HEC and the 18th Amendment

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					HEC and the 18th

                                 April 2, 2011

The Higher Education Commission (HEC) is an autonomous organization whose mission is “to
facilitate institutions of higher learning to serve as an engine of socio-economic development of

The HEC is not attached to the Ministry of Education. The Prime Minister is the Controlling
Authority of the HEC.

The 18th Amendment through the 4th Schedule (Article 70(4) Federal Legislative Lists Part-I and
Part-II) fully supports the current powers and functions of the HEC, and includes higher
education and research as federal subjects.

HEC is a role model federal organization which empowers equal and full participation of all
provinces and universities in higher education policy making for national development. In most
federations around the world, higher education is a federal subject with provinces also having a

HEC through the Medium Term Development Framework (MTDF) 2011-2015 is creating the
knowledge capital and technology required to enable Pakistan to join the ranks of the
industrially advanced countries within the next decade.

For national integration and prosperity, it is essential that HEC must continue to perform its
functions which it has successfully done so for the last 8 years.

HEC and the 18th Amendment
 18th Amendment fully supports the current powers and functions of the HEC so it is
  essential that HEC is retained as a Federal organization in the strategic interest of Pakistan.

 The Provinces already have a strong and forceful voice in the Commission governing the
  HEC which consists of 18 members including a representative from each Province and two
  Federal Secretaries. The other experts nominated by the Prime Minister are also chosen to
  reflect a Provincial balance. The Provinces and universities are full participants and decision
  makers in the development and implementation of all plans and policies for promotion of
  HE in the country

 The 18th Amendment contains the following specific provisions regarding the function of
  HEC as a Federal body

 Fourth Schedule [Article 70(4)]: Federal Legislative List Part I

    Item # 16: Federal agencies and institutes for the following purposes, that is to say, for
     research, for professional or technical training, or for the promotion of special studies.

    Item # 17: Education as respects Pakistani students in foreign countries and foreign
     students in Pakistan

    Item # 32: International treaties, conventions and agreements and International

    Item # 59: Matters incidental or ancillary to any matter enumerated in this Part.
 Fourth Schedule [Article 70(4)]: Federal Legislative List Part II

        Item 6: All regulatory authorities established under a Federal law

        Item 7: National planning and national economic coordination including planning
         and coordination of scientific and technological research.

        Item 11: Legal, medical and other professions

        Item 12: Standards in institutions for higher education and research, scientific and
         technical institutions.

        Item 13: Inter-provincial matters and co-ordination

        Item 17: Matters incidental or ancillary to any matter enumerated in this Part.

 The HEC position paper on the 18th Amendment and its applicability to the HEC is given in
  Annexure A.

Plan for dissolution of higher education

1.     The Higher Education Commission will cease to exist.
2.     A new Commission for standards of higher education would be created under the
       Cabinet Division. Existing HEC functions of equivalence, attestation, recognition of
       degrees, opening of new universities would be transferred to this new Commission.
3.     All HEC research functions would cease to exist. Ongoing 1,000 research projects on the
       most important issues of importance to Pakistan would STOP.
4.     The Foreign scholarship program providing scholarships to nearly 5,000 scholars in 28
       countries would be MOVED to the Ministry of Inter-Provincial Coordination. There is
       even a suggestion to break up the scholarships and distribute existing scholars according
       to domicile!
5.     Graduating PhD students from all over the world would have no entity to coordinate
       return and placement in local universities. Currently HEC tracks each foreign scholar
       individually, and runs a program providing one-year employment in any university of
       their choice, along with a start-up research grant.
6.     Nearly 5,000 Indigenous Scholarship programs would be transferred to provinces in
       some manner yet to be determined. New desks in some ministries would perhaps be
       created to deal with financing and management of PhD scholarships
7.     The Pakistan Education and Research Network providing high speed inter-connectivity
       between universities and to the Internet would stop.
8.     The Digital Library Program would stop.
9.     More than 1,000 scholars per year would be deprived off the opportunity to travel
       abroad to present research papers.
10.    All programs for linking research activities among Pakistani universities would cease.
11.    All programs for improving pedagogical skills of teachers in universities would cease.
       Nearly 5,000 teachers have already benefitted from this program.
12.    Management of ALL universities in the Federal Area would be transferred to a new
       Division of ICT.
13.    Funding of higher education by the Federal Government by HEC would cease and all
       Provincial Universities would be funded through the existing NFC Award. Federal
       Universities would presumably be funded through the allocation to the new Division in

14.       US$ 300 Million World Bank Loan to Government of Pakistan would be withdrawn.
15.       USAID Plan for US$250 Million for supporting higher education sector would go back to
          the drawing board.

Impact on Recognition of Degrees from Pakistan

         Following the dissolution of HEC, the core function of degree recognition, equivalence
          and attestation is to be shifted to a new Commission to be constituted UNDER the
          Cabinet Division. The HEC is an autonomous body reporting directly to the Prime
          Minister and NOT any division. Two thirds of its members are appointed by the Prime
          Minister from a panel of three names of eminent academics. These members are
          appointed for a four-year term and may not be removed, save on proven charges of
          corruption, inefficiency, permanent disability. This structure is what gives the HEC
          Autonomy and allows it to pursue its function with merit and rule of law as the only
          arbiters. This is what allowed the HEC to defy every pressure and not verify degrees of
          Parliamentarians that did not meet the strict standards of verification set by the
          Commission. Without autonomy, a new Commission will neither have local, nor
          international credibility.

         The Supreme Court in its landmark judgment had asked the Election Commission to get
          the degrees of the Parliamentarians verified by the HEC. The dissolution of the HEC and
          movement of its core function of degree recognition and maintenance of standards
          UNDER the Cabinet Division will jeopardize the verification process.

         The new Commission working UNDER the Cabinet Division would also have the power to
          recognize new universities being formed all over the country that are substandard and
          do not meet the existing Cabinet Criteria for a university. Already, many such cases have
          been blocked by the HEC and not granted recognition since they do not have faculty,
          libraries, internet connectivity and are housed in few room structures. By granting
          recognition to such entities, the degrees of ALL Pakistani Universities will become

         The HEC attests more than 200,000 educational documents each year. Every Pakistani
          going for work abroad MUST have their degrees attested by the HEC which is recognized
          by the entire world to be a fair and impartial body whose attestation is accepted at face
          value. The HEC is a Board Member of the Asia Pacific Quality Network and is a member
          of the Network of Quality Assurance Agencies of the World. This membership has to be
          earned and is NOT Transferrable. The World has faith in the degrees of Pakistani
          universities because of HEC. By creating a new Commission, ALL degrees issued by

Pakistani Institutions will NOT be accepted at face value despite any stamp that any new
Commission may issue. The world is carefully following the fake degree scandal of
Pakistani Parliamentarians and can see what the dissolution of HEC entails.

Higher Education and National Development

   Pakistan is strategically located at the cross roads of South Asia, Central Asia and West Asia.
    It is at the mouth of oil rich Persian and Arabian Gulf, and lies close to two superpowers in
    the North, and an aspiring power in the East, with whom it has shared a tumultuous history
    for thousands of years.
   It is a country blessed with natural resources. It needs to develop its natural and human
    resources, both of which it is endowed with abundance, and join the ranks of developed
    industrially advanced, prosperous nations within the next decade
   Pakistan needs to develop critical technology for industrialization, economic growth, energy
    growth, to explore, map and mine natural resources, including Coal at Thar, Gold at Riko
    Deq, Copper at Saindaik, Gas at Qadirpur, and others yet to be explored. Pakistan needs
    technology for Information and Communication Technologies; to drive its own high tech
    manufacturing industry; for transportation and avionics; for weather predictions so
    disasters like floods and tsunami are forecast and for health, agriculture, natural and
    applied sciences among other.
   Pakistan needs technology to continue to protect its national assets and defend its borders.
    Flanked by a hostile neighbor ten times its size, it has no choice but to be at least ten times
    smarter and efficient in the utilization of its resources. Even if it had the financial resources,
    it is a known fact that money cannot buy everything, especially where strategic interests are
   Where is Pakistan today in terms of its Science and Technology (S & T) workforce, its
    research, its technology readiness, and transfer of technology to the industry? The total S&T
    workforce in Pakistan is around 130,000. Out of this, the total number of Researchers &
    Scientists is 53,000, but only 10% (about 5300) hold PhD degrees. 80% of these PhDs (about
    4000) are in Higher Education Institutions governed by the HEC. Of the total 53,000
    Researchers & Scientists in Pakistan, 24% are in SS and Humanities; 24% in Natural Sciences;
    only 18% in Engineering; 16% in Medicine and 14% in Agriculture.
   There are currently over 7500 HEC funded scholars pursuing their Ph.Ds in local and foreign
    universities. This will triple the number of Ph.D faculty at the universities within the next
    five years.
   If we compare the worldwide densities of scientists & researchers, Pakistan has only 162
    researchers and scientists / million population (which is among the lowest in the region),
    Turkey has 562, China 926, South Korea 4162 and USA 4651. Clearly, Pakistan needs a much
    larger science and technology workforce, and research in critical areas. We need to increase
    the number of scientific and research personnel by at least 4 times in the next 10 years if we
    are to become a regional leader.

A Revolution in Higher Education in Pakistan

   The establishment of the HEC in 2002 has heralded a revolution in higher education in
    Pakistan, especially in the fields of Engineering, Science and Technology. The HEC has
    accomplished more in eight years since its establishment than was achieved in the first 55
    years of Pakistan’s existence. It is essential that this growth should continue for the next
    decade at least if Pakistan is to become an industrially advanced country.

   More PhDs have graduated from Pakistani universities in the past 9 years than in the first 55
    years of Pakistan’s existence.

   Two Pakistani Universities are now ranked among the TOP 300 Science and Technology
    Institutions of the World.

   In 2002 Pakistan produced less than half the publications compared to Saudi Arabia. Today
    Pakistan produces 30% more publications than Saudi Arabia which invests 100 times more
    funds in higher education than Pakistan.

   Pakistan has invested more than Rs. 97 Billion for the development of the universities since
    the formation of HEC; a twelvefold increase over the Rs. 7.5 Billion spent in the 1978-2002
    period of the University Grants Commission.

   Engineering, Information Technology, Basic Sciences and Agriculture have received the
    greatest investment by the HEC. Project worth more than Rs. 35 Billion have been approved
    for support of Engineering Universities, more than a 1,000 Foreign PhD scholarships have
    been awarded in Engineering along with more than 500 Indigenous PhD scholarships.

   The Pakistan Education and Research Network (PERN) is one of the most sophisticated
    computer networks in the world linking all universities through a 10GB backbone and 1GB
    connectivity to universities. It is now expanding to link colleges as well. Video-Conferencing
    Equipment is operational in 74 Institutions and expanding rapidly. The Digital Library
    provides access to 75% of the World’s literature (23,000 ejournals and 45,000 ebooks).
    Pakistan today is a regional leader in ICTs which other countries are following.

   In terms of Technology Readiness, HEC has provided state of the art high-tech equipment
    (e.g. Accelerators, SEMs, Vapour Deposition Units, Powder Metallurgy Labs, etc.) to HEIs,
    and Equipment Sharing Programs Grants for Research, for Travel Conferences, for holding
    of Conferences, Seminars, Workshops, etc. Research partnerships are now in place between
    universities in Pakistan and with other leading universities of the world.

   HEC is focusing on development of critical technologies indcluding Biotechnology and
    Genetics, Immunology, Robotics and Automation, Nanotechnologies, Superconductivity,
    Computer Vision, Photo-optics and Lasers, Electromagnetics and Microwaves and Nuclear
    Fusion for Energy, etc. which are important for the strategic growth of Pakistan.

   Pak universities have produced more PhDs in the last 8 years (3280) since the establishment
    of HEC than in the first 55 years (3000). Today we produce 10 times more PhDs in
    Engineering and Technology than ever in the past (140 in last 8 years, versus 14 in first 55
    years). The universities are now enabled to produce more PhDs in the next 3 years than in
    the last 8 years.

   Research output has grown six-folds since 2002 (from 815 in 2002 to 5068 in 2010): 80% of
    these research publications are coming from HEIs. Output has more than doubled just in the
    last 3 years and is expected to double again in the next 3 years.

   Nearly 5,000 scholars from Pakistan have been facilitated to present their research work in
    leading conferences of the world.

   Researchers from Pakistan have linkages with their counterparts in every leading university
    of the world in the US, UK, China, Germany, France, Australia, Korea, etc.

   For Technology Transfer to Industry, HEC is working on Development of High-Tech
    Incubators. Those in the pipeline at the universities include at UA Faisalabad, UET Peshawar,
    UET Lahore, NED, and NUST.

   Three new Centers of Excellence, in Energy, Food Security, and Water Resources, are under
    development in three leading universities assisted by USAID.

   HEC has taken higher education to the masses through the establishment of world-class
    academic facilities in 2nd and 3rd tier cities in the heartland of Punjab, Sindh and KPK.

   The biggest investment (By share) has been in the KPK Province with new universities being
    set up in Bannu, Kohat, Malakand, Swat, and Mardan. The Kohat University of Science and
    Technology today publishes more papers in the world’s leading journals, than many other
    universities in Pakistan.

   In Balochistan, 4 new universities have been developed and made operational, as compared
    to the 2 that existed in 2002. Projects for an additional 2 have been approved for
    establishment in Loralai and Turbat. 57 PhD Scholars from the University of Balochistan are
    currently studying in AIT Bangkok due to the linkage established by HEC.

   In Sindh, 3 new Universities and 4 Campuses in underdeveloped areas are in various stages
    of development.

   The IT sector has seen a complete transformation in the education system with the
    standardization of the 4-year undergraduate program and the establishment of the
    Accreditation Council ensuring adherence to international standards. This forms the
    backbone of the IT export revolution occurring in Pakistan.

   The entire Bachelor(4-year), Master and PhD (3-tier) has been revised to conform to world
    standards. According to NARIC, the UK agency for equating foreign education documents,
    “We are of the opinion that this previous system of education (Pre-HEC) was not only
    shorter than the current system in Pakistan, but it did not emphasise subject specialisation
    and independent research as much” A PhD from Univ. of Karachi granted in 2007 was
    therefore recognized equivalent to MPhil. However, with the new system of education,
    NARIC writes,” “Within the revised (Post-HEC) Pakistani higher education system….we
    recognise all research degrees (MPhil and PhD) to UK standard”

   According to Science Watch, January 2011 issue,(a prestigious magazine published out of
    UK) research growth from Pakistan has ranked 1st in 2 areas: Microbiology; and Plant and
    Animal Sciences. But that is not enough: Major research in priority areas and in Engineering
    and Technology is required, which is slowly beginning to take over.

   Already, according to QS World Universities Rankings 2010, 2 Universities: NUST (274), and
    UET (281) are now in top 300 Technology Universities of the World, while MUET is in top
    400. We need to continue to focus on adding quality in research and education to our other
    universities as well.

   HEC has International Credibility with the World Bank approving a US$100 Million Higher
    Education Support program in 2008. A new US$300 Million Tertiary Education Support
    Program has been approved on March 24th, 2011 contingent upon the HEC remaining as

   USAID is finalizing a US$250 Million support to the HEC focusing on the establishment of
    Centers of Excellence in Water, Energy and Agriculture.


   Pakistan’s scientists, engineers and technologists are its single biggest strategic asset. Till
    five years ago, these were concentrated in a few strategic organizations, however, the

    revolution in higher education brought about by HEC has ensured that every engineering
    and science and technology university has started to blossom into a center of research and
    innovation. With thousands of PhD students abroad at the world’s leading universities, the
    next few years will herald an unprecedented revolution in Science and Technology in

   There already has been a ten-fold increase in PhD production in the Engineering fields. With
    1,500 more PhDs in Engineering alone set to join the ranks in the next three year, an
    irreversible transformation in the Engineering Sector, will occur in Pakistan.

   HEC has integrated Pakistan and broken the elitist myth of availability of talent only in big
    cities. Pakistani scholars from little villages and remote towns have taken the world by
    storm. This is especially true in our neighbouring country which is now trying to create an
    HEC-like organization, and has announced a five-fold increase in the higher education
    budget with tens of new IITs to be set up.

   The next 5 year strategy of HEC calls for Universities Building Pakistan. It is important that
    this vision become a reality.

   In conclusion, HEC is the Role Model Federal Organization which empowers equal and full
    participation of all universities and provinces to facilitate higher education for the socio-
    economic development of Pakistan.

                                                                                    Annexure A
18th Amendment & Higher Education

1.   The passage of the 18th Amendment, amended Part-I of the Fourth Schedule of the
     Constitution include the following:

          a. Federal agencies and institutes for the following purposes, that is to say, for
             research, for professional or technical training, or for the promotion of special
             studies (Item No. 16).

          b. Education as respects Pakistani students in foreign countries and foreign
             students in Pakistan (Item No. 17).

          c. International treaties, conventions and agreements and International arbitration
             (Item No. 32).

     The following key provisions are in Part II of the Federal Legislative List:

          d. All regulatory authorities established under a Federal law (Item 6).

          e. National planning and national economic coordination including planning and
             coordination of scientific and technological research (Item 7).

          f. Legal, medical and other professions (Item 11).

          g. Standards in institutions for higher education and research, scientific and
             technical institutions (Item 12).

          h. Inter-provincial matters and co-ordination (Item 13).

     Each one of the above provisions is directly applicable to the Higher Education
     Commission (HEC).

2.   The further importance of Item 12 in Part II of the Federal Legislative List (Standards in
     institutions for higher education and research, scientific and technical institutions) is that
     it is a brand new entry inserted by the 18th Amendment to the Constitution. In other
     words, prior to the 18th Amendment, there was no express entry dealing with higher
     education. Instead, Item 38 of the Concurrent Legislative List only dealt generally with
     “Curriculum, syllabus, planning, policy, centres of excellence and standards of education.”
     The insertion of Item 12 into Part II of the Federal Legislative List thus marks a deliberate
     decision by the Constitutional Reform Committee on the 18th Amendment that while
     primary and education issues could be dealt with by the Provinces, the issues relating to

     higher education were such that they necessarily had to be dealt with at a higher level.
     Also, the inclusion of Item 16 in Part-I of the Federal Legislative List (Federal agencies and
     institutes for the following purposes, that is to say, for research, for professional or
     technical training, or for the promotion of special studies) emphases the need to retain
     Federal institutes for research and professional training at the Center. It may also be
     noted in this context, that even prior to the HEC Ordinance, issues relating to higher
     education were being dealt with by the University Grants Commission, a federal body
     created by a federal statute (the University Grants Commission Act, 1974). Higher
     education and research has therefore always been dealt with as a federal subject and it is
     for this reason that Item 12 (List II) and Item 16 (List I) were expressly added to the
     Federal Legislative List.

3.   HEC is a regulatory authority created by the Higher Education Commission Ordinance,
     2002 (which is a Federal law). It is therefore covered by Item 6 of Part II of the Federal
     Legislative List.

4.   The ambit of HEC is defined by Section 10 of the HEC Ordinance, 2002. Sub-section 1 of
     Section 10 gives details of the various functions the HEC may perform “for the evaluation,
     improvement and promotion of higher education, research and development.” These
     enumerated powers and functions provide in considerable detail all the ways in which the
     HEC may encourage and promote “higher education, research and development.” In

             clause (c) of clause 10(1) requires the HEC to “prepare . . . plans for the
              development of higher education”

             clause (k) directs the HEC to “support the development of linkages between
              Institutions and industry as well as national and international organizations that
              fund research and development with a view to enhancing research”

             clause (l) requires the HEC to “promote the study of basic and applied sciences in
              every field of national and international importance in the Institutions”

             clause (t) requires the HEC to “promote formal links between Institutions to
              make the most effective use of experience and specialized equipment and
              promote national and international linkages with respect to knowledge sharing,
              collaborative research, personnel exchange and cost sharing.”

     In light of the foregoing, it is clear that the functions of HEC as defined under the HEC
     Ordinance clearly relate to activities squarely falling within the ambit of Item 7 of Part II of
     the Federal Legislative List.

5.   Item 11 of Part II of the Federal Legislative List deals with “Legal, medical and other
     professions.” Once again, the establishment of standards in relations to professions
     (other than those covered by specific separate legislation) falls within the ambit of the
     HEC. Clause (e) of Section 10(1) of the HEC Ordinance thus requires the HEC to “set up
     national or regional evaluation councils . . . to carry out accreditation of Institutions.”
     Similarly, clause (v) provides that the HEC shall “guide Institutions in designing curricula
     that provides a proper content of basic sciences, social sciences, humanities, engineering
     and technology in the curricula of each level.” The Higher Education Commission is thus
     responsible for standards of higher education and research in the Universities in all
     disciplines including the professional disciplines of Engineering, Medicine, Pharmacy,
     Dentistry, Information Technology, Architecture, etc. The HEC is in fact the regulatory
     body for higher education in the country since it prescribes conditions under which
     universities are opened and operated and also has ultimate authority for recognition of
     degrees, diplomas, certificates etc. issued by the Universities. Thus, the activities of HEC
     as per the HEC Ordinance also relate to Item 11 of Part II of the Federal Legislative List.

6.   The most emphatic provision regarding the essential federal nature of HEC’s activities is,
     however, Item 12 of Part II which covers “Standards in institutions for higher education
     and research, scientific and technical institutions.” As can be gathered from even a brief
     view of the functions and powers of HEC as encapsulated in Section 10 of the HEC
     Ordinance, the determination of standards in higher education is the very core of the
     responsibilities of the HEC. The mandate of the HEC is thus directly and specifically
     covered by Item 12 of part II of the Federal Legislative List.

7.   Item 13 of Part II of the Federal Legislative List deals with “Inter-provincial matters and
     co-ordination.” In this context, it is evident that regulation of higher education necessarily
     requires inter-provincial co-ordination. The subject of higher education has close, deep
     and multidimensional links to i) National Policy and Planning, ii) Economic Growth, iii)
     Scientific & Technical Research, iv) Defense Production, v) Industrial Growth and the vi)
     National Innovation System. Higher Education is not a subject that is confined to national
     boundaries since it is imperative to have international recognition of degrees for which
     adherence to International Quality Assurance Benchmarks is a necessity.

8.   Item 17 of Part I of the Federal Legislative List deals with “Education as respects Pakistani
     students in foreign countries and foreign students in Pakistan.” In this regard, Section
     10(1) of the HEC Ordinance expressly authorizes the HEC in a number of different ways.
     For example, clause (r) of Section 10(1) provides that the HEC shall “take measures,
     including the allocation of funds, for the establishment of fellowships, scholarships,
     visiting professorships programmes or any other programme . . . and facilitate greater

      mobility of faculty through national and international contacts.” It is furtherance of this
      provision that more than 4,000 Pakistani students are currently receiving PhD
      scholarships in leading universities abroad.

9.    Higher Education is a precious and rare commodity and it is crucial that all resources,
      expertise and assets be shared among the higher education institutions as well as with
      Industry across the country. There exists an essential requirement for Inter-provincial
      coordination for provision of services that can optimally and cost-effectively be provided
      at the central level. These facilities are being provided by HEC through programs such as i)
      National Research Program for Universities in-line with the national research agenda, ii)
      National Program for Provision of Digital Resources such as the research network, digital
      library, research repository, video conferencing, etc., iii) National Scholarship Linkage
      Program with advanced foreign countries for faculty development, iv) Learning Innovation
      Program for faculty pedagogical training, v) National Curriculum Development Program
      for standardized curriculum and academic system development, vi) National Quality
      Enhancement Program for ensuring stringent adherence to local and foreign quality
      standards which are pre-requisites for degree recognition, vii) National Research Linkage
      Program for linking university research to industry.

10.   It is in recognition of the good work being done by HEC that the universities themselves
      support a strong federal role for the HEC. In particular, all the Vice Chancellors of public
      sector universities located in all the provinces of the country in a meeting held on
      November 27, 2010, unanimously resolved that HEC functionality should not be changed
      and the status quo should be maintained.

11. In yet another meeting of all Vice-Chancellors held on March 26, 2011, it was resolved that
    “the HEC must continue to perform all its function in the same manner as it has been doing
    to date”.

12.   It may finally be noted that the establishment of the HEC has not only revolutionized
      higher education in Pakistan and has been recognized internationally for the
      transformation it has produced in Pakistani universities. In fact, India has explicitly
      modeled its future higher education strategy, with a five-fold increase in funding for
      higher education, on the strategy developed by HEC. India, which still has a UGC, is also
      working on establishing an organization similar to the HEC. It would be ironic indeed if the
      role of HEC was to be completely negated at a time when it is being accepted
      international as a role model and pioneer.

13.   In most Federations around the world, higher education is a federal subject with
      provinces also having a say. UK has a Minister of Universities and Science. Malaysia,

      Indonesia, Egypt, South Korea, UAE etc. all have Ministers of Higher Education. Education
      is a Federal Subject in China as well.

14.   HEC’s achievement are many. In the last 8 years, it has established 90 additional
      campuses/new universities, including those in far-flung places such as Lasbela, Uthal, D.G.
      Khan, Malakand, etc. Campus enrollment has tripled from 222,000 to 529,000. 10,000
      HEC Scholarships have been provided to needy students. A student loan program is
      currently under development.

15.   Today researchers from the Kohat University of Science and Technology publishes more
      papers in the world’s leading research journals than many local universities established
      decades ago, the University of Gujrat boast the best Industrial Design department in
      Pakistan, The Karakoram International University, Gilgit hosts the Rector of the
      University of Bonn Germany to study climate change, Shah Abdul Latif University,
      Khairpur works with Egyptian biotechnologists for propagation of date palms while
      researchers at the Lasbela University of Agriculture, Water and Marine Sciences is
      pioneering shrimp farming on the Balochistan Coast. These are some glimpses into the
      accomplishments of the universities that have been established during the past eight
      years only, while those that existed before have gone on to join the ranks of the premier
      science and technology universities of the world, such as the National University of
      Science and Technology, ranked number 274 in the World in 2010, while the University
      of Engineering and Technology, Lahore is ranked 281 by QS World University Rankings.
      From the Australian National University in Canberra, Australia to Cambridge University in
      the UK, just about every leading university in the world has close academic and research
      linkages with top Pakistani universities.

16.   The Government of Pakistan’s investment in the higher education sector is paying off
      now, and with the theme of Universities Building Pakistan envisioned in the HEC Medium
      Term Development Framework for Pakistan 2011-15, Institutions of higher learning all
      across Pakistan will play a leadership and transformation role for the socio-economic
      development of the country over the next decade. A strong and vibrant HEC is necessary
      for the continued progress of higher education in Pakistan.


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