly.
                    The writer is the reader’s
                     servant.
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                       Applying the Writing
Communications
                              Process
                            to Reports
Chapter Thirteen




                         In Seven Steps
                   1 Analyze the problem and purpose.
                   2 Anticipate the audience and issues.
                   3 Prepare a work plan.
                   4 Research the data.
                   5 Organize, analyze, interpret, illustrate
                     the data.
                   6 Compose the first draft.
                   7 Revise, proofread, and evaluate.
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                   Structural Cues for
Chapter Thirteen
                     Report Readers
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   Business
Communications     Structural Cues for
Chapter Thirteen
                     Report Readers

                   Headings
                    • Write short but clear headings.
                    • Experiment with wording that
                    tells who, what, when, where,
                    and why.
                    – Include at least one heading
                    per report page.
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Chapter Thirteen          Use Transitions

                    Transitions are words or phrases
                     that link ideas together (69)

                    You should use transitions to
                     help readers move from one
                     section, one paragraph or one
                     sentence to an other.
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Chapter Thirteen    How Do You Use Transitions

                    Giving additional information
                     – moreover
                     – in addition
                     – or besides

                     Show casual relationship between two
                      sentences.
                      -therefore
                      -because
                      -consequently
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Chapter Thirteen          Uses of Transitions
                      When comparing two things
                       – similarly
                       – in comparison
                       – still
                       When you want to compare or contrast
                         two things.
                       – conversely
                       – whereas
                       – however
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Chapter Thirteen        Uses of Transitions
                    To express intensification
                     – Indeed
                     – In any event
                     – In fact
                    To summarize
                     – In brief
                     – In short
                     – To sum up
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Chapter Thirteen       Uses of Transitions
                   To summarize
                      In brief
                      To sum up
                      In short

                   When you want to compare or
                   contrast two things
                     Conversely
                     Whereas
                     However
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     Pa            Essay Coherence: Connections
   Business
Communications     Between Paragraphs
                                                                         Chronology
Chapter Thirteen     Signposts/Cues for the Reader                       Soon
                                                     Details/            Afterwards
                   Additional Info
                                                     Emphasis            Finally
                   And
                                                     In fact             Then
                   Further
                                                     For example         Previously
                   Moreover                          For instance        Formerly
                   Again                             To illustrate       Next
                   Next                              Indeed              Immediately
                   What’s more                       In other words
                   Also              Conclusion      In short         Contrast
                   In addition       Therefore       Obviously        However
                   Equally important Thus            That is          But
                                     In conclusion                    Although
                                     Consequently                     Nonetheless
                                     On the whole                     In contrast
                                     As a result                      Meanwhile
                                                                      Yet
                                     Hence
                                                                      On the other
                                     In brief                              hand
                                                                      Conversely
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                   Writing Short Business
Chapter Thirteen           Reports
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                             Overview
Chapter Thirteen   Length and formality
                    determine report structure
                   Characteristics of short
                    reports
                   Direct and indirect order for
                    organizing short reports
                   Forms of short reports
                   Forms of special reports
                     Length and Formality
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Chapter Thirteen       Determine Report
                           Structure

                   Long problems and formal
                    contexts require a more
                    complex structure
                   Short problems and informal
                    contexts need a simpler
                    structure
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                             Overview
Chapter Thirteen   Length and formality
                    determine report structure
                   Characteristics of short
                    reports
                   Direct and indirect order for
                    organizing short reports
                   Forms of short reports
                   Forms of special reports
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                    Characteristics of Short
Chapter Thirteen
                           Reports

                   Little need for
                    introductory information
                   Usually direct order
                   More personal writing
                    style
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                            Overview
Chapter Thirteen   Length and formality
                    determine report structure
                   Characteristics of short
                    reports
                   Direct and indirect order
                    for organizing short
                    reports
                   Forms of short reports
                   Forms of special reports
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                        Audience Analysis and
Chapter Thirteen
                         Report Organization

                      If readers
                     are informed
                                                              Report

                                                         -----Main Idea ----
                                                         -----------------------
                      If readers                         -----------------------
                                        Direct Pattern
                    are supportive                       -----------------------
                                                         -----------------------
                                                         -----------------------
                                                         -----------------------
                                                         -----------------------
                      If readers
                     are eager to
                   have results first
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                          Audience Analysis and
Chapter Thirteen
                           Report Organization
                     If readers
                    need to be
                     educated                                Report

                                                        -----------------------
                                                        -----------------------
                     If readers                         -----------------------
                    need to be       Indirect Pattern   -----------------------
                    persuaded                           -----------------------
                                                        -----------------------
                                                        -----------------------
                                                        -----Main Idea ----
                   If readers may
                     be hostile or
                     disappointed
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                            Overview
Chapter Thirteen   Length and formality
                    determine report structure
                   Characteristics of short
                    reports
                   Direct and indirect order
                    for organizing short
                    reports
                   Forms of short reports
                   Forms of special reports
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Chapter Thirteen   Forms of Short Reports
                      Short Report
                      Letter Report
                      Email Report
                      Special
                       Report
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Chapter Thirteen   Special Report Forms

                   Staff Report
                   Meeting Minutes
                   Progress Report
                   Audit Report
                   Proposal
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Chapter Thirteen        Writing Style


                    Formal

                    Informal
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Chapter Thirteen         Styles of Reports
                    Informal reports–
                      – Usually brief
                      – Use direct strategy
                      – Include personal pronouns
                    Formal reports–
                      – Usually longer
                      – Often use indirect strategy,
                        impersonal style
                      – Designed in prescribed format
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                   Writing Formal
Chapter Thirteen      Reports
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                       Components of Formal
Chapter Thirteen
                            Reports
                    Prefatory Part
                     – Cover (page 73)
                     – Title fly and title page (page 73)
                     – Executive summary (page 75)
                     – Table of contents (page 76)
                     – List of illustrations
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                     Work Plan for a Formal
                            Report
Chapter Thirteen




                    Statement of problem
                    Statement of purpose
                    Sources and methods of data
                     collection
                    Tentative outline
                    Work schedule
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                   Writing Informational
Chapter Thirteen          Reports
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                       Types of Informational
Chapter Thirteen
                              Reports
                    Periodic Reports
                     – Summarize regular activities and
                       events
                     – Describe unusual events to which
                       the management should pay
                       attention
                     – Highlight problem and needs
                     – See example on page 84
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Chapter Thirteen      Informational Reports

                    Situational reports
                     – Summary
                     – Statement that answer questions
                     – Other information needed
                     – Recommendations

                     – See page 86-87
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Chapter Thirteen       Investigative Reports

                    Investigative reports are written
                     in response to a request for
                     information.
                    The purpose of such report is to
                     provide data for a specific
                     situations
                    See page 88-89
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Chapter Thirteen      Informational Reports

                   Progress Reports
                     Introduction
                     Body
                     Conclusions and
                     recommendations

                    See page 87-88
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                   Writing Informational
Chapter Thirteen          Reports
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                              Introduction
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Chapter Thirteen




                    Identify the report and its purpose.

                    Present a brief overview of the
                     report’s organization, especially for
                     longer reports.

                    When readers are unfamiliar with the
                     topic, briefly fill in the background
                     details.
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   Business
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Chapter Thirteen


                    Group facts or findings into three to
                     five roughly equal segments that do
                     not overlap.

                    Organize by time, component,
                     importance, criteria, convention, or
                     some other method.

                    Supply functional or talking heads
                     (at least one per page) to describe
                     each section.
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                                 Body
Chapter Thirteen




                    Use an informal, conversational
                     writing style unless a formal
                     tone is expected.

                    Use bullets, numbered and
                     lettered lists, headings,
                     underlined items, and white
                     space to enhance readability.
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Chapter Thirteen
                   Drawing Conclusions
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                       Summary/Conclusion
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Chapter Thirteen




                    When necessary, briefly review
                     the main points and discuss
                     what action will follow.

                    If relevant, express appreciation
                     or describe your willingness to
                     provide further information.
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                   Writing Analytical
Chapter Thirteen
                        Reports
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Chapter Thirteen           What is an A

                    An analytical report, like
                     informational reports, collect
                     and present data; but their
                     emphasis, is placed on
                     analyzing, drawing conclusions,
                     and proposing recommendations
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                          Analytical Reports
Chapter Thirteen
                           Direct Approach
                    Identify the problem.
                    Propose the recommendation,
                     solution or action.
                    Explain the benefits of the
                     recommendation.
                    Discuss pros and cons and costs.
                    Summarize the recommendation and
                     action to be taken.
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                              Introduction
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Chapter Thirteen




                    Explain why the report is being
                     written. For research studies, include
                     the significance, scope, limitations,
                     and methodology of the
                     investigation.

                    Preview the report’s organization.

                    Summarize the conclusions and
                     recommendations for receptive
                     audiences.
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Chapter Thirteen                 Findings
                    Discuss the pros and cons of each
                     alternative. For receptive audiences,
                     consider placing the recommended
                     alternative last.

                    Establish criteria to evaluate
                     alternatives. In ―yardstick‖ studies
                     create criteria to use in measuring
                     each alternative consistently.
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                               Findings
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Chapter Thirteen




                    Support the findings with
                     evidence: facts, statistics,
                     expert opinion, survey data, and
                     other proof.

                    Use headings, enumerations,
                     lists, tables, and graphics to
                     focus emphasis.
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                           Analytical Reports
Chapter Thirteen
                           Indirect Approach
                    Describe the problem that the report
                     focuses on the data
                    Use data to show how serious the problem
                     could be.
                    Start with the one you least want to
                     recommend.
                    End with the best solution you propose
                    Discuss the advantages and disadvantages
                     of your recommendation.
                    Summarize your recommendations.
                    See page 91-92
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                   Tips for Writing Report
Chapter Thirteen
                         Conclusions
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                   Tips for Writing Report
Chapter Thirteen
                         Conclusions
                      Interpret and summarize the
                       findings.
                       Tell what your findings (collected
                       data) mean.
                      Relate the conclusions to the
                       report problem.
                       Focus only on conclusions that
                       help solve the original problem.
                      Limit the conclusions to the data
                       presented.
                       Do not introduce new material.
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                   Tips for Writing Report
Chapter Thirteen
                         Conclusions

                     Be objective.
                     Avoid exaggerating or manipulating the
                     data to prove a point.
                     Use consistent criteria.
                     In evaluating options, use the same
                     criteria for each alternative.
                     Enumerate each conclusion.
                     Number and list each item. Present
                     items in parallel form.
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                        Conclusions and/or
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Chapter Thirteen
                        Recommendations
                    Develop reasonable conclusions that
                     answer the research question. Justify
                     the conclusions with highlights from
                     the findings.

                    Make recommendations, if asked.
                     Use action verbs. Explain needed
                     action.
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Chapter Thirteen     Recommendations
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Chapter Thirteen     Recommendations

                     Suggest actions.
                     Indicate specific procedures that can
                     help solve the report problem.

                     Focus on recommendations
                      that are practical and
                      agreeable.
                     Suggest feasible actions that would be
                     acceptable to this audience.
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Chapter Thirteen     Recommendations
                     Present recommendations
                      separately.
                      Enumerate each in a statement
                      beginning with a verb.

                     If requested, indicate how
                      the recommendations may
                      be implemented.
                      Some writers present detailed plans
                      for executing the recommendations.
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Chapter Thirteen     Recommendations

                       Conclusion:
                         Survey results show that the
                         biggest student complaint
                         centred on long registration
                         lines.
                       Recommendation:
                         Implement a registration
                         reservation system in which
                         students sign up for specific
                         registration time slots.
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                     Types of Analytical Reports
Chapter Thirteen
                         Feasibility Reports
                    A feasibility report analyzes the
                     available information to determine
                     whether the project is worth doing
                     and what is the chance of success.
                    Answer questions such as:
                     –   Will the proposal work?
                     –   If so, what are the costs involved?
                     –   How soon can the costs be recovered?
                     –   Is the staff sufficient?
                     –   Are thee any legal or other special
                         requirements?
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Chapter Thirteen         Feasibility Reports
                    Present your decision.
                    Describe the background and
                     problem initiating the proposal.
                    Discuss the benefits of the proposal.
                    Analyze the problems that many
                     result.
                    Calculate the costs associated with
                     the proposal.
                    Provide the estimated timetable for
                     implementing the proposal.
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Chapter Thirteen         Yardstick Reports

                    Yardstick reports examine two
                     or more solutions to a problem
                     that needs solving.
                    Each alternative is evaluated
                     against the same standard, so
                     that you can select the best
                     solution
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Chapter Thirteen         Yardstick Reports
                    Start by describing the problem
                     or need.
                    Present possible solutions and
                     alternatives.
                    Evaluate each alternative
                     against the criteria.
                    Summarize the evaluations.
                    Make the recommendation.
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Chapter Thirteen




                   End

								
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