Ancient Discoveries: Part 3 ROBOTICS PROGRAMME LENGTH 1 hour SCREENING DETAILS Monday February 21st at 9.30am EST/ NZ Also available on Foxtel Download and AUSTAR AnyWhere from February 21st to December 31st. This program reconstructs the world of „Michanikos‟, Heron of Alexandria and his work in the great Museum of the Hellenistic world. The existence of advanced scientific knowledge is discussed without „crack-pot‟ theories or metaphysics. Heron‟s extraordinary machines are described from existing manuscripts and reconstructed by modern archaeologists using CGI and by model makers. The science and mathematics used for these robots and programmed devises are discussed also. This program will bring a different perspective to most students‟ views of the ancient world. Denis Mootz STAYING FOCUSED. This is the data collection stage of the activity. The detailed questioning is designed to ensure that students decode the visual and aural materials presented to them in the video. The video programs can be stopped at the end of each section. This will allow students to share and discuss answers. Introduction. Note the legacy of the ancient classical world. Note the famed philosophers who once worked at Alexandria. Act 1. Why may our „age‟ be known as the age of machines? Note Aristotle‟s vision of a future age. How did Heron go further than dreaming? Note details of Alexandria at the time of Heron. Note details of the Library of Alexandria. What was the Museum? What do we know of Heron and his machines? Note where Heron‟s machines might be found in the ancient world. Why did ancient faiths have to compete with each other? Note the various religions available in Alexandria. Note details of Heron‟s “machine No 34”. What made this machine „work‟? What impact would this machine have? Act 2. Note the reconstruction of the automatic door mechanism. What science is needed to operate this machine? How did Heron assist the temples raise money? What made these machines work? How did Heron apply these principles in other areas? What fascinates Steve Pool about Heron and his machines? Note the implications for our view of ancient temples. Note details of the „omen‟ machine. Why is this described as „more‟ dishonest than the other machines? How did the bird „sing‟? Note other machines that used sound? Note the reconstruction of the bird and its song. Act 3. Note the works that Heron could consult at Alexandria for designing weapons. Note details of the polybolos. Note Alan Wilkins‟s comments on Heron‟s „machine gun‟. What evidence proves that similar machines were used in battle? Note how the cheiroballista operates. Why did the Romans encourage scientific development at Alexandria? Result? What according to Richard Beacham was Heron‟s prime aim? Result? What role did the theatre play in popular life and culture? Note the demonstration of the acoustics of the Greek theatre. Implications? How did Heron add to the experience of the theatre? Result? Note how gravity was used to automate the scenery of the theatre. In what sense did Heron „program‟ his machines? Implications? Note the details of the epic that Heron decided to automate. Why did he deliberately make his automatic theatre small? Note the provisions for scenery changes and action. What „powered‟ this „theatre‟? Note the sound effects. What science and mathematics were involved? Note the operation of weights, ropes spindles and pegs. Implications? Act 4. Note details of Heron‟s steam „engine‟. Note Steve Pool‟s reconstruction. Note the impact of the modern steam engine. Why did Heron not apply his turbine? Note the discussion of the potential for an ancient industrial revolution. EXTENSIONS. Useful, interesting, challenging, books, sources and websites will provide materials to supplement and complement the History presented in the video program. The data collected here should be used in the notemaking below. Some useful Internet sites: Alexandria: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexandria http://www.touregypt.net/alexandria/ http://historymedren.about.com/od/aentries/a/11_alexandria.htm http://classics.uc.edu/~vanminnen/Alexandria/Ancient_Alexandria.html http://www.mariamilani.com/ancient_rome/alexandria.htm The Mouseion of Alexandria: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Musaeum http://www.dailywriting.net/Mouseion.htm http://www.authenticwonders.com/Alexandria/History/legacy.html The Library of Alexandria: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Library_of_Alexandria http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/3707641.stm http://www.history-magazine.com/libraries.html http://www.bede.org.uk/library.htm http://ehistory.osu.edu/world/articles/ArticleView.cfm?AID=9 http://www.veoh.com/collection/interesthings/watch/v14684341KCQJCWYH http://www.fortunecity.com/emachines/e11/86/alexand.html Greek Science: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Ancient_Greek_science http://www.mlahanas.de/Greeks/Greeks.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Automaton http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ctesibius http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philo_of_Byzantium Heron of Alexandria: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hero_of_Alexandria http://library.thinkquest.org/C006011/english/sites/heron_bio.php3?v=2 http://www.mlahanas.de/Greeks/HeronAlexandria.htm http://www.mlahanas.de/Greeks/HeronAlexandria2.htm http://www.history.rochester.edu/steam/hero/translators.html http://edsdoors.com/history_of_automatic_doors.htm Theatrical machines: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deus_ex_machina http://users.sch.gr/spapand/masks.html http://www.spiderfish.ie/machine-gallery/heron-theatre Steam turbine: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aeolipile http://www.hammacher.com/Product/79580 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Steam_turbine Polybolos: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polybolos http://www.mlahanas.de/Greeks/RepCatapult.htm http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0gvd3hnjiEY Cheiroballista: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ballista http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cheiroballistra Antikythera mechanism: http://www.antikythera-mechanism.gr/ NOTEMAKING. This is the collation stage of the activity. Students need to organise the field of information and begin to explore its context. Directions and /or Inquiry questions are provided for notemaking / summary exercises that will follow the viewing of the video. The materials / data for the summaries have been collected above. The activity could be done in teams, groups, or by individuals, or as a class with teacher direction. 1. Draw up a timeline / chronological chart of the events described and discussed in this program. 2. Note details of the Hellenistic city of Alexandria 3. Note details of the Library and Museum of Alexandria. 4. Note details of the scientific knowledge of the Greeks. 5. Note details of the life and career of Heron of Alexandria. 6. Note details of the temple ‘machines’ built by Heron. 7. Note details of the military ‘machines’ built by Heron. 8. Note details of the domestic ‘machines’ built by Heron. 9. Note details of the theatrical “machines’ built by Heron. 10. Note details of the steam ‘turbine’ built by Heron. 11. Note details of the Antikythera device. ISSUES & INQUIRY. Key issues and inquiry questions that have been raised by the video are addressed at this stage for discussion and research. 1. What was the motivation for Heron’s interest in ‘machines’? 2. Why didn’t Heron apply his steam turbine as a tool? PROBLEMS of EVIDENCE. Questions of reliability and validity of the perspectives, evidence and sources presented in the video program need to be considered, tested and researched. 1. Were Heron’s ‘machines’ the product of his own inspiration? 2. What is the Antikythera mechanism? Implications? COMMUNICATING. The key issues and inquiry questions are potential topics for debate, essay writing, reports, historical recount and explanation. 1. Write a REPORT on the Antikythera mechanism. 2. Draw a scale model or construct a working model of one of Heron’s machines. 3. Explain the use of machines in Greek temples and theatres.
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