INFLUENCER The Power to Change Anything Presented by Jean Crawford, President, crawfordconnect Adam B. Kahan, VP, Advancement, Ryerson University Issues at work – Nothing changes around here! Issues at home – I can’t get my kid to clean-up his room! Issues in my community – There is a problem how can I help make changes! University of Windsor Influence starts here The Influential Fundraiser Using the Psychology of Persuasion Authors: Bernard Ross & Clare Segal Canadian Business Magazine June 15, 2009 Issue ―People tend to be better copers than influencers. In fact, we’re wonderful at inventing ways to cope‖ Patterson, Grenny et al. In order to improve – what people must do! PRINCIPLE # 1 • Search for strategies that focus on specific behaviours PRINCIPLE # 2 • Discover a few vital behaviours PRINCIPLE # 3 • Don’t confuse outcomes with behaviours How to Get People to Change Their Minds • People choose behaviours based on what they think will happen to them • People choose to enact vital behaviours on 2 essential expectations • Is it worth it? (if not, why waste the effort?) • Can they do this thing? (if not, why try?) Verbal Persuasion • Most common tool to change others expectations • When it comes to resistant problems, it rarely works • The Great Persuader • Personal experience • Create vicarious experiences • Become a good story teller • Tell the whole story • Provide hope The Six Sources of Influence Motivation Ability Personal 1 2 Make the Undesirable Surpass your Limits Desirable Social 3 4 Harness Peer Find Strength in Pressure Numbers Structural 5 6 Design Rewards and Change the Demand Environment Accountability Personal Motivation Make the Undesirable Desirable • How can you get people to do things they currently find loathsome, boring, insulting, or painful? • The most basic source of motivation – intrinsic satisfaction Personal Motivation Create New Experiences • Get people to try it • Make it a game Create New Motive • Connect to a person’s sense of self • Engage in moral thinking • Spotlight human consequences Personal Motivation Win Hearts by Honoring Choice • Surrender control connect to the power of a committed heart • Link into people’s view of who they want to be Personal Ability Surpass your Limits • We often underestimate the need to learn and actually practice the behaviour • Perfect practice makes perfect • Deliberate practice requires complete attention • Give clear and frequent feedback against a known standard Personal Ability Surpass your Limits Break mastery into mini goals • Set specific goals • Goals to improve behaviours or processes rather than outcomes • Provide short-term, specific, easy and low- stakes goals that specify the exact steps a person should take Social Motivation Harness Peer Pressure The Power • Ensure that people feel praised • Emotionally supported • Encouraged by those around them • Every time they enact a vital behaviour • Discourage or socially sanction unhealthy behaviours Social Motivation Harness Peer Pressure The Power of the Right One • Spend lots of time with formal leaders to ensure they are using their social influence Enlist Opinion Leaders • Are early adopters of innovation • Smarter than average – open to new ideas • Socially connected and respected Social Motivation Harness Peer Pressure Become an Opinion Leader • Viewed as knowledgeable about the issues • Viewed as trustworthy and have other people’s best interest in mind • Generous with their time Social Motivation Harness Peer Pressure The Power of Everyone – Public Discoveries • Make the un-discussable discussable – code of silence sustains unhealthy behaviour • Must have open dialogue about proposed changes before it can be safely embraced by everyone Social Motivation Harness Peer Pressure Create a Village • Create space where formal and informal leaders relentlessly encourage vital behaviours and skillfully confront negative behaviours Social Ability Find Strength in Numbers Enlist the Power of Social Capital • The profound enabling power of an essential network of relationships • People at all intellectual levels-often perform better than one individual • When facing change, turbulent or novel times- multiple heads can be better than one Structural Motivation Design Rewards and Demand Accountability Extrinsic Rewards First 3 steps 1) Vital behaviours connect to intrinsic satisfaction 2) Line up social support 3) Rewards are the last resort Structural Motivation Design Rewards and Demand Accountability Use Incentives Wisely • Ensure extrinsic rewards linked to vital behaviours are Immediate Gratifying Clearly correlated • Small heartfelt tokens of appreciation • Less is more Structural Motivation Design Rewards and Demand Accountability • Reward small improvements in behaviour along the way • Reward vital behaviours alone – not outcomes • If you reward the actual steps people follow, results tale care of themselves Structural Ability Change the Environment • The world of buildings, space, sound, sight • Turn laser like attention off people and take a closer look at their physical world • Frequency and quality of human interaction is largely a function of physical distance • Propinquity – is physical proximity Structural Ability Change the Environment • Savvy leaders rely on use of physical space as means of enhancing interaction – don’t just tell people to collaborate, they move employees next to one another • Making use of things to enable behaviour works best when you can alter the physical world in a way that eliminates human choice Structural Ability Change the Environment Mind the Data Stream • Importance of an accurate data stream • Strategies focus on vital behaviours by serving up visible, timely and accurate information that supports their goals Become an Influencer • Stop tinkering with problems • Learn how to build a comprehensive influence strategy • Start with vital behaviours • Research • Use proven recommendations • Add a source • Behind each vital behaviour – 6 distinct sources of influence Become an Influencer • Diagnose before prescribing • 1 size does not fit all • Add more sources • The world is perfectly organized to create the results you’re currently experiencing Become an Influencer • Draw on all six sources of influence • People seek simplistic solutions • Cafeteria menu chosen doesn’t work • One source doesn’t work – try more sources • Stack the deck for success • One disabler lies behind any persistent problem • Make change inevitable • Great influencers look at all six sources of influence and continue adding new influences after others have stopped The Advancement Stakeholder Group The Target of Influence • Prospective Students • Current Students • Alumni • Prospective Faculty and Staff • Faculty and Staff • Past Faculty and Staff • Government • Volunteers • Donors • Prospects • Business Community • Social Service Agencies • Media Lets go back to the basic approach to being an Influencer and apply some of the foci for our Advancement Stakeholder groups. Motivation Ability Personal 1 2 Make the Undesirable Surpass your Limits Desirable Social 3 4 Harness Peer Find Strength in Pressure Numbers Structural 5 6 Design Rewards and Change the Demand Environment Accountability Focus on Staff Personal Motivation and Ability • Create the appropriate behaviours • Planning • Evaluation • Implementation • Review Ability • Reaching higher • Reviewing through objectives and coaching • Improvement not through lectures but practice deliberate practice • Break skills into learnable parts • Connect newly acquired skills to self recognition Staff Social Motivation • Tap into social network – the Team Social Ability • Train in teams – mutual support and refinement Structural Motivation • Connect the behaviours to the system of goals, objectives and performance evaluation Structural Ability • The environment constantly reinforces the key behaviours • Not only posted mission statements but also posted lists of desired behaviours Staff Fundraising Staff and Influencing Behaviour • Focus on Moves Management • Critical Behaviours – Model successful behaviours – those who plan and execute consistent, constructive contact • Personal Motivation –why practicing the behaviours will bring personal satisfaction – calls bring satisfaction • Personal Ability – drawing out the models of success – showing how each can achieve – overcoming nerves and fear of rejection • Consequences – lack of calls and contacts must have consequences Staff Social Motivation • Who does the best- how and why do they • Model that and practice • Harness peer pressure – all succeed or all don’t Social Ability • Enlist the help of the successful models to work in the team with all to show – it can and has been done Structural Motivation • How do you incent and reward those who move their moves forward Structural Ability • Reinforcement – weekly review and comparison Using the Influencer approach to change the moves management of development professionals. Aim Increase donations to Ryerson through increasing the number of interactions (moves) with potential donors at all stages of their relationship with Ryerson. Vital Behaviours The most significant vital behaviour is increasing and balancing the number of moves that development professionals make across the five major stages in the relationship between potential donors and the institution. Contacts are classified as one of the following: • Discovery • Cultivation • Solicitation • Negotiation • Stewardship How to Change Minds The moves report is discussed at bi-weekly meetings. The report serves several purposes: • Forms the agenda for the meetings, as recent moves are the subject of discussion. • Brings focus to the key behaviour that will contribute to success. • Serves as a project management tool to track and plan activities for the development professional. • Allows for the creation of pipeline reports to track potential donations against organization goals. • Allows development professionals to compare their performance with their peers, creating a friendly competition. Current Behaviour Why Does Change Seem Impossible? Before the moves report was implemented, senior development professionals kept a list of 100 prospects that they were responsible for managing. Interactions were recorded in the fundraising database, but there was no specific tracking of moves by individual moves manager. It was easy to be vague about recent activity. Personal Motivation Team members now have a method to compare their activities with each other, and are held accountable for their specific actions on a timely basis. They also have a superior method to manage their work. When the going gets tough, do you or others think carefully about how the vital behaviour would help with long-term goals and align with moral values? By focusing on numbers and types of moves, the emphasis is moved from dollar value of gifts to interaction. In difficult financial times it is important to track effort, and work on gifts at all levels. Personal Ability Development staff are trained and were already carrying out the correct activities. Do you or others have the self-control to engage in the vital behavior when it’s hardest to do so? By comparing themselves to their peers staff can keep going when the going gets tough. Social Motivation Are the people around you or others actively encouraging the right behavior or discouraging the wrong behaviour? The change has been positively received and staff are actively sharing their successes with each other. Are you or others modeling the right behaviors in an effective way? The report is integrated into the ongoing operation of the unit. Social Ability • Doyou or others provide the help, information, and resources required, particularly at critical times? The Executive Director provides ongoing coaching. • Doyou or others hold people accountable for behaving in the right way? The Executive Director gives regular feedback. Structural Motivation • Are there clear and meaningful rewards (such as with pay, bonuses, or gifts) when you or others behave the right way? • Moves goals are established in annual goals and part of overall compensation is based on achieving goals. • Are short-term rewards in alignment with the desired long-term results and behaviours you or others want? Short term rewards are in alignment. Structural Ability • Arethere aspects in the environment that make the vital behaviour convenient, easy, and safe? • Thehome page of the fundraising system for each staff member includes a link to the report, as well as ticklers and plans. Each staff member is reminded of the need for moves each day by using their normal workspace. • Arethere enough cues and reminders to help you or others stay on course? will be important to sustain the emphasis on the moves • It report, which will be easier to do when fundraising results are tracked against moves as more data becomes available. All of the things that make a senior manager successful in a nonprofit—being able to manage through influence; being able to work with a variety of disparate stakeholders; managing with minimal resources; and the ability to work in a consensus-driven environment. Bridgespan Knowledge Letter May 2009 To be an Influencer You can change your behaviours and change the behaviours of others for positive outcomes.