fuels

Document Sample
fuels Powered By Docstoc
					“Clean Fuels and Clean Vehicles
                    in Bulgaria”



                Michael P. Walsh
                  February, 2006
                Overview
• Why We Are Concerned About Vehicle
  Emissions
• Clean Fuels-Clean Vehicles – A Systems
  Approach
• Clean Cars: New and Existing
• Clean Buses: New and Existing
• Clean Off Road Technology
• Economic Instruments
• Traffic Control
World Motor Vehicle Population

Millions
1200


1000


 800
            Motorcycles
 600        Commercial Vehicles
            Cars
 400


 200


    0
     1930     1940      1950      1960   1970   1980   1990   2000
….increased congestion!!
       Products of Combustion


• Lead                  Ambient Air    Real Fuel
• Hydrocarbons
• Carbon
  Monoxide
• Oxides of
  Nitrogen
• Carbon Dioxide
• Particulates
• Other pollutants
                     Engine/Emission
• Water Vapor
                       Technology
    Other Emissions From Vehicles

Refueling Losses           Evaporative Emissions
     displaced vapors      diurnal, running losses, hot soak




      • Other                Crankcase Losses
                                  due to "blow-by"
      Emissions
•    brake linings, tire
     wear, fluid leaks
What pollutants are of concern?

    Greenhouse            Haze
      Gases
  - CO2, methane

                                  Ozone
                                 (ROG + NOx)


   Particles (PM10/PM2.5)
                                               Toxics
  (NOx, SOx, ROG, ammonia)                - Diesel particles
                                          - Benzene
                                          - Chromium
           Carbon monoxide                - Asbestos
                   (CO)
Health Impacts of Air Pollution
              Premature
                Deaths


              Cancer

        Developmental Effects


          Hospitalization

   Asthma Attacks and Bronchitis
   Adverse Health Effects From Air
      Pollution Beyond Dispute
• WHO Concludes ~ 800,000 Premature
  Deaths Each Year From Urban PM
• Numerous Studies in Europe & US
  Consistently Link PM With Premature
  Deaths, Hospital Admissions, Asthma
  Attacks, Etc.
• No Evidence of a Threshold
• Ozone Also A Serious Health Concern
• NO2, Various Toxics Also Problematic
       HEALTH IMPACTS OF
        VEHICLE EXHAUST

• Over the past decade, dozens of studies
  from all over the world have shown that
  spending time in close proximity to heavy
  traffic, especially diesel truck traffic, is
  associated with a wide range of morbidity
  effects, as well as increased mortality

• Diesel exhaust particulate (DEP) declared
  a toxic air contaminant by ARB in 1998
Proximity To Truck Traffic Linked To Lung
           Function in Children
                         2,100
Lung Function in liter




                         2,040


                         1,980                                                FEV1


                         1,920


                         1,860
                             7500    12500        17500        22500
                                    Truck Traffic Density

                                       Brunekreef, Epidemiology; 8: 298-303
             NOx emissions
                               EU-25
100%

             Off-road
                                             Off-road



75%          Diesel
         heavy duty veh.                     Diesel
                                         heavy duty veh.


            Diesel cars
                                            Diesel cars

50%                                       Gasoline cars
          Gasoline cars
                                            Domestic

            Domestic
                                       Industrial processes
       Industrial processes
25%
       Industrial combustion
                                       Industrial combustion


         Power generation
                                         Power generation

 0%
              2000                            2020
RELATIVE POLLUTANT CONCENTRATIONS
   vs DISTANCE FROM I-405 FREEWAY
            (Zhu et al., 2002a)
Typical engine exhaust mass and number
 weighted size distributions shown with
                                                                alveolar deposition

                                                   0.2                                                                                                             1
                                                                                   Nanoparticles                                                    Fine
                                                  0.18                             Dp < 50 nm                                                       Particles      0.9
                                                                                                                                                    Dp < 2.5 m
   Normalized Concentration, dC/C total /dlogDp




                                                                                                      Ultrafine Particles
                                                  0.16                                                                                                  PM10     0.8
                                                                                                      Dp < 100 nm
                                                                                                                                                      Dp < 10 m




                                                                                                                                                                         Alveolar Deposition Fraction
                                                  0.14                                                                                                             0.7


                                                  0.12                                                          Fractional deposition of particle                  0.6
                                                                                                                with density of 1 g/um
                                                   0.1                                                                                                             0.5


                                                  0.08                                                                                                             0.4


                                                  0.06                                                                                                             0.3


                                                  0.04                                                                                                             0.2
                                                                              Nuclei                       Accumulation                               Coarse
                                                  0.02
                                                                              Mode                            Mode                                     Mode        0.1


                                                    0                                                                                                              0
                                                     0.001            0.010                        0.100                         1.000                         10.000
                                                                                           Diameter (m)
                                                             Mass Weighting             Number Weighting                      Alveolar Deposition Fraction
                                         ARB In-Vehicle Study
                                     Real-Time Fine Particle Counts
                               (L.A. Freeway, AM Rush Hour, Vent Open)
Total Particle Counts / cc




                             14000
                                                                      HDD Delivery Van
                                         Diesel Charter Bus
                             12000

                             10000

                             8000

                             6000

                             4000

                             2000

                                0

                                                    Time (120 minutes)
                                          Outside Vehicle 1      Inside Vehicle 1
   ELEMENTS OF A COMPREHENSIVE
VEHICLE POLLUTION CONTROL STRATEGY
                 CLEAN
                VEHICLE
              TECHNOLOGY




                            TRANSPORTATION
APPROPRIATE
                           & LAND USE
MAINTENANCE                PLANNING




                CLEAN
               FUELS
     Why Are Fuels Important?
 • Fuel Constituents Directly Affect
   Emissions
 • Fuel Changes Can Immediately Impact on
   Emissions/Air Quality
 • Fuel Composition Can Enable/Disable
   Pollution Control Technology



ÖL
       Motivation For Improved
            Fuels Qualities
  Improved               Reduced                 Improved          Environmental
fuel qualities          emissions                air quality          benefits




   Gasoline – Lead/Sulfur      Carbon monoxide (CO)             Improved
                                                                   human health
   Diesel –Sulfur              Hydrocarbons (HC)
                                                                  Reduced
   Other Parameters            Nitrogen oxides (NOX)
                                                                   corrosion
                                Particulate matter (PM)
                                                                  Improved crop
                                Sulfur (SO2)                      yield
                                Polyaromatic                     Less
                                 hydrocarbons (PAH)                acidification,
                                                                   eutrophication
                                Greenhouse Gases
                                                                   and forest
                                                                   damage
                                                                  Climate Change
  Blood Lead Levels Considered
            Elevated
Micrograms per Deciliter

30          27
                            26

25

20                                        17


15

10                                               7


 5

 0
          1975             1980          1985   1990
                                  Year


     Is Any Lead Acceptable From A Health Standpoint?
 Study Indicates Largest Impact
    at Very Low Lead Levels
• New England Journal of
  Medicine (4/17/2003)
                                  IQ Loss as Lead
• 172 children tested at 6,          Increases
  12, 18, 24, 36, 48, 60
  months                      8   7.4
• Corrected for
  confounding variables       6
                                               from 1
• 101 children never above                     to 10
                              4
  10µg/dl                               2.5
                                               from 10
                                               to 30
• Blood lead significantly    2
  associated with I/Q
                              0
                                 Ambient Pb Concentrations in
                                Bangkok and Pb in Gasoline from
                                         1988 - 1998
                                0.5                                                                   2.5
                                                               Premium ULG was introduced in 1991




                                                                                                            Average Pb Concentration ( g/m3)
Pb Content in Gasoline (g/l)




                               0.45
                                                               Regular ULG was introduced in 1993
                                0.4                                                                   2
                                                               Complete phase out of regular leaded
                               0.35                            gasoline in 1993

                                0.3                            Complete phase out of premium leaded   1.5
                                                               gasoline in 1995
                               0.25

                                0.2                                                                   1

                               0.15

                                0.1                                                                   0.5

                               0.05

                                 0                                                                    0
                                      1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998

                                             Pb Content in Gasoline       Ambient Pb Concentration
          Percentage of School Children with Blood Pb
                       Levels ≥ 10 g/dl

          40
               36.4
                                                                    1993      2000
          35
                             29.7
          30                                          26.8
                                           25.3                      26.4
          25                                                                       22.9
Percent




          20

          15

          10                                                 6.25                         5.94
           5                                                                3.26
                      1.58          1.71
                                                  0
           0
               School 1      School 2      School 3   School 4       School 5      School 6
The Three-way Catalytic Converter: A Familiar Technology Re-
   Engineered for High Performance in Close-coupled and
                  Underfloor Applications



                                          •Layered washcoat
                                             architectures and
                                             support materials with
                                             high thermal stability
                                          •Integrated HC adsorption
                                             functions
                                          • Mounting materials with
                                              improved durability
                                          • High cell density ceramic
                                              or metallic substrates
                                          • Insulation schemes for
                                              heat management



                  Can Only Be Used With Lead Free Fuel
The “Technology Enabling”
  Fuels Story in Europe
EVOLUTION OF THE REGULATORY EXHAUST EMISSION
   STANDARDS FOR PASSENGER CARS IN THE EU
     100

     90    70/220/EEC
     80

     70

     60

 %   50

     40

     30
                        74/290/EEC


                                     77/102/EEC




     20
                                                  78/665/EEC




     10
                                                               83/351/EEC




                                                                                         94/12/EC
      0




                                                                            91/441/EEC
       %CO
       %HC + NOx
    The “Technology Enabling” Fuels Story in Europe
          -Introduction of unleaded Gasoline -
• Until early 80’s “lead reduction/phase out” initiative in Europe, transport
  fuel specifications largely determined by performance concerns rather
  than environmental concerns
• Introduction of unleaded gasoline provided the “enabling fuel” for
  introduction of catalyst technology-rate of introduction largely determined
  by tax incentive of unleaded vs leaded
• Availability of unleaded gasoline in Europe, for all countries, has led the
  demand from catalyst equipped vehicles
• EU Directive 98/70/EC required complete phase out of leaded gasoline by
  Jan 1, 2000
• Derogation for maximum of two years (Jan 1, 2002) granted for countries
  (southern Europe) with slower fleet turnovers
                                                           Relationship Between Vehicle Technology
                                                        and Introduction of Unleaded Gasoline in Europe
                                                                                Europe                   Fastest   Slowest

                                                100


                                                90


                                                80




                                                                                                                                                  Normal deadline for Phase-out of leaded
Percentage of Unleaded in Total Gasoline Pool




                                                                                                                                                                                            Max Derogation for Phase-out
                                                70


                                                60


                                                50

                                                                                     91/441/EEC/Euro I




                                                                                                                        94/12/EC/Euro II
                                                40


                                                30


                                                20


                                                10


                                                 0
                                                 1984    1986   1988   1990   1992                       1994          1996                1998                        2000                                2002            2004
       Why Low Sulfur Fuel?
• Lowers Emissions From Existing Vehicles
  – SO2 From All Vehicles
  – PM From Diesel Vehicles
  – CO, HC, NOx, Toxics From All Catalyst
    Vehicles
• Enables Advanced Technologies & Tight
  Standards For New Vehicles
• Enables Retrofit Technologies To Clean
  Up Existing Vehicles
        The “Technology Enabling” Fuels Story in Europe
             -Introduction of Lower Sulphur Fuels -
• Lowering of sulphur levels on both Diesel (to 2000ppm) and Gasoline
  (unleaded to 500 ppm) in late 80’s largely driven by direct concerns over
  urban air quality (SO2)
• Further move on Transport Diesel in early 90’s (2000 500 ppm largely
  seen as “enabling” step for oxidation catalyst on LD Diesel required to meet
  1996 emission standards
• First European Auto Oil programme (93-96) indicates lower sulphur gasoline
  enhances catalyst performance: 2000 limit: 150ppm and 2005 limit at 50ppm
• Same programme indicated lower sulphur diesel contributes to lower
  particulates both directly and through enabling higher performance
  technology: 2000 limit: 350ppm and 2005 limit at 50ppm
• More recent concerns over growing CO2 contribution from road transport has
  driven move to “Ultra Low” sulphur gasoline and diesel to facilitate “high fuel
  efficiency”/“high environmental performance” transport :
                                                  Sulphur Level mg/kg




                                                                                                                                                                                   5000


                                                                                                                                                                            4500


                                                                                                                                           4000

                                                                                                      3500

                                                                           3000

                                                           2500

                                                    2000

                                           1500

                                    1000

                            500

                       0
                1970
                                  70/220/EEC
                1972

               1974               74/290/EEC
               1976
                             77/102/EEC
              1978

              1980           78/665/EEC

              1982
                            83/351/EEC
          1984

          1986

         1988

         1990

        1992     91/441/EEC/Euro I
        1994

       1996          94/12/EC/Euro II

       1998

   2000                      Euro III

   2002
                                                                  Diesel




  2004
                           Euro IV
  2006
                                                                                  Unleaded Gasoline




 2008

 2010
                                                                                                                                                                                          and Sulphur in Gasoline & Diesel Fuel




2012
                                                                                                                                              Leaded Gasoline Upper Range

                                                                                                             Leaded Gasoline Lower Range




2014
                                                                                                                                                                                          Relationship Between Vehicle Technology
          The Three-way Catalytic Converter: A Familiar Technology Re-
             Engineered for High Performance in Close-coupled and
                            Underfloor Applications

                                                 •Layered washcoat
                                                    architectures and
                                                    support materials with
                                                    high thermal stability
                                                 •Integrated HC adsorption
                                                    functions
                                                 • Mounting materials with
                                                     improved durability
                                                 • High cell density ceramic
                                                     or metallic substrates
                                                 • Insulation schemes for
                                                     heat management



Maximum Emissions Performance Is Only Achieved With Near Zero Sulfur Fuel
Increase in In-Use Vehicle Emissions
 in Bangkok Due To Sulfur in Fuel
              (Gasoline)
Percent Increase
Compared to 150 PPM Sulfur

60%                  67%
                                              500 ppm    800 ppm

50%
                                                             70%
40%
          33%
30%                                     74%
                                                 30%
20%
                             26%
10%

 0%
             CO/10                 HC                  NOx


                Impact on Vehicles Meeting EURO 3 Standards
     Linkage Between Fuel Sulfur and
              PM Emissions
                  0.06
                              PM Filter
                  0.05
                                    Oxidation Catalyst
grams/kilometer




                  0.04
 PM Emissions




                                                                              Other PM
                  0.03
                                                                              Sulfur

                  0.02

                  0.01

                    0
                         0   500   1000   1500   2000    2500   3000   3500
                                          Fuel Sulfur
                                            PPM
Enabling Emissions Control
 Sulfur Is The Lead of the
       New Century
    Gasoline Passenger and Trucks
  Gasoline CarsCar Emission Stds
            4
                       For Catalyzed
                       Cars, Lead           Sulfur
            3          Removal is           Reduction is
                       Necessary            Necessary
                                            for Advanced
   g/mile




                                            Tech Cars      HC
            2
                                                           NOx


            1



            0
                1975   1981    1994    '99 & '01   2004
Increase in In-Use Vehicle Emissions
 in Bangkok Due To Sulfur in Fuel
               (Diesel)
Percent Increase Compared to 150 PPM Sulfur

                      94%
100%                                               350 ppm      500 ppm
 90%
 80%
 70%
 60%       45%
 50%
                                                                 33%
 40%
 30%                                                 16%
 20%                                          5%
 10%                              0%
  0%
                 HC                    NOx                 PM
        Impact on Vehicles Meeting EURO 3 Standards
European Fuel Sulfur Levels
         (PPM)
            Euro 2     Euro 3    Euro 4 Euro 5
      500                            500
500

400                    Widely Available   350
                       In 2005; 100%
300                    In 2009

200
            150
100
                  50                            50
                         10                          10
 0
            Gasoline                      Diesel
           Cost of Reducing Sulfur in
              Diesel Fuel in Asia
                                       (High Sulfur Crude)
US Cents per Liter

  3


2.5
                                                                                               10
  2                                                                                            50
                                                                                               250
1.5                                                                                            350
                                                                                               500
  1                                                                                            1,000
                                                                                               3,000
0.5


  0
      S ingapor e    Thailand       Indonesia     Br unei       P akistan    S r i Lanka
              Malaysia     P hilippines    Myanm ar       India       Bangladesh       China
            Selective EU Fuel Quality Requirements
Requirement            1996 (Euro 2)   2000 (Euro 3)   2005 (Euro 4)   2009 (Euro 5)


Gasoline
Vapour Pressure
(Summer)                                     60              60               ?
max kPa

Benzene
max Vol %                                     1               1               ?

Aromatics
max Vol %                                    42              35               ?
Sulphur
max ppm                      500             150            50/10            10
Diesel
Cetane Number
min                          48              51              51               ?
Density
max kg/m3                                    845             845              ?
Polycyclic Aromatics
max Mass %                                   11              11               ?
Sulphur
max ppm                      500             350            50/10            10
       Gasoline Effects on Emissions
             Emissions         Regulated                  Unregulated
Fuel-
change                    CO      HC       NOx    Benzene     Butadiene   Aldehyde

Reduction of :
   Benzene
                          o       +        o      ++              o          o

   Aromatics             ++ ++             -      +++           ---        ---
   Olefins                o       o        o          o         ++           o
   Sulphur               +   + +                      o           o          o
   Vapor pressure        o o /+ o                     o           o          o
Adjustment
Volatility               + +++ -                  ++              ?         ?
Addition Oxygenates      ++       +        o          o           o         --
             +            +        -     2-10 %           Improvement
     0       - 2%        ++
                         +++
                                  --
                                  ---
                                        10-20 %
                                         > 20 %
                                                  }            or
                                                          Deterioration
                        Diesel-Fuel Effects on
                             Emissions
         Diesel fuel-                        Vehicle - Emissions LDV / HDV
         change
                                               CO      HC    NOx    Particulates
     Reduction of:
          Sulphur
                                               o       o    ?/o       +/++
          Density                            ++/- ++/ --     o/ +     ++/o
          Poly-Aromatics                     - / o - / + +/ o           +
         Back End Distillation (T95)         o/ -  - /- - - / o        +/ o
     Increase of ...
         Cetane Number                      +++/++ +++/+      o        - /o

          +     - 2-10 %    Improvement
Effect   ++
         +++
                        }
               -- 10-20 %
               --- > 20 %
                                 or
                            Deterioration
                                               o +2%
                                                 -
                                             00_2137
       MMT is An Emerging
         Fuels Problem
 Fuel octane under pressure due to elimination of lead
 Organo-metallic additives are a cheap way to increase
octane
 Experience with these additives shows that they can cause
    Health problems
    Technical problems
Implications of Recent Study

      “The finding that manganese transport out
      of the brain occurs via the slow process of
      diffusion, rather than via carrier-mediated
      transport, is important: it suggests that
      no mechanism exists to protect the
      brain from accumulating manganese.
      This finding has important implications
      for neurotoxicity resulting from chronic
      manganese exposure.”
        Experience with MMT
China: Blocked catalytic converter
                     Red Deposits of
                     Manganese-Oxide




                                  After
                              33.000 km


          Source: Schindler, VW
ICCT Conclusions Regarding
          MMT
Considering the available information, the International Council on Clean
Transportation (ICCT) is unable to conclude that the use of MMT will not
result in direct adverse health impacts nor that emissions of CO, HC and
NOx from catalyst equipped cars will not increase. Based upon the
precautionary principle, the California Air Resources Board banned the use
of MMT in unleaded gasoline in 1976. In 1996, the Administrator of the
EPA stated, “the American public should not be used as a laboratory to test
the safety of MMT” (Browner 1996). The ICCT believes this statement to
be true for the citizens of every country. Consistent with the precautionary
principle, the ICCT recommends that countries delay any use of MMT in
gasoline at this time, pending the outcome of ongoing health-based studies
and further review of the vehicle impacts.


              Copies of the ICCT Report Available at
              http://www.cleantransportcouncil.org/index.php

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Stats:
views:15
posted:4/13/2011
language:English
pages:44