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Airbus A320 notes

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					Index

1. GENERAL

2. AIR CONDITIONING

3. AUTOFLIGHT SYSTEM

4. COMMUNICATION

5. AIRCRAFT ELECRICAL SYSTEMS

6. EQUIPMENT / FURNISHING

7. FIRE PROTECTION

8. FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEMS

9. FUEL SYSTEM

10. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

11. ICE AND RAIN PROTECTION

12. AIRCRAFT INSTRUMENTS SYSTEM

13. LANDING GEAR

14. LIGHTS

15. NAVIGATION SYSTEMS

16. OXYGEN SYSTEM

17. PNEUMATIC SYSTEM

18. WATER AND WASTE

19. AUXELARY POWER UNIT

20. DOORS

21. POWER PLANT




                                2
                                                (GENERAL)
Station Numbers
• Units are in Centimetres from the reference point, is 254 cm ahead of the nose
• Engine station numbers start from STA - 297, at nose cowl
• Vertical stabiliser station numbers start from STA – 5 reference point is VTZ , Z = 0
• Horizontal stabiliser station numbers start from Y = 0 ( X axis)
• Wing station numbers start from , STA – 0 reference point 186.8cm from X axis

Zones
• Total 8 major zones, identified by first digit of 3 digit number
   -  100 – 199 : Lower half fuselage
   -  200 – 299 : Upper half fuselage
   -  300 – 399 : Empenage and fuselage tail section
   -  400 – 499 : Pylon & Nacelle
   -  500 – 599 : Left wing
   -  600 – 699 : Right wing
   -  700 – 799 : Landing gear
   -  800 – 899 : doors

•    E ven numbers at R/H side, Odd numbers at L/H side

Accesses door and panel identifications
• E.g.       550AB

    Zone        panel number from         panel position
               reference point            (eg.Top or bottom B = bottom)
                          st
               (E.g. A = 1 panel)

T - Top surface          F – Floor panel
B – Bottom surface       W – Side wall panel
L – Right side           C – Ceiling panel
Z - Internal

Fin Numbers ( Functional Identification Number )
• All LRU’s has got a FIN number

CB Panels and CB’s
• Green      -          CB’s monitored by SDAC ( System Data Acquisition Concentrator), if
                         trips will be indicated on the ECAM E/W display and is a monitored CB.
•    Red        -       CB used only for wing tip brakes, locked by screw if pulled M.M
                        procedure to be actioned (Qty. 2 )
•    Yellow     -       Must be pulled when flying on batteries only (load reduction purposes)
                        Qty. 2, non monitored
•    49vu       -       Located in the flight deck OVHD CB panel
•    106vu      -       Located in the avionics compartment L/H side
•    105vu      -       Located in the avionics compartment RH side
•    120vu      -       Flight deck aft panel contains CB’s, Current transformers, Fuses &
                        Contactors.
•    121vu      -       Located in the flight deck aft CB middle panel
•    122vu      -       Located in the flight deck aft CB top panel
                                                            rd
•    123vu      -       Located in the flight deck aft CB 3 panel from top
•    124vu      -       Located in the flight deck aft L/H side top panel
•    125vu      -       Located in the flight deck aft L/H edge panel
•    2000vu     -       Contains Maintenance bus select Sw. , CB’s , located at the flight
                        door ceiling.
•    2001vu     -       At aft Galley




                                                        3
Avionics compartment
• 70vu       -       Annunciator Lt. test unit (access from R/H side)
• 80vu       -       Electronic rack contains computers ( located aft of avionics compartment,
                     access from R/H side)
• 90vu       -       Electronic rack contains computers ( located aft of avionics compartment,
                     access from R/H side)
• 103vu      -       Relay and contactor boxes (access from R/H side)
• 105vu      -       CB panel (access from R/H side)
• 106vu      -       Most of the Emergency and Essential power equipments located at L/H
                     side. (access from L/H side)
• 107vu      -       Relay and contactor boxes (access from R/H side close to 80vu)
• 109vu      -       WXR rack (access from door at the nose)

Cock – pit philosophy
• Forward facing and dark cockpit
• Crew do not required to touch OVHD panel with normal operation conditions
• OVHD panel
       Fwd half       -       System panel pilot could touch
       Aft half       -       Maintenance panel
• Glarshield panel     - Contains FCU = 2 EFIS + AFS control panel
• GPWS control panel – Normal when P/B Sw release out & Lts OFF
• Other Sws on OVHD panel – Normal when P/B Sw push in & Lts OFF

Push Button Sws
• Pressed in -          No Lts. + system activated = Normal operation
             -          System activated
  FAULT      -          Temporary used system activation (ON)
             -          System activation for maintenance purposes(ON) or override (OVRD)
    OFF



•    Pressed in -       Fault Lt ON + system activated = Fault condition
    FAULT


    OFF



•    Released out -     OFF Lt ON = System deactivated
                -       Flushed with the panel
    FAULT       -       System deactivated (OFF)
                -       Manual activation system (ON)
                -       Activation of alternate system (ALTN)
    OFF



• Light colour philosophy
Red   -        Failure, need immediate action
Amber -        Failure, awareness no immediate action
White -        P/B pressed in abnormal position or maintenance operation
Green -        Normal operation of a back – up system
Blue  -        Normal operation of temp used system

•    In normal operation green but blue also can be ON




                                                     4
                            AIR CONDITIONING (CHAPTER – 21)
Pack units
• Both pack units supply air with same temperature
• Pack will be controlled by sensor in the water extractor
• Qty 2 Compressor discharge sensors available, one for ECAM indication and control other sensor monitor
   OVHT will provide Fault Lt. On the Pack valve P/B Sw
Mixer units
• Mixes regulated temperature air with packs and cabin air supplied by re circulated fans
• Emergency Ram air, Low pressure ground air also goes to mixer unit in several conditions
• Flapper in the mixer guide pack 1 air flow to flight deck and pack 2 to cabin by a actuator. If actuator failed,
   will be registered in Z/C non-volatile memory

Hot air pressure regulated valve

    HOT AIR

    FAULT                   Pressed IN – Valve opens and pneumatically regulates hot air pressure
                                         above cabin pressure
       OFF
                            Sw. OFF – Hot air valve closes electrically + Trim air valves
                            Fault Lt. ON –
                                     - Flight deck duct OVHT – Any zone temp > 88 °C once or 80 °C
                                        four times in flight
                                      - Both hot air and trim air valves close automatically
                                      - Fault Lt. OFF when temp < 70 °C
                                      - Hot air valve position disagreement

•   Hot air tapped from down stream of pack control valve and regulates down stream pressure above the
    cabin pressure
• Spring loaded to closes if no air pressure
• Duct temperature > 88 °C valve automatically electrically closed + Fwd & Aft trim air valves also closed
Trim air valve
• Located in each zone to add hot air
• Electrically controlled by Z/C

Temperature selectors

                                   Select desired temperature selection in the zone, Zone controller commands
                                   pack temperature demand to satisfy lowest selected temperature by trim air
                                   valves
                                   12 o’ clock position – 24 °C
                                   Cold position – 18 ° C
                                   Hot position – 30 °C

COLD           HOT

Temperature regulation
• Controlled automatically by corresponding Pack controller and Zone controller
• Each Pack and Zone controller consist of Primary and Secondary channel called computers, secondary
   computer acts as a back up
• Pack controller
   • Provides basic temperature and flow regulation according to the demand from Zone controller by
      modulating bypass valve and ram air inlet flaps
   • If primary control computer faulty, secondary computer takes over for reduced level of operation by
      remaining at previous setting
   • If both fail 15 °C temp. will maintain by anti-ice valve


                                                        5
•    Zone controller
     • Generates signals to pack controller to basic temperature and flow regulation
     • Trim air valves controlled to optimize temp regulation by selected temperature
     • Lowest temperature demand used for basic temperature regulation
     • Primary control computer fails “ALTN” message on ECAM + with alternate mode operation, 24 °C will
        be maintain in the cabin, No trim valve control,
     • If both fails Pack controller will controls in basic regulation, flight deck will be maintain at 20 °C & cabin
        will set to 10 °C, trim & hot air valve close


Pack Flow selector

          PACK FLOW
           NORMAL
    LO                HI

                                     LO – If number of passengers less than 81
                                       - No heating or cooling can be carried out.
                                       - Zone controller automatically provides normal flow and if required
                                           increase engine power. Flow 80% of normal flow
                                       - If cooling is not sufficient revert back to 100% flow automatically

                                     HI – Normal hot humid conditions, Flow 120% of normal flow

                                  Normal – 100% flow, normal selection.
•    What ever the selection zone controller automatically provides high flow in case of bleed air taken from
     APU or single pack condition

Pack flow control valve
   • Pneumatically regulates air flow according to the demand by controller command
   • Closes pneumatically by
        • Compressor OVHT
        • Lack of air pressure
   • Electrically close
                                                                                                      nd
        • During Engine start, after 30 sec. open again (to avoid supplementary pack closer cycle at 2
            engine start)
        • Engine Fire P/B OUT
        • Ditching P/B set to ON
        • Pack valve P/B manually select OFF
   • Equipped with
        • Solenoid – Receives flight deck Sw. commands
        • Stepper motor – Controller commands to select required flow value which regulates pneumatically

Pack flow control valve Push button

                           Pressed In – Valve pneumatically and automatically controlled
    FAULT                  Released OUT – Valve closed electrically

    OFF                    Fault Lt. – Pack 1 OVHT- (Valve close automatically) Compressor out
                                       temp > 260 °C or pack out temp > 230 °C four times come ON
                                       Pack fault – Pack valve disagreement
                                                  - Pack compressor outlet temp > 230 °C, four times in one
                                                    flight
                                       Pack 1 + 2 fault – One pack OFF, other fault or both failed




                                                          6
Anti – ice valve
     • Pack controller commands pneumatically open to prevent ice formation in the condenser
     • If complete pack controller failure, POPS pneumatically control pack outlet temperature to 11 °C
     • Controlled electrically and pneumatically operated
     • Pack outlet pneumatic sensor (POPS) used only to modulate anti-ice valve to control pack discharge
          temperature at fixed valve in case of pack controller failure.
     • Delta pressure relays on the anti – ice valve will control valve according to signal send by two pressure
          sensors (HI & LO) located at condenser to sense ice build up at the condenser.
     • Solenoid energized
          • Pneumatically operates as anti – ice valve
     • Solenoid de energized
          • Pneumatically operated as a pack outlet temperature control valve (11 °C)
Air inlet/outlet flaps and bypass valve
• All are controlled simultaneously by pack controller
• Bypass valve electrically controlled and operated by stepper motor to modulate pack discharge
     temperature by adding hot air
• Ram air Inlet and outlet flaps provided to modulate the air flow through exchangers
     • To increase cooling – Flaps open more and bypass valve closes more
     • To increase heat – Flaps close more and bypass valve opens more
• During T/O and landing Ram air inlet flap fully close to prevent ingestion foreign objects
     • During T/O – When T/O power is set and main L/G struts compressed
     • During landing – When main L/G struts compressed and speed > 70 Kts
• Ram air flaps opens 20 sec after speed < 70 kts
• Both flaps operates by individual electrical actuators, controlled by pack controller
Ram air Push button

    RAM AIR

                             Sw. pressed IN – Emergency ramair inlet flap opens and (Ditching
                                              not selected) Outflow valve opens half if cabin differential
                                              pressure < 1 psi during AIR mode
      ON
                             Sw released OUT – Flap closes


ECAM messages
• ALTN MODE (Green) – Primary zone controller fault
• PACK REG (Green) – Zone controller failure, basic regulation by packs only
Interfaces
Zone controller
• Interface between primary and secondary channels via internal busses
• Zone and Pack controllers interface via RS 422 busses
• Zone controller to EIU 1 & 2
     • To increase engine power to get more bleed air flow
     • Send bleed and anti-ice status to thrust limit calculation
• EIU to Pack controller
     • At takeoff thrust to close ram air inlet flap closer
     • HP valve position to bleed demand calculation
• ADIRU 3 to Zone controller to
     • Send A/C altitude to zone temp. Compensation and pack water extractor outlet temp. limitation
• Zone controller to APU to ECB
     • To increase bleed air flow
• ECB to Zone controller
     • APU bleed valve open signal to flow demand calculation
• Zone to Pack controllers
     • Sends temp. demand, Z/C status, Pack ARINC reception status, A/C altitude, APU bleed valve
         position to Pack temperature control
     • Flow demand sends to flow control
• Pack to Z/C
     • Pack controller status, Zone ARINC reception status, bite to temp. control system monitoring
                                                       7
•   LGCIU sends Gnd. Air status to Ram air flap control
•   BSCU sends wheel speed status to both Pack controllers to pack Ram air flap closer to during T/O and
    Landing

Failures
• Zone controller failures
    • Primary channel fail
         • Secondary channel operates as a backup
         • Flow setting function and optimize temperature regulation not available
         • Hot and trim air valves close
         • Zones controlled to 24 °C (backup regulation) pack 1 regulates the flight deck and pack 2 controls
           the Fwd and Aft cabin temperature
         • “ALTN MODE” appears on the ECAM COND page
    • Secondary channel failure
         • No effect on temperature regulation
         • Backup mode is lost
    • Both primary and secondary channels fail
         • Optimize and backup temperature regulation not available
         • Pack delivers a fixed temperature of 20 °C for pack 1, 10 °C for pack 2
         • No information on the ECAM COND page and displays “PACK REG” message

•   Pack controller failures
    • Primary channel fail
       • Secondary channel operates as a backup
       • Regulation is not optimize
       • Pack flow fixed at previous setting
     • Secondary channel fail
       • No effect on temperature regulation
       • Backup mode is lost
       • ECAM signals related to the corresponding pack are lost
    • Both primary and secondary channels fail
       • Corresponding pack outlet temperature controlled at 15 °C by anti ice valve
       • ECAM signals related to the corresponding pack are lost

Pressurization
• System consist 2 identical controllers, only 1 operates at a time other STBY
• If both systems failed manual mode to be selected
• Out flow valve can be controlled by manually by control panel
• Qty. 2 Safety valves located in Aft. Bulk head (For Positive and Negative differential pressure) installed
   above floatation level
• Consist of four general functions
   • Ground function – Outflow valves open fully on Gnd.
   • Prepressurization
       • During T/O, increase cabin pressure to avoid surge in cabin pressure during rotation
   • Pressurization in flight
       • Adjust cabin altitude and rate of change to make passenger comfort
   • Depressurization
       • After touch down to reduce residual cabin overpressure gradually before open outflow valves

Cabin pressure controllers
• Inputs – Flight profile from FMGC, ADIRUS, CFDS and A/C configuration from EIU, LGCIU, ECS
• Out puts – Indication & monitoring by FWC, SDAC, ECS, CFDSD and AIDS

Out flow valve
• Double flap 3 motor driven
    • Qty 2 motors for automatic operation (One for each CPC)
    • One motor for manually operation
• Located behind Aft cargo below flotation line

                                                       8
Mode select switch
           MODE SEL
                                Auto – Out flow valve controlled by active CPC
             FAULT    A         Man – Out flow valve controlled by manual toggle Sw.
                      U         Fault – CPC both automatic systems failed
             MAN      T
                      O



    •      Auto mode
           • 2 Motors for auto mode motors, One for each CPC 1 and CPC 2
           • System 1 = CPC 1 + Motor 1, System 2 = CPC 2 + motor 2
           • Two electronic actuators interface with controllers
           • Each actuator consist of Pressure Sw. (located in electronic control box) to close valve if cabin
               altitude > 15000ft regardless of mode
           • Auto signal exchange via electronic actuator
           • Air pressure in the cabin depends on the external schedules, which are received from the FMGC
           • If FMGC signal not available crew needs to set the landing field elevation and captain’s baro
               selection from the ADIRS
           • Uses landing elevation and the QNH from the FMGC and pressure altitude from ADIRS
           • Automatic CPC changeover occurs at
               • 70 sec after each landing
               • If one operating system fails

    •      Manual mode

        MAN V/S
                     UP         UP – Outflow valve open
                                DN – Outflow valve close
                     DN

•   Motor 3 controlled by control panel toggle Sw. with manual mode selected on the mode select P/B
•   Feed back No 3 signal directly sent to CPC 1 for position indication on ECAM
•   CPC 2 manual part not used
•   Manual backup channel of CPC 1 used for indication (FWC & SDAC) and monitoring

Cabin Pressure and Altitude
• Cabin altitude limited to 8000 ft
• Differential pressure limited to 8.06 psi at 39000 ft
• If cabin altitude = 9550 ft M/W comes ON
• At altitude 11300ft passenger signals activated
• At 15000ft safety device activates to close valve

Landing elevation selector
     LDG ELEV
       AUTO
                             Auto – System in normal operation condition (Landing elevation from FMGC)
                             Other positions – Selected value take to account, if selection indication on
                                                 the knob not accurate use ECAM pressure page
                                                 (if QNH used)

Ditching
    DITCHING                  ON – Out flow valve closes by CPC (if MAN selected outflow valve not close)
                                   - Emergency Ram air inlet close
                                   - Avionics ventilation extract valve close
                                   - Pack flow valve close

        ON                      Normal – System operates normally


                                                           9
Interfaces
• EIU
     • TLA position in T/O to Pre pressurization sequence
• LGCIU
     • Air/Gnd. signal for Pre pressurization, pressurization, De pressurization sequence + system transfer
• ADIRU (each)
     • Static pressure, boro correction and for priority selection
• FMGC (each)
     • Cruise flight level and landing field elevation data
• Motors
     • Auto
         • Enable signal to motor in control
         • Outflow valve positioning + monitoring
     • Manual
         • Feed back signal from motor CPC 1

Avionics Ventilation System
• AEVC controls and monitoring of Avionics ventilation system automatically provided Blower and Extract
   P/Bs pressed IN

Blower Push button
       BLOWER
                             Auto – P/B released out, system in auto mode
        FAULT         A      OVRD – Blower stops
                      U              - System goes to close loop configuration
        OVRD          T              - Air comes from air condition system to added to ventilation system
                      O      Fault Lt. – Blowing pressure low
                                        - Duct OVHT
                                        - Computer power supply failure
                                        - Smoke warning activated

•   If both Blower and Extract P/B released out (OVRD)
    • Blower fan stops
    • Skin exchanger outlet bypass valve and Skin exchanger inlet bypass valve close (all valves close)
    • Air condition inlet valve opens to supply air
    • Skin air outlet valve partially opens

Extract Push Button

     EXTRACT
                             Fault Lt. – Extract pressure low
                A                      - Computer power supply failure
      FAULT
                U                      - Smoke warning activated
                T
       OVRD
                O            OVRD – System goes to close loop configuration
                                  - Air comes from air condition system

Open circuit configuration
• Conditions
   • A/C on Gnd.
   • Throttles not at T.O
   • Skin temperature > On Gnd. Threshold
• Cooled by ambient air If
   • A/C on Gnd. and ambient temp.> 11 °C due to Heat exchanger is already hot it can not cool air
   • Skin air Inlet and outlet valves open
   • Air goes through blower and extractor fans to over board




                                                     10
Close Loop configuration
On Gnd. skin temp. < 4 °C, or In flight skin temp < 27 °C
Conditions
   • On Gnd.
        • Throttles at T.O + Skin temperature < in flight threshold
        • Throttles not at T.O + Skin temperature < on Gnd. Threshold
   • In Flight
        • Skin temperature < in flight threshold
• Inlet and Outlet skin air valves close
• Skin exchanger isolation valve open
• Skin exchanger outlet bypass valve open (to reduce noise in the avionics bay)
• Skin exchanger inlet bypass valve open if pressure > regulated value (Controlled by 3 pressure Sw. In the
   compartment) or close if low air flow detected
• Air goes through skin heat exchanger

Intermediate close configuration
In flight, skin temp > 34 °C
Conditions
      • On Gnd.
           • Throttle at T.O + Skin temperature > in flight threshold
      • In Flight
           • Skin temperature > in flight threshold
• Skin exchanger out and inlet bypass valves open
• Skin air outlet valve partially open
• Air condition valve open to get condition air to the compartment
• Air goes to overboard through skin air outlet valve and exchanger inlet bypass valve

Temp < 27 °C
• System go back to close loop configuration

Smoke configuration
• When smoke detected in the avionics ventilation air
  • Blower and Extractor P/B fault Lt. illuminates
  • Then select both P/B to OVRD
      • Air will be supplied from air-condition system via air condition inlet valve and goes to OVBD
         through flap on the extract valve (extract valve closed)
      • Blower fan stops

AEVC Interfaces
   • EIU 1 & 2 to AEVC
       • To control ventilation system control sends T/O thrust control
   • Skin temp sensor skin sends temp. signal to AEVC

AEVC failure
• System as same as smoke configuration except Skin exchange isolation valve open
• Inlet and skin exchange inlet bypass valves remain in the position before the failure occurred
• Extract fan keep on running

AEVC power failed
• Both blower and extractor fan P/B set to OVRD
   • Blower fan stops
   • Air condition inlet valve opens
   • Skin air outlet valve partially opens
   • Other valves stay at its last controlled position

•   AEVC change system configuration depends on
    • Skin temperature sensor value
    • Temperature increase or decrease
    • A/C on Air or Gnd.
                                                         11
•   AEVC controls all valves and fans, receives system condition information by pressure and temp. sensors
•   Skin inlet valve and outlet valve, before close manually must select toggle Sw. to deactivation position and
    controlled electrically by AEVC
•   Blower and Extract fans – When high temp detected, valve closes and indicator LT. on valve body
    illuminates, can be reset after detection by pressing P/B on valve body
•   Pressure Switches ( Qty. 3)
    • Qty. 2 to control blower circuit, fault Lt. + External horn
    • Qty. 2 to control Extractor fan, fault Lt. + External horn (low flow detection)
•   Duct temp sensor
    • Temp sensor control blower fan and fault Lt. + External horn
•   Smoke detector sense smoke and give warning


Aft Cargo compartment ventilation and heating system
Ventilation controller (Located near 103vu)
• Cargo ventilation controlled via controlling isolation valves and extract fan
• Cargo ventilation controller controls and monitor isolation valves and extraction fan of the cargo ventilation
    system
Heating controller
• Cargo heating controlled by information received from 2 temp. sensors and control trim air valve to add hot
    air if required
• If failed
    • Hot air valve close + E/W message

Hot air PRV
• Hot air pressure regulation valve regulates bleed air going to the Trim air valve above cabin pressure
• If duct temp. > 88 °C, Heating controller closes hot air PRV

       HOT AIR
                              OFF – Hot air PRV close
        FAULT                 Fault Lt. ON – Aft cargo OVHT detected (PRV close by Heat controller)

         OFF


Trim air valves
• Regulates hot air flow which mix with cabin air to obtain required temperature
• Closes trim air valve if
    • Isolation valve close
    • Hot air PRV close
    • Extract fan failed
    • Cargo door not closed and locked

Temperature Selector
• Signals to Hot air controller to move trim air valve if hot air to be added

         AFT


                              Temp selector – Selects temp range between 5 °C - 26 °C
                                            - 12 ‘ O clock position 16 °C


COLD             HOT




                                                       12
Inlet isolation valve
• Permits regulated air to enter to the compartment
     AFT ISOL
      VALVE
                            Pressed IN – Vent controller runs extract fan if both isolation valves open
      FAULT                                 Provided no smoke detected in the aft cargo
                            OFF – Inlet Isolation valve close
       OFF                        - Extract fan stops
                            Fault Lt.– Inlet or Outlet valve position disagreement with selection


Extract fan
• Remove air out board if both isolation valves open

Outlet Isolation valve
• Allowed air to discharge out board




                                                      13
                        AUTOFLIGHT SYSTEM (CHAPTER – 22)

•  Auto flight systems (AFS) calculates orders to automatically control flight controls (EFCS) and
   engines(FADEC)
Basic operational principles
• In normal operations
   • Automatic
        • A/P or A/THR
   • Manual
        • Pilot activates as side sticks or thrust levers
• Power up test
   • FD will engaged provided power up test is done
• FD engagement
   • If AP/FD mode not active no guidance symbol will be displayed
• When AFS not active
   • Flight controls controlled by Side sticks
   • Engines controlled by Thrust levers
• Navigation
   • Calculated position of the A/C using several sensors
        • Inertial system
        • Radio navigation system
   • Flight plan
        • Stored in the memory predetermined by the operator
        • Describe complete flight from T/O to landing
        • Vertical information
        • Intermediate way points
• Operation
   • Normal way
        • AFS uses flight plan automatically
            • Position and desired flight plan (chosen by crew), system will computed orders then send to
                the surfaces and engines to follow the flight plan
            • During AFS side stick and throttle levers will not move
   • AFS fly by wire
        • When A/P system engaged, apply force on the side stick causes A/P disengage, after normalize
            the force on the side stick A/C will maintain actual attitude with manual flight
• System design
   • Consist of
        • Flight Augmentation Computer (FAC) Qty 2
            • Fail operational system, consist of command and monitor channel
        • Flight Management and Guidance Computer (FMGC) Qty. 2
            • Fail operational system, consist of command and monitor channel
        • Multi purpose control and display units (MCDU) Qty. 1
        • Flight Control Unit Qty. 1
 • FMGC
    • Controlled by
        • FCU – For short term control
            • Provides interface required to transmit of engine data from FMGC (managed guidance) to
                FADEC
            • In flight crew can engage A/P and can modify different flight parameters to immediate change
                in the control of the A/C
            • A/P and A/THR engagement, FD functions
            • Selection of guidance modes (e.g. HDG hold..)
            • Selection of flight parameters (e.g. HDG values…)
            • System Consist of
                • AFS control panel
                     • Allows + display engagement of A/P + A/THR and selection of guidance modes flight
                         parameters

                                                    14
Speed/ Mach control knob
                       •       Pull – FMGC uses selected speed on the FCU, Managed dot Lt. OFF
   SPD MACH                           If display dashed before value appears last managed speed
     300                              If not no change in the window
                           •   Turned – Speed display changes, Previous displayed value change
                                                                     st
                                           If display dashed before 1 click changes to managed reference
                                           speed.
                                           Turn more valve changes and knob not pulled with in 45 sec.
                                           display goes to dashes
   SPD                     •   Push – If dashes displayed no change
   ----------                            If speed displayed before Managed speed and dot Lt. displayed
                                         (During T/O GA and EXPED, FMGC automatically uses memorized
                                          speed such as V2, VAPP and Green dot. Dashes displayed and the Lt.
                                         ON)

Speed/Mach P/B

                           •   All cases, Speed/Mach switching is automatic, Pilot can only select switching
                               Using P/B when reference is selected then relevant indication (SPD or MACH)
                               will be displayed

     SPD
    MACH

          MACH
    .78


Heading/track lateral control knob
• Window displays value when HDG or TRK mode active or when HDG/TRK preset performed. Otherwise it
   is dashes. Dot Lt. ON when managed lateral mode is armed (E.g. NAV, RWY, LAND…)

                           •   Pulled – HDG or TRK mode engages as per the selection on the FCU
   HDG          LAT                      If lateral window dashed before present heading or track value
     252                                 displayed. If not no change on the display
                           •   Turned – Changes heading or track
                                         HDG or TRK previously displayed reading will be modified
                                                     st
                                         If dashes 1 click changes to present A/C heading or track
                                          Turn more value changes and if not pulled with in 45 sec. display
                                         goes to dashes again.
                           •   Pushed - Navigation mode is armed, During the arming phase HDG or TRK
                                         displayed until the interception of the flight plan then dashes will be
                                         replaced the heading or track
                                         During arming and active phases, Lt. is ON

Altitude select knob
• Knob has got two selections,
     • Outer knob got 100ft and 1000ft selections
     • Inner knob sets the altitude in the FCU altitude window
     • Inner knob
                            • Pulled – Open climb or Open descent mode engages if displayed altitude
    ALT         LVL/CH            different from present A/C altitude, Level change Lt. OFF
                                   A/C immediately climbs (or descent) towards the selected altitude
     27000
                            • Turned – Display altitude changes

  ALT             LVL/CH        •   Pushed – Climb or descend mode engages if A/C altitude differs from
                                             displayed altitude
   30000                                     Level change is managed and Dot Lt. ON
                                             Altitude window always displayed a target valve selected by
                                             the crew. Window never goes to dashes

                                                          15
Metric altitude P/B
                        •     P/B press select ECAM lower display altitude value chances to metric units
                              FCU altitude reading never change to metric only in feet

   METRIC
    ALT

Vertical speed /flight path angle control knob

         LVL/CH       V/S     Pulled – If window dashed before, present A/C vertical speed or FPA
                                       displayed
                  - 0700                Range = -9.9° and +9.9° for FPA

                              Turned – Changes the V/S or FPA display
                                                              st
                                       Window dashed before 1 click changes to present A/C V/S or
                                       FPA.
                                       Turned more value changes if knob not pulled with in 45 sec
                                       display goes to dashes

         LVL/CH       V/S     Push – Immediate level off with display goes to zero target
                                     FMA will turn to ALT green when level off
                  + 0000

Heading V/S / Track – FPA P/B

   HDG                V/S
   TRK                FPA     If any of the modes active, pressing the P/B changes the modes in to
                              corresponding one (HDG TRK and V/S FPA)

Expedite P/B

                        •     Pressed ON – Engagement confirmed by green bars Lt. ON
      EXPED                                 Allows max. climb or descent profile with in the performance
                                           envelope of the A/C.
                                           Disengagement only possible by engagement of another
                                           longitudinal mode
Approach engagement P/B

                        •     Pressed ON – G/S and LOC modes armed for capture and tracking if ILS
       APPR                                not avail
                        •     Pressed OFF – Altitude > 400 ft. Land or APP NAV mode is disarmed or
                                            disengaged
                                            (Altitude < 400 ft, Land mode can only be disengaged by
                                             activating GA mode)

LOC engagement P/B
                        •     Pressed ON – Used when G/S not available
                        •     Pressed OFF – Before capture, LOC mode disarmed
         LOC                                 After capture, LOC mode disengaged (HDG/TRK mode
                                             engaged on the present A/C HDG/TRK)
EFIS control panel
• Control + display each capt’s and FO’s PFD and ND functions
EFIS displays initiated by FMGC
• FM display on PFD
   • Decision Height
   • Managed target speed (magenta)
   • V1 speed (Cyan)
   • Altitude constraint (magenta)
   • Linear vertical deviation(magenta)
   • Landing field elevation (Cyan)
   • ECON target speed with high and low margins in descent mode (magenta)
                                                  16
ND   FMGC initiated information
•    Rose Nav, Arc and Plan modes
•    A/C position auto tuned Nav aides, Flight plan data
•    A/C position is fixed in all display modes except in plan mode where it moves along the flight plan
•    TO way point displayed in white rest of the flight plan way points in Green
•    R/H upper corner displayed TO way point characteristics (Ident, distant to go, estimated time of arrival)
•    Cross track deviation
•    Radio Nav aids, start of climb, top of climb, top of descent

EFIS selection P/B

                        All waypoints in the related range will be displayed
       WPT


                        All VOR/DME station location in the related range displayed
      VOR.D


                        All non-directional beacon in the related range will be displayed
       NDB


                        All airport locations in the related range will be displayed
      ARPT


                        All speed and altitude constraints on one or several waypoints will be displayed
      CSTR


MCDU
• Provides long term control
• Allows interface between crew and the FMGC to select the flight plan to manage the flight
• Displays selection and the modifications of the parameters associated with the FM function
• Selection of specific functions
• Displays information regarding flight progress + A/C performance for monitoring and review by flight crew
• Qty. 2, interchangeable
• MCDU pages
       st
  • 1 System page
      • Pilot used for flight preparation
  • Data base page
      • Flight plan initialization
      • Rad/Nav entries and checks
      • Performance data by (V1, V2, VR and Flex temp)
      • V2 must be entered before T/O at MCDU
      • Entry of flight plan (lateral/vertical) and V2 into MCDU taken account by the FM part and
           conformed by Lts. on FCU
• Qty 3 annunciators located
  • MCDU menu – Lt. ON when system linked to the MCDU menu requesting the display
  • FMGC – Alert the crew FMGC request the display as a important message on the FMGC page
  • FAIL – Amber displayed if any failure detected in the MCDU
• Data in the Amber boxes mandatory, White dashed lines indicate that data will be calculated and displayed
  by the FMGC




                                                        17
•   Colour codes
    • White –     Titles, comments, dashes symbols and minor messages
    • Green –     Non modifiable data or active data
    • Yellow –    Temporary flight plan, some data until validated by insertion
    • Cyan       –Modifiable and selectable data
    • Amber –     Mandatory data, boxes, Important and pilot action required data, asterix adjacent to
                  the altitude or airspeed “missed” restrictions
    •   Magenta – Maximum recommended flight level, Flight plan constraint data, asterix adjacent to
                  the altitude or airspeed “made” restrictions

Flight management
• Definition revision and monitoring
• Provides flight plan selection on Latitude and Vertical functions
• Provides navigation, performance optimization, RADNAV tuning and information display management
• Auto selection of navigation frequencies, position determination
• Data computed Flight path by FM used by FG part
• Operating modes
    • Normal – Active if FM part agrees
        • When keys pressed, immediately processed by both FMS, regardless of the MCDU
        • FM part receive master slave activation from FG part
        • Master computer impose following parameters on slaving
            • Flight phase
            • Flight plan sequencing
            • Active performance and speeds
            • Clearance and maximum altitudes
            • ILS frequencies and courses
            • MCDUs can select different pages simultaneously, any modification or entry on the MCDU
                transmitted to other MCDU via cross talk
        • Independent
            • Active if one FM part disagrees, and no inter action only send own status to each other
            • Each FM part managed its own MCDU
            • Failure of FMGC inter system buses results in amber message “INDEPENDENT
                OPERATION”
            • MCDUs operates separately even cross talk present, entry on one MCDU will not applied to
                the other
        • Single
            • Active if one FM part fail
            • Both MCDUs are driven by remaining FM part, messages linked to the navigation process are
                displayed on both MCDUs
            • White message “OPP FMGC IN PROGRESS”
            • During power up both FM parts exchange information.
            • Both MCDUs work as in normal mode but with the valid FMGC only
• Internal cross comparison made on
    • Navigation database identification
    • Performance database identification
    • FM operational program identification
    • A/C and Engine program pin data
• Lateral functions
    • A/C position determination
    • IRU alignment through MCDU
    • Auto/Manual selection of navigation Frequencies
    • Guidance computations along the Latitude flight plan
• Vertical functions
    • Optimize speed computation
        • Resulting target speed being used as reference for guidance functions
    • Performance predictions
        • Fuel, Time, Altitude, Wind at various points of the flight
    • Guidance computation of the various flight plan
                                                     18
Indications
• Displayed on the PFDs and NDs
• During normal and independent modes FMGC 1 & 2 supplies to PFD 1, ND1 and PFD2,ND2 respectively
• Single mode remaining FMGC supplies to all displays

Flight Plan
• Consist of routes and limitations, A/C must follow
• Limitations
    • Speed
    • Altitude
    • Time constraints
• FM provides A/C position to follow up flight plan, called navigation

Navigation database
• Provides necessary information for flight plan construction and follow-up
• Database updated every 28 days
• For additional information kept room for manual entry for 20 navaids, 20 waypoints, 3 routes and 10
   runways
• Manually entered data will be erased when flight become DONE ( A/C on Gnd. for 30 Sec.)

Navigation
• Provides current A/C status to the system by Present position, wind, Ground speed, altitude and True air
   speed

Lateral flight plan
• Provides sequential track changes at each way point with in 3 main sections
    • Departure : Initial fix (origin airport), Standard instrument departure (SID),
    • Arrival : Standard terminal arrival route (STAR), Approach, missed approach and Go around
    • En route : Way points, navigation aids…
• Lateral steering order can be followed by the pilot or the AP with NAV mode selected

Vertical flight plan
• Provides accurate flight path prediction which requires a precise knowledge of current and forecast wind,
    temperature and lateral flight plan to be flown
• Divided in to
    • Preflight – to be enter fuel, weight and V2 speed
    • Take – off – Speed management, Thrust reduction altitude and Acceleration altitude
    • Climb – Speed limit, Speed management
    • Cruise – Top of climb, cruise altitude and top of descent
    • Descent – Speed limit, speed management and deceleration
    • Approach/Missed approach/ Go around : Thrust reduction altitude, acceleration altitude
• Vertical steering order can be followed by the pilot or the AP
• Level change in vertical profile can be initiated by pushing level change selector, except for departure
    when vertical profile is armed on Gnd. and will be automatically activate after T/O phase
Performance database
• Contains optimum speed schedules to the expected range for the operation conditions
• Primary performance mode is ECON mode
• ECON mode can be made as per requirements to the air line cost index
• Cost index is ratio of cost of time to the cost of fuel

Displays
• According to the pilot selection on the EFIS control panel on the FCU, A/C position will be displayed on the
    ND Rose or Arc modes as per the flight plan
• In Plan mode flight plan shown as a reference to True north with way points




                                                      19
Flight Guidance
• Factors related to the A/C control
• Provide
    • A/P, F/D and A/THR (modes operation upon FCU selection)
    • Normal operating way is management part as reference source for Guidance part
    • Priority logic
            st
        • 1 – AP engagement (AP 1 or 2)
            nd
        • 2 – FD engagement (FD 1 or 2)
• Two types of AP and FD modes available to guide the A/C
    • Managed modes
        • Steer the A/C along the lateral, vertical and speed profiles according to the data inserted by the
           pilot on the MCDU then FMGC computes corresponding guidance targets
        • At TO engaged automatically when set thrust levers to TO or FLX detent
        • In flight can arm or engage select by pressing appropriate knobs on the FCU
    • Selected modes
        • Steer the A/C according to the target values selected by the pilot on the FCU
        • Can engage selected mode by pulling appropriate FCU knobs

AP and FD modes

           Guidance                       Managed modes                    Selected modes
           LATERAL                 NAV, APP NAV                      HDG - TRK
                                   LOC *, LOC
                                   RWY, RWY TRK
                                   GA TRK
                                   ROLL OUT
          VERTICAL                 SRS (T.O and G.A)                 OPCLB, OPDEC
                                   CLB, DES                          V/S, FPA
                                   ALT CST, ALT CST *                ALT*, ALT
                                   ALT CRZ * , ALT CRZ               EXPEDITE
                                   G/S *, G/S
                                   FINAL, FINAL APP
                                   FLARE
            SPEED                  FMGC REFERENCE                    FCU REFERA NCE
                                   (ECON auto SPD LIM)
                                   Expedite

AP and FD common modes
• Modes are related to both lateral and vertical and engaged simultaneously on both axes.
   • On take off – Runway/Runway track associated to SRS vertical modes
   • In approach – ILS approach (LAND) or non ILS approach (APP NAV FINAL)
   • In Go around – GA track associated to SRS vertical modes

Auto Pilot
   • Calculates selection for flight control to follow the selected modes (E.g. Attitude hold)
   • Controls
        • Pitch
        • Roll
        • Yaw
• A/P engagement
   • Possible only 5 sec after lift off and only one at a time
   • To select land mode allows both A/P to engage
   • After T/O to rollout A/P remain engaged to control A/C on the runway center line
   • A/P disengagement by pilot at low speed taxing
   • On Gnd. can be engaged if engines are not running
• AP commands
   • Position of the flight control surfaces for pitch, roll and yaw
   • Nose wheel steering

                                                      20
•    Engaged by AP1 and AP 2 P/B

                              Sw. press Lt. ON – A/P engaged
          AP 1                Sw press again - Lt. OFF AP disengages

•    ON PFD FMA indicated
     • AP 1           - A/P 1 engaged
     • AP 2           - A/P 2 engaged
     • AP1 + 2        - A/P 1 and 2 both engaged
•    A/P guidance modes can be selected by FCU or FMGC
•    FMGC monitor commanded and actual position of flight sense by sensors through the loop, if any
     difference FMGC will controlled the orders
•    When A/P engaged, load threshold on the side sticks and Rudder pedals will be increased

Modes
• Lateral
• Vertical
• Normally one of each will be selected by the system simultaneously

Lateral mode control
• Ailerons – Controls via ELACs
• Spoilers – Controls via SECs
• Rudders – Controls via FACs
• Nose wheel – Controls via BSCU

Vertical mode control
• THS and Elevators – Controls via ELACs

On   Ground
•    A/P can be engaged only both engines shut down (If engine start with A/P engaged A/P will trips)
•    Hydraulic power not required
•    PFD indication – AP 1 or AP2

Take Off
• Can be engaged provided A/C air born + 5 sec
• PFD indication – AP1 or AP2

Cruise
• Priority gives to last engaged, only one any A/P can be engaged at a time
• PFD indication – AP1 or AP 2
• FCU         FMGC           ELAC         Ailerons + Elevators + THS

                                             SEC       Spoilers
•    Rudder control not by A/P but directly by FACs

Land
• Engage automatically when
   • LOC and G/S modes are engaged and A/C altitude < 400 ft. RA
• Disengages
   • Upon engagement of G/A
   • A/C on Gnd. for at least 10 sec with AP disconnected and APPR P/B pressed
• If landing airport equipped with ILS capability A/P can land with complete Approach, Flare and Rollout
     nd
• 2 A/P can be engaged, AP 1 in active mode and AP 2 in STBY
• FCU         FMGC          ELAC1 & 2            Ailerons + Elevators + THS

                                                SEC 1.2,3         Spoilers

                                                FAC 1 & 2         Rudder ( controlled by A/P via FMGC)
•    PFD indications (FMA) – AP 1+2
                                                      21
Flare mode
• Engages
    • A/C reaches 40 ft. RA (precise valve is a function of V/S)

Rollout
• A/P gives steering orders (depends on the speed ) to rudder and nose wheel (via BSCU)
• A/P order
    • Ailerons + Spoilers will be null
    • THS reset to 0.5° nose up
    • Spoilers directly controlled by SEC for Gnd. spoilers
    • During rollout speed < 60 Kts pilot take control by disconnecting A/P
• FMGC          ELAC1 & 2            Ailerons + Elevators + THS

                                     BSCU        NWS

                                    FAC 1 & 2         Rudder

•   PFD indications (FMA) – AP 1+2

AP warnings
• Red auto land warning
   • Flashes in the LAND mode
       • Radio guidance goes bellow 200 ft. and
           • A/C goes too far off the LOC or GS beams
           • Both AP fail
           • Both GS transmitters or receivers fail
           • Both LOC transmitters or receivers fail

Flight Director
    • Displays Guidance commands on both PFD to fly manually according to FMGC demand
    • Two cases to be considered
        • A/P not engaged
            • F/D symbols display on PFD, gives orders to pilot to maintain the desired parameters
                (crew fly A/C as per the orders acting on flight controls)
            • A/P Engaged
                • FD function displayed symbol on PFD represent A/P orders to be monitored by pilots
    • FMGC 1 and 2 drives FD and FPV on PFD 1 and 2 respectively
    • If one FMGC fail other will provide for both PFDs
    • If both FD fail RED flag displayed on each PFD provided FD Sw. is ON

    •   MFA indications
        • 1FD2 = Normal conditions FD 1 on PFD 1 and FD 2 on PFD 2
        • -FD2 = FD 1 not displayed
        • 1FD- = FD 2 not displayed
        • 2FD2 = FD 2 on both PFDs
        • 1FD 1 = FD 1 on both PFDs

•   Engagement
    • Automatically as soon as system powered + logic conditions satisfactory
    • Will be indicated on the FCU by FD P/B Green bars ON and top R/H of PFD FMA

                             Lt. ON – FD engaged
                                    - FCU power up
              FD
                                    - GA modes
                                    - Loss of A/P during rollout phase
                                    - Means FD can be displayed on corresponding PFD
                             P/B press with Green Lt. On = FD go out
                             P/B press again = FD come ON
                             Green Lt. OFF = No FD symbol can be displayed on the PFD
                                                     22
     •   1FD2 – FD 1 engaged on Capt’s PFD, FD2 engaged on FO’s PFD
     •   On Gnd. – If AP/FD not active, no FD symbol appears on FMA
     •   During configuration change FMGC send command to flash FD bars for 10 sec

Manual flight
• A/P not engaged
   • F/D symbols display on PFD, gives orders to pilot to maintain the desired parameters (crew fly A/C as
       per the orders acting on flight controls)

Automatic flight
• A/P Engaged
    • FD function displayed symbol on PFD represent A/P orders to be monitored by pilots

FD   modes
•    Same as A/P modes are selected on same way
•    FMGC calculates AP/FD orders, will be transferred into symbols by DMC
•    Two types of symbols
     • FD bars
     • FPD and FPV
•    Push button HDG V/S / TRK – FPA will allows to switch in between the symbols

FD bars 3 types
• Pitch bar -               Displayed if vertical mode active except rollout or landing phase
• Roll bar -                Displayed if lateral mode is active

•    Yaw bar -             Displayed
                              - When roll bar will be replaced by yaw bar
                                 - If Altitude < 30 ft RA at T/O (LOC signal avail)
                                 - During landing

•    To be centered when just bellow the central yellow square

FPD/FPV symbol
FPD
• Provides commands signal to intercept and fly lateral/vertical flight path as defined on FMGC
• Symbol removes when no guidance mode provided by FMGC
• Computed by FMGC
FPV


•    Provides lateral/vertical flight path information of current track and flight path angle accurately being flown
•    Computed by ADIRU

•    Displayed if
     • TRK FPA selected on FCU (both flashes for 10 sec during configuration change)
     • AP/FD modes correctly followed, FPD and FPV symbols will be super imposed
•    Yaw bar
     • Will appears as the same condition as FD bars

System Control and indication
• ND
    • Flight plan data
       • Data selection by FCU
       • A/C present position
       • Wind speed and direction
       • Gnd. speed




                                                         23
•        PFD
         • FMA
             • AP/FD/A/THR engagement status on FMA
             • AP/FD and A/THR around engaged modes on the FMA
             • FD modes
             • FAC characteristic speed on the speed scale
•        FMGC/FCU/FAC/ MCDU reset
         • Possible by CB’S in the flight deck
•        E/W /SD
         • E/W
             • AFS warning messages
         • SD
             • AFS information such as inop. systems on status page or land capability availability
•        Attention Getters
         • M/C + M/W
             • If AFS disconnection occurs
             • A/Land warning activated when problem occurs during final approach in auto land

Flight mode Annunciator
• FMA information will be displayed by the master FMGC which supply to both
• AP/FD information displayed according to following logic
    • At least one AP, master FMGC supplies to both
    • With out AP, with FD engaged FMGC 1 supplies FMA 1, FMGC 2 supplies to FMA 2
    • With out AP with one FD failed or manually disengaged, opposite FMGC supplies both FMAs
• Divided in to 5 zones
    • A/THR information
    • Vertical and lateral AP/FD modes
    • Landing capability
    • Engagement status of Guidance functions
                           rd          nd     rd
    • Message use the 3 line of the 2 and 3 zones
• Five colours are used
    • Green – A/THR and AP/FD active modes
    • Cyan – AP/FD armed mode, A/THR engaged not active, V/S, FPA, FLX TEMP, MDA, MDH and DH
               numeric values, selected MACH and Speed
    • White – FG function engaged, A/THR activated, landing categories, manual thrust (surrounded by
               boxes) which are held when A/THR not active
    • Amber – Messages, boxed around certain thrust modes
    • Red – “MAN PITCH TRIM ONLY” message

A/THR zone
                                            FMA


    st         SPEED
1
    nd
2
    rd         LVR ASYM
3


          st
•        1 line, in Green : SPEED, MACH, THR MCT, THR CLB, THR IDLE, THR LVR
          st
•        1 line in Green with a flashing amber box : A. FLOOR     TOGA LK


          st       nd
•        1 and 2        lines in white :   MAN       MAN             MAN          MAN
                                           TOGA      FLX xx          THR          MCT
          rd
•        3 line flashing white :LVR CLB, LVR MCT
          rd
•        3 line in amber : LVR ASYM
                                                          24
AP/FD vertical zone

                                           FMA


    st                    ALT
1
    nd                    G/S
2
    rd
3



             st
•        1 line in Green : SRS, ALT*, ALT, ALT CRZ*, ALT CST*, ALT CST, EXP CLB, EXP DEC, G/S*,
                           OP CLB, OP DES, CLB, DES
                           Common to vertical and lateral areas: LAND, FLAR, ROLL OUT, FINAL APP
          nd
•        2 line in Green and Cyan: FPA +/- xx°, V/S +/-xxxx
          nd
•        2 line in Cyan :ALT, CLB, G/S, DES, OP CLB, OP DES, FINAL
                         SPEED SEL : xxx, MACH SEL: .xx which are seen in lateral and vertical areas
                         (xxx = preset speed, .xx= preset mach)

AP/FD lateral zone

                                           FMA


1
    st                                  HDG

2
    nd                                  LOC

    rd
3


•        Lateral modes
              st
         • 1 line in Green : RWY, RWY TRK, HDG, TRK, LOC*, LOC, GA TRK, APP NAV, NAV
                             Common to vertical and lateral areas : LAND, FLAR, ROLL OUT, FINAL APP
              nd
         • 2 line in Cyan : NAV, LOC, APP NAV

Landing category zone

                                           FMA


    st                                               CAT 3
1

2
    nd                                               DUAL

    rd                                               DH XXX
3


•        Landing categories
              st     nd
         • 1 and 2 lines in white : CAT 1               CAT 2        CAT 3         CAT 3
                                                                     SINGLE        DUAL
                   rd
         •        3 line messages in White and numerics in Cyan (information in this zone as soon as land is armed or
                  active)

                                            DH xxx       NO DH       MDA xxxx      MDH xxxx



                                                              25
Engagement status zone
                                       FMA
    st                                                         AP 1 + 2
1
    nd                                                         1FD2
2
    rd                                                         A/THR
3


•        Engagement status
             st
         • 1 line in White : AP 1 + 2, AP 1, AP 2
             nd
         • 2 line in White :1 FD – (FD 1 engaged in capt’s side ), -FD 1 (FD 1 engaged in FO’s side),
                             -FD 2 (FD 2 engaged in FO’s side) , 2 FD - (FD 2 engaged in capt’s side)
                              1 FD 1 (FD 2 failed, FD 1 engaged), 2 FD 2 (FD 1failed FD 2 engaged)
             rd
         • 3 line in Cyan : A/THR (Engaged and not active)
                  in White : A/THR (engaged and active)

Messages
                                            rd
• Advisory messages appear in White on the 3 line in zone 2 and 3. E.g. “MORE DRAG”
• One Red message dedicated to the display area “MAN PITCH TRIM ONLY”

Flight Augmentation
• FAC
    • Controlled by
        • Qty. 2 FAC P/B(one for each FAC)
        • Rudder Trim Control panel (during manual rudder trim)
    • Qty 2, interchangeable
    • Basic function
        • Rudder control
        • Flight envelope protection
    • FAC includes facility to interface between AFS & CFDS called FIDS (Fault Isolation and Detection)
    • FIDS included only in FAC 1
    • AFS connected to the most of the A/C systems
        • A/C attitude, Altitude from ADIRUs
        • Transmission of A/P orders to ELACs
• FAC functions
    • Receives orders from FMGCs or ELACs for Yaw Damper function
    • Yaw damper
        • Consist of 4 functions
           • Dutch roll damping
           • Turn coordination
           • Engine failure compensation
           • Yaw guidance order execution
    • Rudder Trim
        • Manual trim from the Rudder trim control panel
        • Auto trim
           • Through FMGC via FAC to rudder trim actuator with A/P engaged

         •   Rudder Travel Limitation
             • Limits rudder travel according to the A/C speed for structure Integrity (Speed information comes
                from ADIRUs)
             • Prevents excessive deflection which penalize the A/C performance




                                                          26
   •   Flight Envelope protection
       • FAC computes
           • Varies characteristics speeds for A/C operation
               • ADIRU (Displayed on PFD)
               • LGCIU (Displayed on PFD)
               • FMGC and SFCC data (Displayed on PFD)
           • Low energy warnings computation sent to FWC to generates aural warnings “SPEED”
           • Excessive AOA [sent to FMGC]
           • Windshear detection (sent to FMGC)
   •   Controls
       • FAC receives
           • From FAC P/B
           • Rudder trim selector – Deflect rudder
           • Rudder trim reset P/B – Return rudder to neutral position

   •   Displays FAC computations
       • Characteristic speed computed by FAC shown on the speed scale of PFD
       • Rudder trim position will be displayed on ECAM + Rudder trim panel
       • Red windshear warning on both PFD
       • Rudder travel limitation position will not displayed, only max stop position shown on ECAM

Yaw damper
   • Qty 2 Y/D, both engaged in normal operation Y/D #1 got priority
   • Function achieved by
      • Qty 2 Electro hydraulic actuators with centering element, consist of
           • Qty 1 LVDT – Provides feed back in the power loop for the command side
           • Qty 2 Electro valves
           • Qty 1 Pressure Sw.
           • Qty 1 servo valve
           • Qty 2 Bypass valve
      • Qty 2 RVDTs - Provides feed back in the power loop for the monitoring side
   • Y/D 1 & 2 operates by change over logic and does not move the Rudder pedals
   • Y/D #1 & #2 powered by Green and Yellow hydraulic systems respectively
   • If both Y/D fail centering spring rod moved rudder to the neutral position
   • Manual mode (AP with out engagement)
      • ELAC controls YD with normal law
      • Provides orders to FAC to achieve
           • Turn coordination
           • Dutch Roll damping
           • Engine failure compensation yaw orders
      • If both ELAC fails
           • Only Dutch roll damping (alternate law) computed by FAC using ADIRU
   • AP engaged
      • FAC calculates Y/D order except land mode
      • During land mode yaw order computation by FMGC directly.
      • Dutch roll damping law provided by FAC using ADIRS data
      • FAC controlled Engine fail compensation during TO, GA, and RWY modes using ADIRS data
      • TC law computed by FAC using roll order from FMGC
• Monitoring
   • At power up Y/D function safety test initiated and continuity from STBY Y/D and servo valve will be
      tested
   • ELAC, FMGC and ADIRU peripheral always monitored
   • In flight hydraulic pressure monitored by FAC via pressure Sw. on the actuator




                                                    27
Rudder Trim
• Components are duplicated except RT selector and P/B
• Rudder pedals moves with trim orders
• Priority for FAC 1 and FAC 2 STBY, If both RT fails last deflection will be maintained
• Function achieved by
   • Electromechanical actuator(consist of Qty. 2 asynchronous motors) and Qty 4 RVDTs
• Manual mode (AP not engaged)
   • Controlled by Rudder trim control panel via FAC
   • Reset can be done via P/B to neutral position
• Auto Mode (AP engaged)
   • FAC computes using FMGC and ADIRU data
       • Engine fail computation and Turn coordination used for rudder trim
       • TC law computes yaw orders related to the FMGC roll orders, signals simultaneously sent to the
            Rudder trim actuator and YD actuator
       • Engine fail computation slow law orders sent to rudder trim actuator
       • At touch down auto reset function moves rudder to the neutral position
• Power loop
   • During auto test, triggered by FAC power up internal actuator monitoring checks the servo loop and
       monitoring circuit validity
   • Law computes the trim order then sends to actuator motor via electronic control
   • Feed back in the power loop is provided by two RVDTs for each side (total quantity 4)
• Monitoring
   • Computation and power loop will be monitored by comparators
   • FMGC and ADIRU peripherals inputs always monitored

Rudder travel limitation
• Computed by FAC using ADIRU CAS and sent to Rudder travel limiting unit
• All the function are duplicated
• Controlled by
   • Electro- mechanical RLT unit with 2 motors
   • Qty. 2 RVDTs
   • Qty. 2 FACs
Normal operation
        • RTL law in command channel in the FAC 1 (active side) controls the RTL unit stops through
            motors
Return to low speed
        • If both RTL function fail, when slats are extended full deflection achieved
• Priority logic
   • FAC 1 and FAC 2 STBY
• RTL control law generated deflection orders respect to the CAS
   • Vc < = 160 Kts, Deflection = 25°
   • Vc > = 410 Kts, Deflection = 3.5°

RTL law
• Change the deflection through a motor controlled by Electrical control unit
• Feed back in the power loop provided by one RVDT for slaving and monitoring
• Returned to low speed logic connects the motor directly to 26VDC to recover full rudder deflection

Monitoring
• Computation and power loop monitored by comparators between FAC command and monitor
   channels(RTL order and RTL unit position feed back)
• Vc monitored and one of the two is selected




                                                     28
Flight Envelope Protection
• Provides
    • Characteristic speeds on the PFD through DMC
        • Computed by FAC
           • Sends to PFDs, if parameters fail automatically switched to opposite FAC by DMC
               • If airdata source used by the FAC differs to the source used by the DMC for speed
                   display, ECAM message “ADR DISAGREE” appears
           • Characteristic speed computation based on the weight of the A/C
               • In flight – FAC computes the weight with the ADIRS, FMGC ad SFCC parameters, then it
                   used to computes C of G
               • On Ground – FAC uses weight provided by the FMGC
           • Speed limits to the FMGCs for auto flight
    • Alpha floor detection to the FMGCs for A/THR engagement, if it is not engaged
        • A – floor detection and windshear protection computed by ELACs or FACs then sends to FMGCs
           to apply full thrust
           • AOA threshold is a function of flap/slat configuration, will be decreased if windshear detects.
               Beyond this limit FMGC apply full thrust as per the FAC signal
           • If A/C in cleaned configuration windshear compensation not avail
           • ELAC trigger A – floor (Dual ADIRS failure results total A – floor detection)
               • Alpha protection condition + side stick deflection > 14°
               • Pitch angle > 25° + side stick deflection > 14°
    • Low energy awareness
        • Provides aural warning (“Speed, Speed, Speed”) to increase thrust to recover positive flight path
           angle through pitch control
        • Triggered before alpha floor depends on AOA, configuration deceleration rate and flight path angle
        • Inhibited
           • When RA > 2000ft
           • Alpha floor is active
           • A/C in clean configuration
    • FAC computes Weight and C of G

Indication
•   Over speed protection -    =   (Green colour) VMO + 6Kts / MMO + 0.01
•   Speed trend                ↑    Appears only speed > 2Kts and removed speed < 1 Kts and FAC failure
                                   Indicates speed after 10 sec if acceleration or deceleration remain constant
•   Target airspeed            = (Magenta colour) Computed by FMGC
                                     (Cyan colour) manually entered on FCU for selected speed mode

•   ECON speed range                 (Magenta colour) In descend mode with ECON mode selected speed will be
                                      replaced Upper and lower limits calculated by FMGC. (Indicates range of
                                      descend speed +20 and –20 Kts or Vmin or VLS which ever is higher)

Green
dot                            Vmax
                                  VFE next
               ↑      1(F/S)      V1(min flap/slat retractable speed)
               ↑
                               VLS

                               Alpha protection speed
                               Alpha max speed


•   Minimum selectable speed (VLS)
                           - Computed by FACs, indicated at top of amber strip (during T/O =1.13Vs,
                             becomes 1.23Vs as soon as any flap or slat selected until landing)
                           - Above 20000 ft corrected to mach effect to maintain 0.2G buffet margin
                           - Inhibited from touch down up to 10 sec after lift-off
                                                        29
•   Alpha protection speed
                             - Represent speed corresponding to the AOA, which AOA becomes active
                             - Computed in pitch normal law by FACs
•   Alpha max speed          - Represent speed corresponding to the max AOA may be reached in pitch
                               normal law by FACs
•   Max. sped (Vmax)         - Determined by FACs
                             - Represent of the following
                               VMO (Max operating speed or speed corresponding to the MMO (max
                               operating Mach)
                               VLE (Max L/G extended speed)
                               VFE (Max flap extended speed)
•   Stall warning speed      - Defined to the top of red and black strip with flight control in alternate or
                               direct law
                             - Inhibited from touch down up to 5 sec after lift off, computed by FACs

•   Decision speed (V1)      - Manually inserted by the crew via MCDU, indication removed after lift off
•   Minimum Flap retraction speed (-F)
                             - Visible when Flap selector in position 3 or 2, computed by FACs
•   Minimum Slat retraction speed (-S)
                             - Visible when Flap selector in position 1, computed by FACs
•   Maximum flap extended speed (VFE) [amber dashes]
                             - Predicted next VFE at flap/slat position, computed by the FACs only
                               displayed A/C altitude < 15000ft
•   Engine out operating speed in clean configuration (Green dot)
                             - Displayed only in flight, represent speed corresponding to the best lift
                               and drag ratio.

Engagement
• Normal configuration
       FAC
     FAULT                   Sw pressed IN – Fault Lt. and OFF Lt. OFF provided internal monitoring and
                                                 engagement logic present
       OFF
                             Sw. released OUT - OFF Lt. ON and FAC disengaged
                             Fault Lt. ON – P/B pressed IN and FAC not engaged or not installed
                                            -Computer fail (A/C on Gnd.+ engine S/D reset automatic if
                                             fault disappeared)
                                            -FAC disengaged
                                            -If temp. power lost (In-flight reset possible by FAC P/B Sw.)
                             Fault Lt. flashes – P/B pressed and during 30 sec test power up

•   ECAM message (Fault Lt. OFF) and FAC remain engaged if
    • One or several Yaw axis control function fail
    • YD fail
    • Rudder trim fail
    • RTL fail

Auto Thrust
Calculates signals required to engine controls to follow given mode (Acquisition and holding of speed or Mach
number)

                             Pressed ON – A/THR engagement confirmed by green bars Lt. ON
                             Pressed OFF – A/THR function disengaged
     A/THR
                             (On Gnd, A/THR automatically engages when T/O initiated with Thrust levers)



•   To perform A/THR function Thrust target computed by FMGC and chosen by FCU
•   Each FCU processor sends thrust target to EECs via EIUs



                                                       30
•   A/THR engagement
    • Pilot moves T/L to TO/GA or FLX/MCT
    • FMGC automatically engaged
        • T/O mode for Yaw and longitudinal guidance [RWY and SRS(speed reference system)]
    • A/THR function
        • FD symbol appears on PFD (Green FD yaw bar + pitch bar)
    • Manually
        • By pressing A/THR P/B on FCU
        • Inhibited if altitude <100 ft RA with engines running
    • Auto
        • When AP/FD engaged during T/O or GA modes
        • In flight, when A - floor detected ; inhibited below 100 ft RA except during 15 sec. following lift off
    • A/THR engagement is conformed by logic of activation in the EECs
•   Displays A/P data and information on
    • MCDU – Displays data related to the management part (identification of successive way points of flight
        plan)
    • FCU – Displays
        • Lights gives mode identification
        • LCD shows reference parameters (during climb with A/P engaged altitude display shows altitude
            to be captured)
    • PFDs – Displays
        • FD symbols
        • Status guidance functions and modes
        • Reference parameters ( Target speed values represent by symbol on the speed scale)
    • NDs – Flight plan and Nav. Data (Airports, way points around A/C present position)
    • ECAM E/W - Warning messages related to failure of components or functions
    • Status pages – Landing capabilities
    • Thrust levers
        • Manually operated and electrically controlled by EECs
        • Never move electrically
        • Consist of 3 detents
            • Rear selector – Idle reverse up to max reverse
            • Center selector
                •    “0”- Idle thrust
                • “CL” – Maximum climb thrust
            • Forward selector –
                • FLX/MCT – Flexible T/O or Maximum continuous thrust (after engine failure)
                • TO/GA – Max take off thrust TO/GA limit
        • EEC computes thrust limit as per position of thrust lever
            • Both T/L in same detent – T/limit corresponds to this detent
            • Both T/L not in same detent – T/limit corresponds to next higher detent
        • FMGC select higher of the EEC 1 and EEC 2 T/limits for thrust target computation
•   A/Thrust function logic
    • Disengaged
        • Thrust levers controls engines
        • FCU A/THR Lt. OFF
        • FMA no A/THR engagement or modes
    • Engagement
        • Active if
            • At least one T/L between “CL” and “0” stop and at the most one T/L between “FLX/MCT” and
                “CL” detent and if no engine in FLX T/O mode
            • A –floor protection in active independently of T/L position
        • If one engine failed, activation zone becomes FLX/MCT and “0” stop
        • When A/THR function is active
            • A/THR system controls the engine
            • FCU A/THR LT.ON
            • FMA displays A/THR engagement status (white) and A/THR mode

                                                       31
       •   Not Active if
           • At least one T/L out of active area
           • Both T/L above “CL” detent
           • At least one engine in FLX T/O mode with A – floor protection not active
       •   When not active
           • T/L controls the engines (as long as T/L out of active area)
           • A/THR P/B Lt. ON
           • FMA shows A/THR engagement status (CYAN) + MAN THR rating

•   Modes
    • Computes T/target according to modes and related parameters
    • Reference
        • Speed or Mach number
            • Selection is either FCU (Chosen value) or FMGC it self
        • Thrust
            • Source either EECs (computes T/limits) where T/limit needed or FMGC it self
        • Retard
            • Can be OVRD by A – Flow detection
    • Choice of the mode by automatically by FMGC according to active A/P or FD vertical mode
    • Choice bases on simple law – “Priority to the speed control”
    • A/P (with elevator) control A/C speed
        • A/THR has to control the engine by fixed trust demand (thrust mode)
•   A/P controls on the A/C parameters (E.g. Altitude)
    • A/THR has to take care of the A/C speed by a variable thrust demand to the engine (Speed / Mach
        mode)
•   Retard
    • Only avail in auto land when engine thrust to be reduced to idle for flare phase altitude < 40 ft RA
•   No vertical mode engaged
    • A/THR operative only in speed/Mach mode except
        • When thrust mode engaged automatically during A – floor
        • When A/THR being in RTD, if A/P is disengaged, A/THR function remain in RTD mode, A/C being
            on Gnd.

AP and FD related modes with A/THR
              AP/FD pitch modes                                    A/THR modes
                  V/S – FPA
          DES (GEOMATRIC PATH)
                  ALT*, ALT
              ALT CRZ*, ALT CRZ                                 SPEED/MACH MODE
                   G/S*, G/S
              FONAL, FINAL APP
                  AP/FD OFF
              CLB,DES (idle path)
            OPEN CLB/OPEN DES
              EXP CLB/EXP DES                                  THR (CLB, IDLE) MODE
                     SRS
                    FLARE                                          RETARD (IDLE)

•   Alpha flow protection
    • Detected by each FAC
    • If excessive AOA or avoidance maneuver, FAC sends orders to FMGC which activate A – floor
        protection
    • A/THR automatically engaged or stayed active
        • Engine thrust equal to T/O GA thrust by any control lever position
        • Green “A.FLOOR” with Amber flashing box displayed on the FMA
    • No A –Floor detection in the FACs Green message “TOGA LK” with Amber flashing box displayed on
        the FMA
    • A – floor protection can only be cancelled by disengagement of A/THR function

                                                    32
•   A/THR operation in flight
    • A/C on Gnd.
        • No A/P, A/THR engaged, engine controlled by T/Levers
        • Pilot moves T/L to TOGA or FLEX/MCT (if Flex temp selected on MCDU)
        • A/THR function engaged not activated
        • FMA “MAN TOGA”
        • At reduction altitude FMA shows THR Lever to indicate pilot to move T/L to “CL” detent
           • As soon as T/L at “CL” detent A/THR active if T/L “CL - MCT” or “0 – CL” area message on
               FMA warns pilot to set T/L to “CL” detent
           • (White “LVR CLB” message if thrust lever set in “CL – MCT” area, Amber “Lever ASYM”
               message if in “0 – CL” area)
           • A/THR remain active
        • T/L remain in this position until the approach phase
    • During auto landing before touch down
        • Auto call out “Retard” – Pilot has to move T/L to zero stop
           • A/THR disengages
               • Gnd. spoiler activate automatically if they were in armed condition
    • Roll out
        • On Gnd.
           • Pilot move T/L to Rev sector
•   Disconnection
    • By pilot action ( press one of the 2 Red P/B on the T/L or by pressing A/THR P/B on FCU)
    • System failure (A/THR disengagement can also due to an external sensor failure)
    • When A/THR function active
        • Actual engine thrust not required to correspond T/L position
    • When A/THR disconnection
        • Made by P/B on T/L
           • Thrust immediately adjust the T/L position
        • FCU P/B disconnection or failure
           • If lever was in detent
               • Engine thrust will be frozen at its last value just before disconnection (memo mode)
               • If lever was not in or moved out the detent
                   • Thrust of the corresponding engine smoothly adapted to the lever position

A/THR selection priority

        Engagement of AP                         Engagement of FD
        1                2                       1                2              Selected A/THR
       ON                *                       *                *                  A/THR 1
       OFF              ON                       *                *                  A/THR 2
       OFF             OFF                      ON                *                  A/THR 1
       OFF             OFF                      OFF              ON                  A/THR 2
       OFF             OFF                      OFF             OFF              A/THR 1 OR 2 if
                                                                                   A/THR 1 fail

* - Indicates ON or OFF
• A/THR consist of 2 systems can be engaged at the same time but only one can be selected at a time
• Selected A/THR function will be active upon the T/lever position will be controlled by FMGC via FCU
• In auto control same FMGC controls engines ad flight controls

FMA display
THR MCT – Single engine thrust climb, live engine is at maximum continuous thrust (T/L at MCT detent)
THR CLB – Climb thrust two-engine configuration
THR LVR – Undetermined thrust
THR IDLE – Minimum thrust




                                                    33
Maintenance Systems
• AFS Type system
• Use of FIDS active only in FAC 1
• Access to the system via CFDS

FIDS
• Used as a system Bite to concentrate maintenance information and compare with all information from
    other AFS computers to filter unwanted gives most accurate faults to CFDS
• Receives commands from CFDS and sent to other AFS system Bites and receives malfunction report from
    Bites if applicable reports to CFDS
• If FIDS fails Bites continues to work and the result can be read in the shop or after FAC 1 change
• BITES
    • Each AFS computers consist of Bites to Detect, Isolate, Memorize faults
    • FCU and MCDU Bites memorize only detection task
    • FCU Bites
        • Computes Bites and sent to each FMGC command port
    • MCDU
        • Fail detection on own Bites
        • Fail output discrete sent to FG 1 & 2 commands ports
        • Fail Lt. ON
    • AFS test
        • AFS LRU items to test before and after replacement to get fault data
    • Land test
        • Checks availability and integrity of Land mode
        • Equipment required to obtain Land - 3
    • Ground test
        • Simulates air mode to get access to internal and external failures
    • Safety test
        • Starts after long time power interruption
        • Permitted only on Gnd. except FCU, which can be performs air and Gnd.
        • During test no action to performed on the system
        • If unit fails the test detects as faulty and ECAM failure message will be on the Status page
        • Conditions
              • A/C on Gnd.
              • Both engines shut down
              • Hydraulic pressure required to FACs only
              • Pull the CB’s for tested computer (FCU both channels CB’s to be pulled)
              • Wait 7 min. for FCU and 15 sec for other computers
              • Reset CB’s (If for FCU not wait 7 min. display indicates previous memorized readings, after
                  correct time period displays 100 and 0 alternatively )
                  • 7 min time to discharge internal battery of FCU
              • Wait 1 min to execute safety test
Trouble shooting action after pilot report
• Interrogate CFDS system test for AFS page
• Check last leg report on the AFS main menu page
• Last leg report empty or AFS LRU fault message if any carry out safety test
• Perform AFS test
    • If Pass, carry out Land test
        • If fail change related LRU
    • If Fail, check AFS LRU fault message or
    • May be ambiguous message, refer TSM

Data base loading
• Can be performed using portable database loader to FMCG 1 or 2
• Optional cross loading function allows load data base from one FMGC to other
• Loading by loader takes 15 to 30 min, cross loading will be done with in 3.5 to 7.5 min.



                                                      34
FMGC warnings
• AP OFF – M/W + Aural warning
   • Due to action on the take over P/B (no status message)
   • Due to another reason other than the P/B (Status message shows inoperative Systems)
• Failure of both FD
   • Red FD flag will be displayed provided FD P/B selected on the EFIS control panel (warning generated
       by DMC)
• A/THR OFF – M/C amber A/THR message on E/W display
   • Due to action on the instinctive P/B
   • T/lever setting on idle altitude > 50 ft
• A/THR limited
   • A/THR active and T/levers bellow the climb detent
• Capacity change – triple click + FMA
   • Landing capacity down grading
• FCU 1 or FCU 1 + 2 fault
   • Status message in Inoperative systems
   • FCU 1 + 2 fail M/C + Status message
• MCDU failure
   • Amber fail annunciator Lt. illuminates on the MCDU
• Altitude alert – C – cord aural warning
   • Inhibited during G/S capture
   • Cancelled by
       • Turning the FCU altitude knob
       • L/G lever set to down with slats extended
       • L/G down and locked
• Decision height – Audio call out
• Auto land
   • Red warning Lt. informed pilot to action to land or GA
   • Only activated land mode at least with one AP engaged
   • Cancelled
       • LOC mode
       • AP disengagement
       • Performing GA




                                                   35
                             COMMUNICATION (CHAPTER – 23)
Very High Frequency System (VHF)
• Short range voice communication system between A/Cs or A/C to Gnd.
• AMU acts as a interface between ACP and transceiver
• RMPs tune the transceivers directly as per the frequency selection on input ‘A’ and ‘B’
   • Input ‘A’ for normal RMP operation
   • Input ‘B’ for RMP failure
•   Components
   • Qty 3 Transceivers
   • Qty 3 blade antennas
   • Qty 3 RMPs
   • Qty 3 ACPs
   • Qty 1 AMU
• SDAC acquires PTT signal and send to ECAM message “COM : VHF 1 CONT EMITTING” if continuous
   emitting > 60 sec to DFDR
• ACP will select transmission and reception through AMU

High frequency system (HF)
• Long rang voice communication system between A/C or A/C and ground stations
• RMP will be control frequency selection of the transceiver
• HF transceiver and the SDAC use to record
• ACP will select transmission and reception through AMU
• Bite function can be done by CFDS
• HF couplers located in the ceiling of the Aft galley

SELCAL
• Provides visual and aural indications to the crew concerning calls from ground stations through VHF or HF
   systems
        SELCAL CODE SELECTIO N PANEL




         A       D       C      E




•   When SELCAL message received CALL Lt. on the VHF or HF TR push button will be flashing and buzzer
    sounds (Buzzer signal comes from FWC)
•   CALL indication can be manually cleared by pressing reset key or automatically upon transmission on the
    called system.
•   SELCAL system performed in the SELCAL – CALL card in the AMU
•   When SELCAL signal is present compares with the code selected on the code selection panel, if two
    codes agree message sends to the various ACPs via corresponding audio cards


CIDS (Cabin Intercommunication data system)
• Provides interface flight crew, cabin attendants, passengers, ground service and various cabin systems
   dedicated to cabin attendants or passenger use
• Operator can change the cabin layout with out change hard wear change
• Monitors, tests, controls and operates cabin functions




                                                     36
CIDS directors link with several functions


                                                                                             Passenger
                                                                     DEU                     functions
            Flight deck                                              “A”
            Controls &
            indications

                                             Directors                                          Crew
              Aircraft                                               DEU                      functions
              system                                                 ”B”
             functions




                              PTP
                                                                     Cabin
                                                                     system
                                                 FAP                 function
                                                                     s




Directors
• Includes OBRMs
• Interfaces with other systems through PTP
• In normal operation Director 2 in hot STBY(Both Directors receives same inputs but outputs on Director 2
    in hot STBY)
• Continuously energized when service and Essential bus bars powered
• During Normal operation
    • Essential bus bar powered
        • Active director
        • All the circuits in DEU”A “ required for PA system
        • All the circuits in DEU”B” required for PA and interphone
    • Service bus bar powered
        • Active and second Directors
        • Non essential circuits in DEUs
        • PTP
        • FAP
        • Area call panels
        • Attendant indication panels
        • Aft attendant panel
• Abnormal operation
    • Service bus power not available, following will be not powered
        • Second Directors
        • Non essential circuits in DEUs
        • PTP
        • FAP
        • Area call panels
        • Attendant indication panels
        • Aft attendant panel
    • During PA operation Essential bus provides top line buses in the DEU”A” which is required for PA
        function
    • Essential bus power loss
        • Circuits in the Directors and DEUs switches to Service bus for full rang CIDS operation except in
            emergency configuration
        • With both Essential and service bus failure, provided emergency Lt. Sw. selected to Arm or ON all
            CIDS circuits connected to the Essential bus will be connected to the Hot battery bus
• If self test fails on Director 1 during power up test Director 2 takes over

                                                       37
PTP
• Includes CAM (Cabin Assignment module), stores all information for the actual cabin layout
   • Contains cabin layout 1, 2, 3, and M
   • In the basic configuration only layout 1 will be programmed
   • Only layout M can be modified via PTP
• Can be programmed and test CIDS
• For correct operation CAM must be plugged in
• Automatically supplied if DC service bus powered and automatically switched OFF panel not used foe 10
   min
• Testing the emergency light system can be done by Qty 2 Sws. and 2 Lts.

FAP
• Connected directly to the CIDS directors for control, monitoring, indication and test of the CIDS
• Connected to the Directors and DEU”B”s
• FAP composed with
   • Light panel – Comprises various cabin Lt. Controls
     • Power Sw. provide power to the Lavatory Lts., Pax reading Lts., Attendant work Lts.
   • Audio panel – Centralized control of passenger entertainment, Boarding music and pre recorded
     announcements
   • Water and miscellaneous panel

       EMER           Emergency Lt. Guarded P/B – Switch ON and OFF emergency Lts.




                      Lavatory smoke Lt. Sw. – Warns lav. Smoke
                                              - Commands from the smoke detection control unit
      LAV                                     - Light reset only when smoke disappeared




                      Reset Sw. – Resets only aural and visual warnings in the cabin during Lav.
     RESET
                                  smoke with out effecting the LAV SMOKE indication on the FAP




                      EVAC Lt. Sw. – Indicates evacuation command
      EVAC




     COMD             COMD P/B – Activates evacuation system
                               - Integral Lt. Comes ON with the system activation



                      Reset Sw. Resets all call passenger calls
     RESET




                                                    38
                        CIDS Caution Lt. – Indicates CIDS caution
                                                 - Both CIDS directors fail
       CAUT
                                                 - 50% of DEU”A” fail
                                                 - 20% of adjacent DEU”A” fail (zone vise)
                                                 - All DEU”B” with handset fail
                                         - Resettable in flight but illuminates again on Gnd. L/G down
                                           and locked
                                         - Can not reset on Gnd. If failure still persist
                                         - Failure message will be displayed on the PTP
      • Air conditioning panel – Fwd and Aft cabin temp. will be indicated

Aft   attendant panels (AAP)
•     Can be control various cabin control as same as the FAP
•     Connected to the DEU”B”
•     Basic panel contain EVAC indicating Lt. and RESET Sw.

DEU”A”
• Provides interface between passengers and passenger related systems
   • Cabin Lts. – Entrance area Lts., Ceiling Lts., Attendant Lts. and Lavatory Lts
   • Reading Lts. – Power units (one for 3 reading Lts.) located in the PSUs
   • Pax call – Seat row Lts.
   • Signs – No smoking, FSB, Return to the seat
   • Loudspeakers – Used for PA, Chimes and Music
• Total Qty 26 located in the cabin above windows
• Connected to the Directors via Top line data buses   (two wire twisted and shielded cable)
   • Broken wire of top line bus will effect only down stream of the damage, others will operate normally.
   • Bus termination resistor located in the DEU mount on each line for impedance matching
   • Loss of Top line bus can effect not more then half of the DEUs insalled on one cabin side
• Each DEU connected to
   • Qty 3 PSUs
   • Qty 2 loudspeakers
   • Qty 4 Fluorescent Lts. Which are part of the CIDS
• Cording Sw. on each DEU mount gives unique address
• Failure of the Data bus
   • Gives full brightness of the Qty 4 fluorescent Lts.
   • All other systems connected to the data bus will go OFF
   • All audio input/outputs immediately Sw. OFF

DEU”B”
• Total Qty 4 located in the exit doors in the ceiling
• Connected to the Middle line data buses one on each side of the cabin to provide information to
   Directors
• Bus termination resistor located in the DEU mount on each line for impedance matching
• Cording Sw. on each DEU mount gives unique address
• CIDS power up test or reset Director follows routine, includes initialization and each DEU and connected
   equipment. Test results transmitted to the Directors, then compares them with its programmed data to
   decide on their status (95% of possible DEU failures are automatically detected)
• Provides interface between directors and cabin related systems
   • Door pressure sensors - If the bottle pressure is low CIDS caution Lt. Will illuminates
   • Slide pressure sensors – If the bottle pressure is low CIDS caution Lt. Will illuminates
   • Handsets
       • Provides crew communication and PA
       • Hand set volume can be adjusted by two potentiometers located in the PTT P/B
           • Phone sensitivity
           • Mic sensitivity
   • EPSUs – Provides emergency Lt. System test


                                                       39
    •   Attendant indication panels
        • Located at each attendant station for message purposes
        • Indicated information processed by CIDS
        • Display of hand set related information
        • Interphone system messages
        • PA system messages
        • PAX lighted sign activation information
        • PAX call indication
        • Miscellaneous information




                •   Pink Lt. – Lt. and text flashes for emergency call from captain and evacuation signal
                    activation
                • Green Lt. – Indicates normal calls
                • Upper row – Indicates cabin and flight interphone system information
                • High priority calls will be displayed with full width of the top line
                    • Divided in to 3 parts
                       • Outer left – Interphone handset status information
                       • Lower row – Information derived by CIDS
                       • Middle – Blank
                       • Outer right – Desired interphone station or system information
                • Bite
                    • Bite output indicates operational status of the AIP to the connected DEU”B”
                    • Bite capabilities includes power up test and automatic periodic tests
    •   Area call panels
        • Connected to the DEU”B”
           • Indicates
                • Crew calls
                • PAX calls
                • Lavatory smoke warnings / call




                  • Amber – Lavatory call and Emergency calls
                  • Pink – Crew call
                  • Blue – Pax call
   • Additional attendant panels
   • Drainmasts – Connected via drain mast control unit, If control unit or heater fails CIDS caution Lt. will
      illuminates
DEU mounts
• Basically the same but due to the index pins can not interchange DEU”A”s and DEU”B”s
• During mount change old code must be selected on the coding Sws.
• Bus termination resistor located on the DEU mount

Passenger functions
• Cabin illumination control
• Passenger Address (PA)
   • Allows voice communication to broadcast to all passengers from flight deck and cabin attendants
      stations through CIDS
   • Transmits in digital format on the top line data buses to the DEU”A” to loudspeakers and via PESC to
      the PCU then to head sets
                                                      40
    •   Can be manually initiated from flight deck or from the cabin
        • From flight deck
            • Handsets – When press PTT Sw. activate AIP message “PA ALL IN USE”
            • Hand mic – On ACP PA T/R key must be pressed and held and press PTT Sw. on the mic,
                 to receive side tone and control the volume PA reception knob must be press and released
                 (activate AIP message “PA ALL IN USE”)
            • Boom mic – On ACP PA T/R key must be pressed and held, to receive side tone and control
                 the volume PA reception knob must be press and released (activate AIP message “PA ALL IN
                 USE”)
            • Oxygen mask - conjunction with ACPs same as boom mike
            • N/S and FSB Sw. set to ON
        • From the cabin
            • Attendants handsets
                 • When attendant lift the phone 400Hz tone will be heard and # appears on the AIP top line
                 • When “PA ALL” key pressed conformation “PA ALL” message will appear on the AIP, If
                      PA announcement in progress “BUSY” message appears
                 • Pressing the Reset key always clear the hand set operation
                 • Once the PA call established “PA ALL IN USE” appears on the bottom line
            • From the FAP pre recorded announcements stored in the PRAM
            • If video system installed announcements can be initiated from the VCU
    •   Can be automatically initiated from the PRAM
        • N/S or FSB flight deck Sws. set to auto
        • Cabin depressurization occurs
    •   Priority – Programmed in the CAM
              st
        • 1 – Flight compartment
              nd                                       nd
        • 2 – Cabin attendant stations (FAP got 2 level of priority as a option)
              rd
        • 3 – Prerecorded announcements
              th
        • 4 – Boarding music and/or entertainment system
    •   PA volume adjustment
        • Amplifications will be done by DEU”A”
        • With engine running automatic volume increased by +6db
        • Cabin decompression will increase by +4db

•   Passenger call system
    • If NO call activated all seat row numbering Lts. Will be steadily illuminated
    • If passenger calls
       • Respective seat raw number will flash
       • Blue Lt. on the ACP illuminates
       • One Hi chime sounds
       • Several passenger calls at the same time, maximum of 3 chimes sounds, can be reset by same
           call P/B press again or from the FAP reset P/B
    • PAX lavatory call
       • Integrated call Lt. ON
       • Amber Lt. on the ACP illuminated
       • Respective lavatory Amber Lt. illuminated
       • Chime sounds
       • Can be reset by same call Lt. press again

•   Passenger lighted signs
    • No smoking signs
       • Achieved by 3 position Sw. in the flight deck
    NO SMOKING
                  ON          ON / OFF – Acti vation and deactivation of No smoking, seat row number
              A                           and Exit signs
              U                         - Low chime activates when Sw. ON/OFF
              T               Auto – L/G down and locked signs Sw. ON + visual and aural warnings
              O                      ON
                  OFF


                                                    41
    •   Seat Belts signs

    SEAT BELTS
                 ON            Sw. select ON – Visual and Aural indication will be triggered




                 OFF

    •   In case of excessive cabin altitude No smoking, exit and fasten seat belts signs illuminates
        automatically

Passenger Entertainment System
• Music
   • System consist of
      • Main Mux
      • Audio Reproducer
      • Wall Disconnect Unit (WDU) - (Qty 6) Provides line amplification
      • SEB
      • PCU

                                                               SEB                   PCU
           MAIN                       WDU
           MUX


                                                               SEB                   PCU


                                      WDU
               Audio
             Reproducer



                                      WDU




•   Video
    • System consist of
        • Main Mux
        • System Control Unit (SCU)
        • VCR
        • Tapping Unit
        • Monitors

                                                              Monitors
           MAIN                       T/U
           MUX




                                                              Monitors
                                      T/U
            VCR




                                                              Monitors
                                      T/U



                                                      42
Crew functions
Inter phone system
• Three interphone systems
    • Flight interphones
        • Allows communication between
           • Flight crew members
           • Cabin and flight crew
           • Flight crew and ground crew at Gnd. receptacle and Avionics bay
    • Cabin interphones
        • Allows communication between
           • Flight deck and cabin attendant stations
           • Between cabin attendants stations
        • CIDS director performs switching and call functions as per the priority
        • Chimes delivered on the top line data bus to the loudspeakers
        • All communication calls activates as per the following priorities
                 st
           • 1 – Emergency call
                 nd
           • 2 – Call from the flight deck(All call and normal call)
                 rd
           • 3 – All call from cabin
                 th
           • 4 – Normal call from cabin
           • In addition above among interphone stations have priorities, if two stations dial together call
                                                                                                               st
                goes to the highest priority station or two stations with same priority, call directed to the 1
                dialed station.
        • Call from the cabin connected to the type “B” DEUs
        • Call from flight deck will initiated from Directors
           • Call P/B on the call panel enable crew to select required cabin attendant station
Calls
           ALL
                        ALL P/B pressed IN – Initiates conference mode communication more then two
                                             stations
                                           - All stations connects to the common link including flight
                                             deck


                        All P/B on the cabin handset pressed - All stations connects to the common link
          ALL                                                 except flight deck


          EMER


          CALL          P/B pressed – Emergency call initiated from the flight deck to common link
                                      between flight deck and all attendant stations.
           ON                       - CALL Lt. illuminates
                                    - Amber Lt. on the cabin ACPs
                                    - 3x high – Low chime

                        Emergency call P/B on the cabin any handset pressed – Initiates emergency call
           EMER                                                               only to the flight deck
           CALL


          FWD

                        FWD P/B – Call initiated only to fwd attendant stations



          AFT
                        AFT P/B – Call initiated only to aft attendant stations




                                                        43
          •      When call initiated visual and aural indications will be initiated at the AIPs and ACPs
          •      High – Low chimes will be broadcast in the assigned zones loudspeakers
          •      Call from the cabin will activate buzzer and flight deck ACPs ATT Lt.
          •      Attendant to attendant station call
                 • High – Low chime at the called station only
                 • Calling station ACP pink Lt. ON

    •     Service interphones between
          • Deferent service station jacks and flight deck and cabin stations
          • Service interphone system made up with
              • Qty 8 interphone jacks
              • OVRD Sw. in the flight deck OVHD panel
          • Service interphone system control amplifier located in the CIDS directors
          • Two mode to connect jacks to the system
              • Automatic mode
                  • On Gnd. Only
                       • L/G down and compressed or
                       • External power connected
              • Manual mode
                  • OVHD panel Service interphone P/B pressed – ON Lt. illuminated
                 SVCE INT                                            Used when A/C on Gnd.+ 10 sec No
                   OVRD                                              signal from LGCIU


                       ON



          •
          Operation from flight deck
          • To establish audio communication through service interphone jacks CAB reception key and
              ATT transmission key on the ACP to be pressed, audio signal transmitted via AMU
       • Operation from the cabin
          • To establish audio communication through service interphone jacks SER on the handset to be
              pressed, audio signal transmitted via DMU”B” to the service interphone amplifier in the CIDS
              director
          • Message “SERVICE INT” appears on the calling station AIP, in other stations AIPs indicates
              “SERV INT IN USE”
•   Emergency evacuation signaling
    • Provides visual and aural signaling in the flight deck and cabin followed by crew action
    • Can be controlled by flight deck or cabin

    COMMAND
                            Sw. pressed – System activates ON Lt. illuminates and Fwd and Aft attendant
        EVAC                              panel EVAC Lt. flashes + tone sounds

         ON                 EVAC Lt. – Flashes RED when system activated from cabin or flight deck

      HORN
    SHUT OFF
                            Horn shuts OFF in the flight deck



         CAPT
        & PURS
                            CAPT and PURS – Allows to system to trigger from flight deck or purser station

                            CAPT – System can only be triggered from flight deck



        CAPT

                                                            44
                       Reset Sw. – Resets only evacuation tone in the corresponding door area
     RESET
                                   attendant loudspeaker




                       EVAC Lt. Sw. – Indicates evacuation command by Lt. flashing

      EVAC




                       EVAC P/B – Activates evacuation system if flight deck Sw. set to “Capt and Purs”
                                   position
      COMD                      - Integral Lt. Comes ON with the system activation


        •    With evacuation signal activation AIP message “EVACUATION ALEART” displays with flashing
             RED Lt.

Cabin system functions
• Boarding music and Pre-recorded announcement
   • Provided by PRAM (Prerecorded announcement and boarding music reproducer) controlled by audio
       module which is part of FWD attendant panel
   • Connected to CIDS director to receive and transmit data
• PRAM
   • Contains Qty 2 cassettes decks, up to 256 prerecorded announcements can be stored
   • In the event of cabin pressure decompression automatically starts prerecorded emergency
       announcements in synthetic voice
   • Output audio level can be adjusted by the front of the reproducer
   • Pre recorded announcements can be control from the FAP
• Boarding music
   • BGM channel can be position at PRAM or PES reproducer
   • Controlled by audio module fitted in the FAP
• Lavatory smoke warning
• Emergency lighting
• Temperature regulated drain mast system

Monitoring and test functions
• System programming and test
• Work light test
• Escape slide bottle pressure monitoring
• Reading light test
• Extended emergency lighting test
Aircraft system functions
• Interface with A/C systems
    • FWC, LGICU, PRAM, SFCC, …

Flight deck control and indicating
• Call panel
• EVAC panel
• NS/FSB panel
• Handset
• Service interphone OVHD Sw.




                                                     45
CVR
• Records in flight and Gnd. crew conversation and radio communications for 30 sec (solid state CVR
   records for 2 hrs)
• CVR microphone records direct communications of the crew
• CVR head set jack mounted on the maintenance panel 50 vu
• Automatically energized
   • In flight until 5 min after last engine S/down (Powered in flight with engines are running or not)
   • During power up for 5 min
• Manually energized by pressing GND.CTL P/B on the CVR control panel

    GND CTL
                          Switch is a momentary type
                          Press – ON Lt. illuminates
      ON                         - Power the system when only A/C on Gnd.



•   CVR test
    • Press test P/B either in flight or on Gnd., test 600Hz tone appears four times (one for each four
       channels)
    • If parking break applied test tone will be heard over flight deck loudspeakers, if not test tone only over
       the test headset.
    • If engines are shut down before erase Gnd. control P/B to be pressed to power the system
•   CVR erase
    • Possible only A/C on Gnd.(L & R MLG shock absorbers pressed) with parking break applied and press
       P/B > 2 sec.
    • Erase all 4 channels simultaneously
    • If engines are shut down before erase Gnd. control P/B to be pressed to power the system
•   CVR normal mode
    • Records 4 channels
                                                         rd
       • Channel 1, 2, 3 via AMU capt’s, FO’s and 3 occupants
             th
       • 4 channel direct from CVR mic via mic amplifier (Amplifier located in the OVHD panel)

ACP
• Qty. 3 located in the flight deck
• Controls and indication communication and navigation facilities
• Displays various calls received through SELCAL, Gnd. call and cabin attendants




           CALL          CALLL     CALL      CALL       CALL          MECH         ATT

           VHF 1         VHF 2     VHF 3      HF 1       HF 2           INT        CAB


                   INT

                                  ON
                                                                 PA
                                 VOICE     RESET                              PA
                   RAD

           VOR 1         VOR 2      MKR       ILS      MLS      ADF 1          ADF 2




                                                      46
Transmission keys

                       Green bars – Lt. ON when system selected
    CALL               CALL Lt. – Flashes in amber to indicate SELCAL call
                       MECH Lt. - Flashes in amber to indicate ground call
                       ATT Lt. - Flashes in amber to indicate attendant call
(Only one transmission Lt. can be selected at once)
• Cabin transmission key
    • Pressed – Boom mask and hand mikes may be used for cabin interphone

Reception Knobs


                        Channel OFF (P/B pressed IN) – Disconnects associated audio reception channel

                        Channel ON (P/B pressed out) – Selects associated audio reception channel


•   Cabin reception knob
    • When switch pushed and released out - Station receives audio signal from cabin

SELCAL/CALL reset key

                        Press – Extinguishes CALL, MECH and ATT lights
      RES ET


•    Chancels all lighted calls (MECH and ATT Lts. go off automatically after 60 sec. if call not cancelled by
     reset key)
Interphone/Radio selection Sw.
• Provides utilization interphone with boom set or Oxygen mask
• Int. position
    • Allows direct interphone transmission
        • What ever the TR P/B selected and NO PTT is activated
        • Even NO TR key selected
• Neutral position allows reception only
• RAD position used as PTT Sw. when TR key selected
ON Voice P/B
• Used ADF or VOR selected to attenuate identification signal to listen voice transmission
• Green On Lt. illuminated when Sw. pressed IN and voice filter in service

PA P/B
• Enables PA transmission to be pressed in during the transmission

RMP
• Qty 3 located in the flight deck (One optional)
• Used for selection of radio communication and navigation frequencies
• Each RMP can control any VHF, HF frequency
• All 3 RMP permanently dialogue each other and informed last selection made by any one.
• If two RMP failed remaining RMP can control all VHF and HF transceivers
• For communication 3 VHF and 2 HF P/B available for selection
• SEL Lt. illuminates in white to indicates non dedicated RMP takes control frequency selection

•   Normal configuration
    • RMP 1 allocated with VHF 1
    • RMP 2 allocated with VHF 2
    • RMP 3 allocated with VHF 3 (HF 1)
    [If VHF 2 selected on RMP 1, SEL LT. illuminates on white on RMP 1 & 2]
•   If RMP fails display starts to blink on failed RMP, sends discrete signal to system reconfiguration
•   Bite function available from CFDS via RMP 1, If RMP 1 fails bite function inoperative

                                                       47
Audio Management Unit (AMU)
• Ensures interface between jack and ACP and various radio communication and navigation systems
• Serves to records communication (CAA recording)
• Equipped with test circuit which connects to CFDS and ensure following functions
   • Transmission – Collects microphone inputs of the various crew stations and directs them to
       communication transceivers
   • Reception – Collects them from various outputs from communication and navigation transceivers and
       directs them to crew stations
   • SELCAL
       • Enables reception with aural and visual indications of calls from Gnd. stations equipped with
            coding device
       • SELCAL decoding unit located in the AMU
   • Display of Gnd. crew and cabin attendant calls
       • Ground call
            • When call P/B pressed on the External power control panel (108 vu), Gnd. signal send to the
                selcal/call card and FWC. FWC activates the buzzer and sends to the F/D amplifiers in the
                AMU to broadcast through loudspeakers. SELCAL/CALL card sends signal to ACPs via audio
                cards to illuminate CALL Lts.on the ACPs for 60 secs.
            • Call automatically resets after 60 secs or manually reset by pressing reset P/B
       • Attendant call
            • When call initiated from the cabin attendant station CIDS directors send Gnd. signal to
                selcal/call card sends signal to ACPs via audio cards to illuminate CALL Lts. on the ACPs for
                60 secs. CIDS directors also sends a signal to FWC to activate the buzzer for 1 sec. and
                sends to the F/D amplifiers in the AMU to broadcast through loudspeakers.
            • Call automatically resets after 60 secs or manually reset by pressing reset P/B
   • Flight Interphones
       • Allows intercommunication function in the flight deck various crew stations, with ground interphone
            jack and avionics compartment
   • Emergency function of capt’s and FO’s stations
• Only digital data are exchanged between AMU and ACPs, NO audio signal in the ACPs
• In side the AMU switching, filtering and amplifications will be done, one audio processing card for each
   ACP
• Volume control function will be done by digitally in the AMU
• Muting for the captain’s and FO’s loud speakers during transmission will be done by AMU
• Attenuating function will not be operative with the FWC audio outputs
Audio switching selector

     AUDIO SWITCHING

           NORM
    CAPT          F/O
      3           3




                         rd                 rd
CAPT 3 – Captain uses 3 occupants ACP (3 occupant can not be used) + ECAM memo message
           “AUDIO 3 XFRD”
Normal – Normal allocation of ACPs
                                      rd          rd
FO 3 – First officer selected to the 3 occupant (3 occupant can not be used) + ECAM memo message
           “AUDIO 3 XFRD”

Forward Attendant Panel (FAP)
• Located in the fwd area of the cabin

Programming and test panel (PTP)
• Located at the PTP
• Enable to program and test CIDS
Aft Attendant panel (AAP)
• Located in the aft passenger crew door
                                                     48
                   AIRCRAFT ELECRICAL SYSTEMS (CHAPTER – 24)
•     Engine and APU generators capacity 90 KVA
•     Emergency generator capacity 5 KVA, speed 12,000 rpm
•     Power transfer priority
      1. Gen. 1 (2) on AC bus 1 (2) { Own generator to its own AC bus}
      2. External power even with one engine generator operation
          • [If one engine running and power to both sides, then external power will take over other side AC
              bus after BTC open]
      3 APU generator
      4 Other side engine generator
•     AC Essential bus normally powered by AC bus 1, If AC bus 1 failed AC bus 2 will be powered after manual
      selection by AC ESS FEED Sw. to ALTN position.
•     AC Essential shed bus powered by AC Essential bus.
•     AC ESS bus failure causes E/W display blank
•     AC BUS 2 feeds to Lower ECAM display
•     AC Emergency generation
      • AC emergency power generated by constant speed motor/generator (CSM/G), located at main landing
          gear bay.
•     115/26 V Auto Transformer
      • Single-phase autotransformer powered by each AC bus.( Qty. 3 )
•     DC power generation
      • TR maximum O/P 200A, 28 VDC
      • TR disconnects DC BUS control contactor if it does not sense current flow (1A, TD = 500 ms) or OVHT
          detection (171° C), after defect isolation required resetting
      • ESS TR powered by either AC ESS BUS or Emergency Gen. During a failure condition or a
          emergency condition.(engine generators fail or TR 1 or 2 fail)
      • During normal configuration TR 1 supplied to DC BUS 1, DC BAT BUS, DC ESS BUS and DC ESS
          SHED BUS and TR 2 supplies DC BUS 2. ESS TR does not powered.
      • If TR 1 fails TR 2 supplies to DC BAT BUS, DC BUS 1 & 2 automatically and AC ESS BUS power via
          ESS TR to DC ESS BUS and DC ESS SHED BUS
      • If TR 2 fails DC BUS 1 & 2,DC BAT. BUS powered by TR 1 and AC ESS BUS supplies via ESS TR to
          DC ESS BUS and DC ESS SHED BUS.
      • TR reset can be done by CFDS via MCDU or by TR protection module located in Avionics bay(103 vu)
      • During normal operation ESS TR does not powered
•     DC Battery bus
      • Powered by DC bus 1 or if it fails by DC bus 2.or by both batteries through battery contactors
          controlled by BCLs
•     DC ESS bus
      • Powered by DC BAT bus
      • During emergency will be powered by battery 2 or by ESS TR.
•     DC ESS Shed bus is powered by DC ESS bus

•     Batteries
      BAT 1(2)       Sw. Pressed IN (Auto)
                         - BCL control battery coupling / uncoupling, after batteries fully charged contactor
         FAULT
                           opens
          OFF
                     Sw Released OUT
                         - Battery will uncouple + OFF Lt. appears(if DC Bat Bus powered)
                     Fault Lt. ON – Relevant battery charging current is out side of the limits, then battery
                                     contactor will open
In   flight, in normal configuration batteries are uncoupled
        • Each battery permanently connected to its own Hot bus (1 or 2), can be connected to DC BAT bus.
•       Capacity 24 VDC, 23 Ah
•       Battery # 1 – Supply DC Bat BUS + Static inverter
•       Battery # 2 – Supply DC Bat BUS + DC ESS BUS
•       Batteries charged by DC BAT BUS via two battery contactors are controlled by BCLs
•       Battery alone configuration will not power shed buses (Yellow CB’s to be pulled to reduce load)

                                                        49
•    Battery Charge Limiters
     • Controls battery contactors
         • Ensure automatic battery connection for charging
         • Protect the battery against thermal runaway and short circuits
         • Prevent complete discharging even only battery power select ON
     • BCL monitors battery charging, system failure and bite status will report to CFDS & ECAM (via SDAC)
     • Both BCLs Control and monitor CSM/G and Static inverter, This will indicate when BLC test carried out
         via CFDS, Rat CSM/G Fault Lt. on emergency electrical panel comes ON for few seconds
     • BCL powered by DC BAT bus
     • On GND.
         • With normal power BCL will allow batteries to supply AC/DC ESS buses and DC BAT bus
     • In flight
         • Charging cycles are increased by 30min additional charging time
     • During APU start BCL connects DC network to batteries to stand starter load
     • BCL output data link send data to SDAC 1 & 2 and CFDS via ARINC 429
•    Static inverter
     • Connected to Battery 1 and supply to AC STATIC INV bus. Characteristics 115 VAC, 400 Hz
     • During normal operation AC Static Inverter bus does not powered
     • Located in R/H lateral avionics compartment ( above 105VU )
     • Functions
         • APU start (Fuel pump power supply)
         • RAM air turbine deployment
         • Engine start on battery (Ignition)
         • Emergency configuration
     • Static inverter faults signals to the Battery charge limiter (BCL), BCL memorizes class 1 failures then
         displayed on ECAM upper display, such as
         • OVHT
         • Output/input over voltage
         • Input under voltage
     • Static inverter will not power AC and DC shed buses.
•    Ground / Flight bus
     • Connected to up stream of the external power connector, with out energizing complete A/C network

IDG push button
     IDG 1               when pressed momentary, IDG will disconnect

                         Fault Lt. ON – IDG oil outlet OVHT or Low oil pressure
     FAULT               Lt. OFF – When failure on longer present or IDG disconnected


•

•    Low oil pressure Sw. prevents IDG disconnection during engine shut down

GEN 1(2) push button
    GEN                  In normal operation
    FAULT                         - Generator energized and Line contactor (GLC) closes if parameters
                                    are normal
                         Fault Lt. ON – If associated GCU trips line contactor
     OFF                                - Opening of line contactor (except if GEN P/B select OFF)

APU GEN push button

APU GEN                  In normal operation
                                  - APU generator energized and line contactor closes, if parameters correct
    FAULT                         and priority is OK (Ext. power line contactor opens)
                         Fault Lt. ON – ECB detects any failure
     OFF                              – If associated GCU trips line contactor
                                       - Opening of line contactor (except if GEN P/B select OFF)

                                                      50
•     APU Fault Lt. inhibited until APU reach to correct speed
•     Temperature sensor on APU generator sense Hi Oil temperature. and cut off APU via ECB
•     Recycle P/B will reset APU fault after defect cleared

External power push button

    Ext PWR              When ON
                               - External power contactor closes if parameters and priority correct.
    AVAIL                      - With GENs. In line with external power Sw press, ETC closes and “ON”
                                 Lt. illuminates (does not power the system)
      ON


BUS Tie breaker

    BUS TIE              Auto (pressed In)
                                 - Contactor open or close automatically according to priority
                         Manual (Latched OUT)
     OFF
                                 - BTCs open


AC ESS Feed push button

AC ESS FEED              In normal operation
                                - AC ESS BUS supplied by AC BUS 1
    FAULT
                          In alternate operation
    ALTN
                                   - AC ESS BUS supplied by AC bus 2
                 Fault Lt. ON – AC BUS 1 does not power AC ESS BUS (ALTN not selected manually)

Battery push button

     1 BAT               In normal operation (Sw. pressed IN) AUTO
    FAULT
                         Battery charge limiter automatically connects line contactor to DC BAT BUS
                         - During APU start (master Sw. ON and N< 95%)
     OFF                 - Battery voltage < 26.5v during charge (charging cycle ends at charging
                           current < 4amp)
                            On Gnd. - Immediately
                            In flight - After 30 min time delay
                         - Loss of AC bus 1 & 2 when speed < 100 KTS (emergency generator not
                           running) If AC bus 1 & 2 not energized + Emergency generator not running
                         - Battery 1 supplies AC STAT INV BUS, if speed > 50 KTS supplies to AC ESS
                           BUS
                         - Battery 2 supplies to DC ESS BUS
                         (In normal configuration batteries are disconnected most of the time)

                           Fault Lt. ON – (Contactor opens)
                                    - BCL detect fault
                                    - Charging current is out of limits
                           If BCL detects fault, Fault Lt. + CFDS + ECAM warning appears
•     Automatically battery contactors open
      • A/C on Gnd.
      • Main power supply (external or Gen) is cut off
      • Battery voltage is low




                                                       51
Galley push button

    GALLEY               In auto
                                   - Main and secondary galleys will be powered
    FALUT                          - With one generator operation Primary galley will be shed automatically
                                      ECAM message + (No fault Lt.)
     OFF                           - On GND. all galleys available with APU power & External power, If
                                     APU Gen. over loaded both galleys will be shed automatically + Fault
                                     Lt. ON

                         Fault Lt. illuminates - With normal operation GEN. overload detection, then by
                                                 manually P/B unlatch causes all galley shut down
•     Galleys
      • Main and secondary galleys powered by AC bus 1 & 2

Maintenance bus switch

MAINT BUS
   ON                      Sw ON + Ext power available - (Green AVAIL Lt. ON) AC & DC GND.
                                                          flight busses will be supplied)
                                                          (Located on 2000 vu)




Emergency Electrical Power Logic Description

Emergency Generator
Auto Operation
• If AC power lost (AC BUS 1 & 2) speed > 100kts, Ram air turbine extend automatically even if power lost
    during airdata operational check of air speed.
• During transient period (7 sec) until emergency Gen. Comes in to circuit batteries power DC ESS BUS
    (from BAT. 2), AC ESS BUS + Static inverter bus (from BAT. 1)
• If Gears UP – Emergency generator comes in line and power AC & DC ESS buses
• If gear down (during approach) – Emergency generator deactivated and batteries will power AC & DC ESS
    buses and Static Inverter bus.
• When the speed < 100kts – DC BAT BUS is recovered (only AC & DC ESS buses + DC BAT bus + Static
    Inverter bus)
• When the speed < 50kts – AC ESS BUS disconnect from the static Inverter. (only DC BAT bus + DC ESS
    bus + Static Inverter bus)
• ON GND. Only BAT. Powered to the A/C DC BAT bus + DC ESS bus + Static inverter bus only energized
• Activation of Emergency Gen. vi a blue hydraulic system only landing gear UP
• If L/Gear lever cycled (during G/A condition) emergency Gen. will deactivate (now Nose L/G not up locked
    power to ESS AC & DC buses supplied by Static inverter and Battery 2 respectively), to reactivate L/G
    leve r select up + emergency electrical power “MAN ON “ P/B must be pressed
• When “MAN ON “ P/B pressed ESS AC + DC ESS buses (including shed buses) will be powered by
    emergency generator
• RAT solenoid 1 energized by automatic operation by HOT BAT. BUS
• RAT solenoid 2 energized by manual operation by BAT. 2




                                                        52
Main AC buses fail + Emergency condition

                                                     DC ESS      AC ESS       DC BAT     STATIC
                 AC BUS 1 & 2 FAIL                   BUS         BUS          BUS        INV. BUS

Before Emergency. Generator connected
speed > 100kts, Battery will power to                     4           4                      4
After Emergency Generator connected
Emergency Generator will power to                         4           4
Speed > 100 its, Landing gear Down
Battery will power to                                     4           4                      4
Speed < 100 kts,
Battery will power to                                     4           4          4           4
Speed < 50 kts,
Battery will power to                                     4                      4           4
On Ground with only Battery power
                                                          4                      4           4

Manual operation
• In-flight

      RAT &
    EMER GEN
                 Fault Lt. ON -
     FAULT
                               Dual Gen. failure and if RAT does not extend, to extend RAT and to achieve
                               power need to press “MAN ON” P/B.
                 Fault Lt. comes ON for few seconds
                                During BCL test on CFDS as CSM/G and Static generator faults monitored by
                               BCLs

•    ON Ground

     MAN ON
                         If “MAN ON” P/B pressed RAT will extend and does not run
                         “MAN ON” P/B operation activates RAT even A/C in cold configuration.

                 A
                 U
                 T
                 O



Emergency Gen. test

    BLUE PUMP
     OVRD
                         Blue hydraulic system pressurized by blue pump OVRD P/B, located on maintenance
                         panel

      ON



EMER GEN TEST

                         EMER Gen. Test P/B must be pressed held then monitor emergency Gen.
                         parameters on the ECAM under following conditions
                         - AC normal buses are powered
                         - Blue hydraulic pressure available
                         - AC ESS and DC ESS buses are connected to the emergency generator



                                                     53
Fuel pump supply in smoke configuration

     GEN. 1 LINE                      When smoke warning appears, following action required
                                  •    Select Gen. 1 line contactor (GLC) OFF (L/H & R/H # 1 fuel pumps
      SMOKE                            remain powered by up stream of the GLC, AC BUS 1 powered by AC
                                       BUS 2 via BTCs)
       OFF




      MAN ON                      Press emergency electrical power “MAN ON” Sw.
                                  - RAT will extend, if parameters OK Emergency Gen. power to AC ESS
                                    BUS and DC ESS BUS will power via ESS TR
                                  - Sw. OFF Gen. 2 & APU GEN.
                   A
                   U
                   T
                   O              - Before L/G extension Gen.2 + Emergency elect. Gen. 1 line to be set ON

System Warnings

- IDG Oil low press/OVHT          - M/C + A/W + IDG fault Lt. On cont. panel, ECAM activation
- Gen. Fault                      - M/C + A/W + Gen. fault Lt. On cont. panel, ECAM activation
- Bat 2 Fault                     - M/C + A/W + BAT fault Lt. On cont. panel, ECAM activation
                                    Faulty battery will disconnect automatically
- Gen. Over load                  - M/C + A/W + Galley fault Lt. On cont. panel, ECAM activation
- AC BUS 2 Fault                  - M/C + A/W + lower ECAM display lost
                                  - DC ESS BUS will be fed form ESS TR
                                  - DC BUS 2 supplied from DC BUS 1 via DC BAT. BUS
- AC ESS BUS Fault                - M/C + A/W + AC ESS FEED fault Lt. On cont. panel, upper ECAM lost
                                  - E/W transferred to lower display, system display avail on request

    AC ESS FEED

       FAULT                      Normal – AC ESS BUS powered by AC BUS 1
                                  ALTN – AC ESS BUS powered by AC BUS 2
       ALTN                       Fault Lt. ON – AC ESS BUS not electrically powered


- AC ESS BUS SHED                 - M/C + A/W + ECAM Amber warning activation
- DC BUS 1(2) fault               - M/C + A/W + ECAM activation
                                  - DC ESS BUS powered by ES TR
                                  - DC BAT.BUS powered by DCBUS 2
- DC ESS BUS SHED                 - M/C + A/W + ECAM activation
- DC BAT. BUS fault               - M/C + A/W + ECAM activation, BAT. Fault Lt. ON
- Emergency configuration         - M/W + A/W continuously ON + lower ECAM lost

RAT & EMER GEN

     FAULT                Fault Lt. ON
                                   - If emergency generator not supply power when
                                            - AC BUS 1 and 2 are not powered
                                            - Nose landing gear up

•     All 3 Generators are monitored by GCUs
•     GCU receives informations from various parameters if OK closes relevant GLC, if parameters not with in
      limit GCU opens GLC and trigger warnings
•     For External power generation GPCU does same function as GCU + Monitors GND. Power parameters




                                                       54
IDG Cooling system
• Scavenge pump oil to oil filter & Fuel / oil heat exchanger
• Charge pump regulates oil to the users (Generator, Differential Gear, Hydraulic trim unit, governor)
• During cold condition oil pressure increases then cooler bypass valve opens to provide to IDG internal
   circuits after oil heats up bypass valve closes then oil passes through fuel / oil heat exchanger
• Filter clogged indicator gives local visual indication, if filter clogged relief valve opens
• For oil OVHT conditions oil temp. IN / OUT sensors monitor temperature
• Pressure Sw. at outlet of the charge pump will provide indication if pressure is less

IDG disconnection

      IDG 1 (2)         If IDG high oil temp or low oil pressure will trigger fault LT.
                        Sw. pressed IDG disconnects (Not > 3 sec)
                        After engine stopped + IDG disconnected Fault Lt. inhibited
      FAULT




     GEN 1 (2)
      FAULT             After disconnected GEN fault Lt. appears

        OFF



AC Main Generation System

    GEN 1 (2)

    FAULT               SW. Pressed – If all parameters OK GLC closes
                                       Fault Lt. On – If any parameter not correct or GLC open, failure signal
      OFF                              sent to SDAC1 & 2 through EGIU (Electrical Generator Interface Unit)
                                   - When the engine shut down
                                       During avionics smoke procedure, fault Lt. Does not ON when GEN.1
                                       LINE P/B is OFF

•    Gen. 1 Line SW. Released out – to avoid complete lose of fuel pump during smoke procedure to open
     GLC

GCU
Four Functions
• Voltage regulation
   • Achieved by regulating excitation current (Current reduced until 335Hz obtained). If PMG voltage
       reduced protection circuit sense trigger voltage regulation shut down control to simulate high generator
       load signal via current limit module. When PMG frequency signal normal voltage regulation becomes
       normal and GLC closes.(Excitation current depends on the comparison between voltage at point of
       regulation and reference voltage)
• Control and protection of the network
   • Protection achieved by GCR and power ready relay
   • Gen. line cables current monitors by CT and a sensor
   • If open parallel condition or Fire P/B released GCU trips GCR and GLC, and turn off voltage
       regulation
   • GPCU determines Fire trip or open cable fault
   • Deferential protection
       • Area divided to 2 parts
            • Zone 1 – Gen. coils + feeders between IDG CT and GLC
                • If any S/C between phases or phase to Gnd. Fault Lt. on GEN 1 (2 ) P/B illuminates but
                    Gen. still generates. If fault persists GCR trips and Gen. de energized, GLC opens BTC
                    close to allow other AC BUS to power network. If no over current detected by zone 2 CTs
                    line remains,
                                                         55
            •      Zone 2 – Wiring from GLC and CT
                   • If any S/C in zone 2 GLC opens & BTC opens Gen. excited + Fault Lt. Illuminates,
                        If fault does not persist S/C isolated GCR tripped thus Gen. de excited, BTC remain
                        locked out then AC ESS BUS supplies from AC ESS feed control
                   • This situation can be recovered by resetting Gen. P/B 2 times then GLC closes power
                   • After clearing BTC lockout fault system can be reseated by DP reset P/B on the GCU or
                        each power up
     • Over load protection only processed to give ECAM warnings
     • During Under speed conditions under frequency, under voltage protections inhibited.
     • If GLC welded after tripping of PR relay, cause BTC lockout
• Control Indicating and warning
     • Indication and warnings triggered by GCU
          • Gen. Fault amber warning Lt. + ECAM activation
          • Galley amber fault Lt. + ECAM activation
          • IDG fault amber warning Lt. + ECAM activation
     • GCU also processed the following indications
          • Gen. load, frequency, IDG oil temperature and low pressure which are also displayed on ECAM
• System testing ( BITE)
     • BITE system consist of two sections
          • Operational Bite – After Gen. tripping identifies protection, analyses the condition and determines
              the fault
          • Maintenance Bite – Completes the operational bite and performs self test of GCU, Only 7 last leg
              faults can memorize
External Power
• If external power parameters correct “AVAIL” Lt. In flight deck and external power receptacle will
     illuminates.
• When external power P/B pressed EPC closes (BTCs close only if non of GLC closed)
• GPCU will open EPC if external power parameter incorrect
• GPCU monitor pin monitoring and power ready relay then power the “AVAIL” LT.
• GPCU interfaces between GCU and CFDIU
     • GPCU receives hexadecimal coded fault information through RS 422 data bus
     • GPCU transmit fault message to CFDIU via ARINC 429 output bus
• Maintenance test allowed only on GND. With Eng. Shut down, indicated
     • Automatically – at GPCU power up
     • Manually – From MCDU
• After pressing external power P/B, after BTC & GLC logic satisfactory EPC closes, if any malfunction of
     the external power, power ready relay will trips and opens EPC
Pin monitoring relay closes only if
• Ground cart connected + running and powered
Power ready relay closes if
• Valid EP interlock
• Parameters with in limits
GPCU monitors
• AC protections
     • Over/under voltage
     • Over /under frequency
     • Incorrect phase sequence
• DC protections
     • Checking by external power receptacle pin voltage
     • GPCU internal fault monitoring
Bite
• Operational Bite – Identifies the protection analysis the conditions and determines fault origin
• Maintenance Bite – Performs self-test to check system integrity on Gnd. Only
• Class 2 failures sent to EGIU to indicated on ECAM
• Communicates with CFDS to perform CFDS checks
• If TR 2 fails DC & AC GND. Service buses will lost
• GPCU operation active in Air/GND.

                                                      56
Galley Power Supply
• With Galley P/B in auto position, power supplied by APU or GND. cart all the galleys are powered
• In flight to power all galleys 2 generators required ( 2 IDGs or IDG + APU )

  FAULT                   Fault Lt. ON – GCU detects GEN. overload (Galleys manually to be cut OFF)
                                          ECAM activated via EGIU
                                          On GND.-
    OFF                                   APU GEN. Overload all galleys shed automatically + Fault Lt. ON
                                          In flight –
                                                    With single GEN. operation, limits automatically power feed to
                                                    galleys (5 KVA for each galley)
Refueling on battery
• Refueling buses will power when refueling door opens
   • 28 VDC service bus ( Powered by normal network or via Maintenance Bus Sw.)
   • Hot bus, if no any other power avail
• Refueling by Hot bat bus, power will cutoff automatically after 10 min even refueling door opens

Electrical Generation Interface Unit (EGIU)
• EGIU 2 available, each contain 2 channels.
    • Channel 1 – Allocated to IDG 1 or IDG 2
    • Channel 2 – Allocated to APU External power
• Function
    • Convert analogue and discreet signals coming from GCU to Digital ARINC 429 signal
    • EGIU out put goes to ECAM via SDAC 1 & 2
    • External power Sw. in flight deck sends signal to Flip flop circuit in EGIU to GND. Power Sw. ON &
         OFF


           AC     AC      AC      AC      AC                     ESS     DC      DC    DC     DC     DC     HOT     HOT
           BUS    BUS    ESS     SHED    STAT    TR    TR        TR     BUS     BUS   BAT     ESS SHED      BUS     BUS
            1      2     BUS      BUS     INV     1     2                 1       2   BUS     BUS    ESS     1       2
Normal     Gen    Gen    Gen      Gen       -    Gen   Gen        -     TR 1    TR 2  TR 1    TR 1 TR 1     Bat 1   Bat 2
config      1      2       1       1              1     2               Gen 1   Gen 2 Gen 1   Gen 1 Gen 1
1 ENG      Gen    Gen    Gen     Gen X     -     Gen   Gen        -     TR 1    TR 2  TR 1    TR 1  TR 1    Bat 1   Bat 2
 inop.      X      X       X                      X     X               Gen X   Gen X Gen X   Gen X Gen X
 EMER       -      -     Stat      -     Stat     -     -         -       -       -     -     Bat     -     Bat 1   Bat 2
Config.                   Inv             Inv                                                  2
(before                  Bat 1           Bat 1
 emeg.
  Gen.
 avail)
 Emer       -      -     Emer    Emer      -      -     -        Emer    -       -      -     ESS    ESS    Bat 1   Bat 2
  Gen                    Gen     Gen                             Gen                           TR     TR
 avail                                                                                        emer   emer
                                                                                              Gen    Gen
 After      -      -     Stat      -     Stat     -     -         -      -       -      -     Bat     -     Bat 1   Bat 2
L/G ext.                  Inv             Inv                                                  2
                         Bat 1           Bat 1
 TR 1      Gen1   Gen    Gen     Gen1      -      -    Gen       Gen1   TR2     TR2    TR2    Ess   ESS  Bat 1      Bat 2
 fault             2       1                            2               Gen2    Gen2   Gen2    TR   TR
                                                                                              Gen1 Gen 1
 TR 2      Gen1   Gen2   Gen     Gen1      -     Gen    -        Gen1   TR1     TR1    TR1    TR1 Ess TR Bat1       Bat2
 fault                    1                       1                     Gen1    Gen1   Gen1   Gen1  Gen1
 TR 1+     Gen1   Gen    Gen     Gen1      -      -     -        Gen1    -       -      -     ESS   ESS  Bat1       Bat2
 TR 2              2      1                                                                    TR   TR
 fault                                                                                        Gen1 Gen1




                                                            57
                           EQUIPMENT / FURNISHING (CHAPTER – 25)
•   Pilots Seats
    • Seat movement can be adjusted manually or Electrically
Emergency Equipments
• Composed of
    • Fire extinguisher – Located in flight deck and cabin, can extinguish any kind of fire
    • Oxygen kit – Located in cabin to supply in emergency to passengers
    • Smoke hood – Located in flight deck and cabin
    • Crash Axe – Located in cabin and flight deck, resistant to high voltages
    • First aid kit – Located cabin over head storage compartment
    • Megaphone – Located Fwd. And Aft. Cabin attendant seats
    • Emergency radio beacon – Stored L/H Aft. attendant station
    • Flash light – Located in flight deck and cabin
    • Manual release tool – located in cabin to open PCU which are not opened automatically
    • Life vest – All are included
         • CO2 gas inflation system
         • Oral inflation system
         • Lamp for survivor location in poor visibility conditions
         • Water activated cell (battery) to supply the lamp
         • Whistle to attract attention
             • Types of life vests
                 • Infant
                 • Cabin crew
                 • Flight crew
                 • Passenger
Slide Light test
Can be performed by
• External Power Supply Unit (EPSU) Qty. 7 ESPU located in the cabin


                 BATTERY                        Green Lt. ON – Relevant item test OK (comes ON after
                                                apox. 1 min if all loops completed with
                 INTERNAL LOADS
                                                                 out mal function
                 EXTERNAL LOADS                 Red Lt. ON – Testes item fail

    I       OK
        FAULT




•  PTP – Interrogate System test can test emergency lights and battery packs
         - Maintenance page for failure report
Emergency Locator Transmitter (ELT)
• Transmits a digital distress signal to satellites (COSPAS / SARSAT system)and then transmits to special
   ground stations for rescue purpose
• Located above the aft galley area with a programming box which is connected to the antenna, located
   close to vertical fin.
• Electronic assembly located in the ELT detects high impact using a acceleration sensor
• Also can be operated manually as a potable transmitter
Remote control panel
• Consist of
   • ON indicator – Illuminates when system in operation and during the test
   • Armed/On switch
       • Armed position – Selects automatic operation of the ELT transmitter
       • On position – Manually activates the system operation
   • Test/reset push button press – Stops incorrect operation if activates
       • Test – Press and hold, if test OK ON light illuminates

                                                    58
                            FIRE PROTECTION (CHAPTER – 26)
•   Fire protection system provides
    • Fire detection & extinguishing
    • Smoke detection & extinguishing in cargo
    • Smoke detection in Avionics compartment
    • Portable fire extinguisher

 Engine
 • Consist of two independent loops A & B connected parallel to FDU
 • Each loop comprises of 3 detectors in parallel
    • Fan fire detector
    • Core fire detector
    • Pylon fire detector
• Fire Detection Unit (FDU)
   • One for each engine
   • Process signal comes from fire detectors
   • FDU consist of 2 channels, channel “A” & “B”
   • Loop failure
        • Each channel perform same detection logic depend on loop “A” & “B” status, loop “A” & “B”
          connected to channel “A” & “B” respectively
        • If fire detected by both loops or One faulty other detects fire, channel provides fire warning
   • FDU sends warning to ECAM via FWC, & CFDS direct from FDU, flight deck local warnings
• Test P/B press –
                • Squib Lt. ON ( Circuit checks) + DISCH Lt. ON (lamp test)
                • Does not check fire sensors, if both loops defective test does happen (red fire P/B will not
                    light)
    TEST

•   Warning Conditions
    • Both loops detect fire
    • One loop detect while other faulty
    • Fault on both loop with in 5 sec (both loops broken due to torching flame)
•   Fault condition
    • Electrical failure
    • Integrity failure
    • Detection of fire by single loop > 16 sec. while other loop normal, declare previous loop as faulty on
        ECAM msg. “FIRE LOOP”X” FAULT”
•   Detection fault logic
    • Dual loop failure leads to total loss of detection system (ECAM warning comes on as “DETECTION
        FAIULT”)
    • FWC elaborates fault warning
•   Engine fire push button
                          • P/B select out
                            • Cancel CRC
                            • Squib Lt. ON at engine control panel (arm the bottle squibs)
                            • EIU – engine control power supply cut off
    ENG 1 FIRE              • ECAM – messages
                            • Isolation of
          PUSH                  • Fuel LP SOV
                                • Engine return fuel valve
                                • Bleed valve
                                • IDG deenergize
                                • Hydraulic fire SOV
                                • Pack flow control valve
•   System warning
    • ECAM messages + CRC + M/W + Eng.& Fire panel Lts. ON


                                                      59
•   Action to be done after fire
    • In flight
        • With fire following warnings appears
             • M/W + Fire P/B red Lt. On + Eng. Panel fire Lt. ON ECAN msg.
             • M/W cancel – Press M/W P/B then CRC stops
             • Thrust lever idle + master lever OFF – HP & LP fuel valves close + Eng. Shut down
             • Fire P/B press – M/C, S/C ( confirms LP valve closer )
             • Squib Lt. ON agent P/B to indicate ready to discharge bottle
             • Wait 10 sec. (to reduce wind milling)
             • Press agent P/B – fire bottle discharge
             • “DISCH” Lt. ON
                                                         nd
             • If fire still ON after 30 sec. Discharge 2 bottle
             • Next “ DISCH” Lt. illuminates
             • Fire P/B red Lt. OFF (Confirm fire extinguished)
        • On Ground
             • CRC + P/B Lt. ON + M/W, Eng. Panel Lt. ON
             • Press M/W P/B to stop CRC + M/W Lt. OFF
             • Thrust lever idle to stop A/C
             • Eng. Master lever OFF to stop engine
             • LP & HP fuel valve close
             • Select fire P/B – M/C (confirm LP valve close ) + Squib Lt. ON
             • Select agent P/B – DISCH Lt. ON
             • Select other agent P/B – next “DISCH” Lt. ON (both bottles should be fired at the same
                 time)
             • Set Eng. To OFF
•   Fire Sensor integrity Sw.
    • Fault condition – N/C contact open due to low pressure
    • Fire condition – N/O contact close due to fire pressure in the loop increase

APU Fire detection
• Fire detection system comprises two loops “A” & “B”
• FDU operation same as Engine FDU
• Fire protection same as engine
• Test P/B press –
   • Squib Lt. ON ( Circuit checks) + DISCH Lt. ON (lamp test)
   • Does not check fire sensors, if both loops defective test does happen (red fire P/B will not light)
• APU system warnings
                                • APU fire push button select out
                                        • Cancel CRC
                                        • Squib Lt. On (arm extinguisher squib)
       APU FIRE                         • Lt. On external power panel
                                        • ECB – APU emergency shut down
           PUSH                         • ECAM – messages
                                • Isolation of by ECB
                                        • Fuel LP SOV close
                                        • APU fuel pump shuts
                                        • Bleed valve and cross bleed valve close
                                        • IDG deenergize
• Auto extinguishing will trigger when APU fire detected on GND. and squib Lt. does not illuminates
• If loop “A” inoperative auto extenuating will not happen as circuit will not sense fire
• System warning
   • ECAM messages (fire procedure) + CRC + M/W + Eng. & Fire panel Lts. ON




                                                      60
APU Extinguishing   ground test
               •     APU master Sw ON
     OK        •     Test P/B press ON Lt. illuminates + APU fire push Lt. come ON
               •     If APU runs, will shut down
     ON        •     After 3 sec. T/D, OK Lt. appears + external fire Lt. ON
               •     Master Sw fault Lt. ON
               •     External hone sounds
                     • Press reset
                        • Hone stops
                        • OK Lt. OFF
                        • Fire P/B red Lt. OFF
                        • After 3 sec. system reset
    RESET

System operation with APU fire
• Manual extinguisher
    • In flight
       • CRC + Fire P/B + M/W flashers
       • Press fire P/B
                • CRC stops
                • Fuel LP + fuel solenoid OFF ( APU shut down via ECB )
                • Squib Lt. ON
   SQUIB
                • APU fault Lt. ON
   DISCH        • 10 sec T/D to allow reduce air flow
                • Agent P/B press
                • Both discharge Lt. ON
                • When fire extinguishes fire P/B Lt. + M/W OFF
                • Fault LT. OFF
    • On Ground
       • CRC + Fire P/B Lt. ON + M/W + External hone ON
       • Fuel LP & Solenoid valve close + APU shut down
       • CRC stops
       • S/C, M/C, M/W appears
       • After T/D 3 sec.
           • Fire bottle discharges + “DISCH” Lt. ON
    • APU fire extinguishes
                • Fire P/B Lt. + External fire Lt. + M/W disappears & horn stops
                • Master power Sw. fault Lt. ON and M/C remain ON




   APU SHUT OFF

Avionics Smoke detection
• Smoke detector installed in the extraction duct of vent line
• During smoke detection
• Smoke detector sends signal to FWC + local warnings + AEVC
• Smoke detector is Ionization type
• Test can be done by CFDS AEVC test, AEVC checks smoke detector
• Smoke Lt. on Gen. 1 P/B triggered by Smoke detector
• When smoke detector activates Fault Lt. illuminates on Blower & Extract P/B




                                                     61
Avionics Smoke procedure
• When Smoke detects
     BLOWER        M/C + S/C + Gen. 1line P/B smoke Lt. ON + Blower & Extractor Fault Lt. ON
              • ECAM shows action to be taken
     FAULT    • Use oxy masks + crew communication not in interphone position to prevent breathing
                  noise
      OVRD    • Sw. OFF cabin fans to prevent smoke get in to the cabin
              • To evacuate smoke OVBD by selecting Blower OVRD + Extraction fan P/B to OVRD
              • Blower OVRD – Blower stops and use air condition cold air sauce to blow smoke out
                  board
    EXTRACT       Extract OVRD – Smoke extracts to OVBD through extract valve which is partially
                  open Extraction fan runs
     FAULT    • If smoke still persist
                  • Select Gen 1line P/B OFF – OFF LT. ON, #1L/H & R/H fuel pumps powered by
      OVRD
                      Gen. 1 by opening GLC
                  • Select Man ON Sw. to extend RAT
                  • Emergency Gen. power to DC & AC ESS BUSES
              • Gen. 2 + APU Gen. OFF
              • Gen. 1 must run for fuel pumps
              • Lower ECAM lost + CRC ( after Gen. 2 lost)
              • Land ASAP

   GEN 1 LINE
     SMOKE          Smoke Lt. ON – Smoke detected in the avionics ventilation duct

      OFF


SDCU (Located on 94vu)
• Detects each compartment smoke detectors
• When one detector detects, SDCU checks with other status automatically
   • If other detector normal, first detector declare as faulty
          nd                     nd
   • If 2 detector abnormal, 2 one declared as faulty
 • SDCU sends local warnings + ECAM and to Cargo ventilation controller + CFDS
 • SDCU monitor bottle pressure + squib circuit condition, if notice any abnormality report to ECAM + CFDS
 • If any wiring failure by SDCU - MCDU test facility can find the area of the failure

Cargo compartment fire protection
• Smoke detectors
   • Qty 2 in FWD cargo
   • Qty 2 each in AFT and Bulk cargo
   • Cargo smoke detectors connectors to each other and in a loop with Lavatory smoke detectors
   • All connected to SDCU
   • One Fire bottle located in FWD cargo for both compartments, Qty 2 squibs one for each compartment
       supply line with one pressure Sw.
 • In case of smoke in the FWD or AFT/BULK cargo
    • Smoke Lt. on flight deck illuminates
    • Cargo vent. Cont. closes isolation valve of effected compartment.
    • If smoke detector faulty, signal sends to CFDS + ECAM
    • Discharge fire bottle by pressing agent P/B
       • Discharge Lt. ON
       • After agent discharged both “DISCH” Lt.s appears
       FWD

                       Smoke Lt. ON – System detects smoke in the compartment
      SMOKE
                                       - If both channels detect smoke
      DISCH                            - One channel detects smoke if other channel detects fault by
                                         SDCU
                       Disch Lt. ON – Bottle discharged

                                                    62
•   Test (From cargo compartment smoke panel)
    • SDCU simulates smoke & bottle pressure drop condition
    • Warning Lt. illuminates twice + ECAM msg.
    • Ventilation system isolation valves closes
    • Amber discharge Lt. ON
        • Switch released
            • After 2 sec. discharge Lt. OFF
            • After 10 sec. ECAM msg. displayed
            • ECAM msg. disappear and will be automatically repeat after 6 sec. with warning indication


Cargo and Lavatory smoke detection system
• Connected to both SDCU channels via safety two wire data & supply bus working followed the close loop
   principle
• When smoke detectors detect Lavatory. Smoke detection warning
   • To flight deck via FWC to ECAM + M/W + CRC
• SDCU sends warning to cabin CIDS then
   • FWD attendant panel
   • Attendant indicator panel
   • Area call Lt. (Pink) + Lavatory. caution Lt. flashing
   • Programming test panel (PTP)
• Lavatory. Detector faults sends to flight deck cabin for indication on CFDS for maintenance purpose,
   • For the cabin – Fwd attendant panel CIDS amber Lt. + PTP indications
• Cargo smoke detected SDCU provide smoke warning to flight deck through FWC 1 & 2 such as M/W,
   ECAM CRC, Smoke Lt. on cargo control panel
• Cargo smoke detector detects faulty by SDCU automatically isolated, if both detectors fail in the same
   cavity fault msg. on ECAM and inoperative detector shown in the CFDS
• Fire bottle pressure drop or squib circuit discontinuity SDCU sends signal to ECAM & CFDS + S/C, M/C
• SDCU internal failure detected SDCU fault warning sent to flight deck ECAM + S/C +M/C and failure
   indicated on CFDS
• Incase of only one channel failure remaining channel will operate

Cargo Smoke Detection System
• Warning
   • CRC + M/W + ECAM
   • Smoke Lt. on cargo panel
   • Fault Lt. on isolation valve P/B
   • ECAM air condition system page shows isolation valve in amber colour

Smoke procedure
• CRC + M/W + smoke Lt. on cargo cont. panel
• Isolation valve fault Lt. ON
• Isolation valve select OFF valve closer confirmed
• Press bottle discharge P/B
• “DISCH” Lt. ON on both FWD and AFT cargo P/B
• After smoke disappear all warnings except DISCH Lt.
• On GND. Cargo fire bottles must not used

Lavatory Fire Protection System
• Smoke detector located in the ceiling panel at exttaction duct in each lavatory
• All Lavatory Smoke detectors interconnected to each other as a part of a loop with cargo smoke detectors,
   sends signals to SDCU
• Smoke detectors inform to SDCU then to flight deck & cabin CIDs directors
• Warning received to SDCU activate ECAM + CIDS + CFDS
• Fire extinguishing by portable fire extinguishers




                                                    63
Lavatory Smoke Warnings
• In flight, CRC + M/W + ECAM activation
• In Cabin,
   • Triple chime continuously
   • Smoke Lt. On FAP + effected lavatory location written
   • Attendant indication panel
   • Area call amber Lt. flashing
   • Lavatory amber Lt. flashing
   • Warning can be reset by reset Sw. at FAP

Lavatory waste bin extinguisher
• Auto extinguisher by incase of fire after melting fusible material in the tip of discharge tube when
   temp.>79 C




                                                       64
                            FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEMS (CHAPTER – 27)

  •     All flight control surfaces electrically controlled and hydraulically operated
  •     Hydro mechanical backup for Pitch axis, Trimmable horizontal stabilizer (THS) and Yaw axis Rudder
  •     Regardless of pilot’s inputs computers prevent
        • Excessive maneuvers
        • Flight outside the safe – flight envelope

  Side Sticks
  • Consist of P/B for A/P disconnection and to get Side stick priority
  • PTT P/B for Radio communication
  • Side stick failure M/W, RED ECAM message (ECAM F/CONT system page not called), CRC + RED arrow
      ON
      One Sw. light for captain and first officer
  • Side sticks controllers are not mechanically coupled sent separate set of signals to the flight control
      computers
  • Force applied more than threshold will disconnect AP if engaged

      SIDE STICK PRIORITY
                                      Arrow -
                                        Red – Losing priority or Side stick failure
                                        Green – Taking priority
           CAPT
                                              - After the priority if other side stick not in neutral position

  Priority Logic
  • Logic achieved in flight control computers
  • When both side stick moved to same direction deflection algebraically added
  • If side stick moves to opposite direction, resulting demand will be difference of deflection
  • One side stick priority P/B pressed for > 40 sec. priority will be achieved by same side stick, other side
      control loose temporary
  • If other side required control, priority P/B on either side stick to be pressed

  Controls
  • In manual flight Side Stick provides directs inputs to ELACs and SECs. ELACs also send signal to all 3
     SECs
  • During Automatic flight control FMGCs sends orders to ELACs and FACs. ELACs in turn send to SECs
  • FCDC 1 & 2 interfaces with ELACs , SECs and A/C systems

  Computer Push buttons
  • One Sw. for each ELAC, SEC and FAC (total Qty 7)

         FAULT
                                      Press IN – Computer software engaged
                                      Fault – Failure detected in the computer (ECAM indicates ELAC 1 , failed
          OFF
                                              computer half boxed in Amber)
                                            - During power up test for 8 sec. (only for ELACs)
                                      OFF – Related computer software disengaged

  •     ELAC 1, SEC 1, FAC 1 fault Lts. flashes once when battery Sws. Select ON as these switches powered by
        two power sauces for emergency configuration
  •     If actuator failed related hydraulic letter at the failed actuator will be boxed in Amber G

  Flight control actuator hydraulic supply

                AILERON          ELEVATOR           RUDDER      THS                           SPOILER                        Y/D
           L1    L2   R1   R2   L1   L2   R1   R2   T   C   B   L     R   L1   L2   L3   L4    L5   R1   R2   R3   R4   R5   L   R
GREEN            a    a              a                      a a           a                    a a                      a a
YELLOW                                    a             a             a        a         a               a         a             a
 BLUE  a                   a a                 a a                                  a                         a


                                                                 65
Active servo control
Pitch & Roll servo control
• In normal configuration one servo control actuates the surface other will be in damping mode with following
    deflection, by pass line includes a restrictor. If active fails damping servo control become active
• When manual pitch trim elevators in centering mode, actuators hydraulically operated and manually
    controlled

Flight control laws
• Normal law - Provides full flight envelope protection
    • 3 principle control modes
         • Ground mode – Activates after Flare mode when main L/G compressed + pitch attitude
             conformation.
             • Direct relationship between side stick and control surfaces, Rudder mechanically controls with
                  yaw damper control
             • Automatically sets THS at 0° (inside the green band), if pitch attitude on ground > 2.5°
                  automatic THS reset to zero stops and remain frozen
             • During T/O roll aircraft speed reaches 70 Kts, reduces elevator deflection 30° - 20°
         • Flight mode - Activates after ground mode when main L/G extends + pitch attitude conformation.
             • Nz law – Load factor protection
             • Lateral law – For lateral control (Roll + Pitch) with bank angle protection
             • High speed protection (VMO) –
             • Pitch attitude protection (Theta)
             • Stall protection (AOA)

        •    Flare mode – Activated after flight mode below radio altitude 50 ft as it descend to land. As the
             A/C descends through 30 ft system begins to reduce pitch attitude reducing to 2°nose down over
             period of 8 sec.
             • Bank angle protection
             • Stall protection

Law reconfiguration
Divided in to 2 families - Alternate and direct

Pitch Channel                                                Roll channel
            Normal Laws                                                 Normal law

      Failures                                                       Failures


     Alternate law             Failures
                                                                            Roll Direct

        Crew action


                      Direct law                                     Mechanical backup


        Mechanical backup




                                                       66
Alternate Law
• Introduced automatically as soon as the Normal law is lost

Pitch control
    • Ground mode
        • Becomes active 5 sec. After touch down (same as normal law)
    • Flight mode
        • Follows load factor demand law much as normal law but with less built in protection
    • Flare mode
        • Activate as pilot select L/G down, relationship direct stick to elevator

•   For Pitch axis (with reduced protection)
    • Load factor protection
        • Similar to under normal law
    • High and low speed stability
        • Alternate high speed protection
            • Above VMO or MMO system introduces nose up demand to avoid excessive incres in speed,
                pilot can OVRD this demand
        • Alternate high AOA protection
            • Artificial low speed stability replaces the normal angle of attack protection and available for all
                slat/flap configurations
•   For Pitch axis ( with out protection)
    • Only load factor protection, no high and low speed stability

Roll axis
    • Straight to Direct law
         • Relationship direct stick to surface position
         • System gains are set automatically to correspond to slat/flap configuration such as clean
           configuration roll rate 30°/sec, with slat extended will be 25°/sec

Yaw axis
   • Only yaw damping function available, damper authority limited to +/- 5° of Rudder deflection

Direct Law
• Automatically activates on ground
• In flight activates after all protection lost
    • Alpha floor protection will be lost
    • Over speed and Stall warnings are available as alternate law
• Direct relation ship with side stick and surfaces
• In all configurations maximum elevator deflection varies as a function of CG
• No auto trim only manual trim available, on PFD “USE MAN PITCH TRIM” message appears

Lateral control
    • Roll direct law associated with mechanical yaw control governs lateral control

Mechanical backup
• After total electrical failure or failure of flight control computers
• System controlled by Pitch Trim mechanical wheels and Rudder pedals




                                                       67
Pitch Axis
• Elevators provides short term activity and THS provides for long term activity
• When side stick initiate a command, it goes to ELACs and SECs
• ELAC
    • ELAC 2 controls, ELAC 1 backup
       • L/H – Green and R/H – Yellow elevator actuators
       • Pitch trim No: 1 Electric motor
    • If ELAC 2 fails ELAC 1 controls
       • L/H and R/H Blue elevator actuators
       • Pitch trim No: 2 electric motor

•   If large pitch command initiated both Elevator actuators become active by both ELACs
•   Dual ELAC failure SEC 2 or SEC 1 automatically take over control
•   Auto flight control command orders send from FMGC to ELACs then SECs

Elevators
• Two electrically control hydraulic servojacks drive each actuator
• Each servojack has three control modes
    • Active – Jack position controlled by electrically
    • Damping – Jack follows surface movement
    • Centering – Jack is hydraulically retained in neutral position
                                                                                                       nd
• In normal mode one jack is in active and other in damping mode, some maneuvers cause the 2 jack to
    become active
• If active jack fails damping one become active and the failed jack automatically switched to damping mode
• If neither is controlled by electrically or hydraulically both are automatically switch to centering mode
• If one elevator fails deflection of the remaining will be restricted to avoid apply excessive loads on the
    horizontal tail plan or rear fuselage

Stabilizer
• Screwjack will be driven by two hydraulic motors
• Hydraulic motors are controlled by
    • One of three electric motors or
    • Mechanical trim wheel

Pitch trim wheel
• Provides manual Pitch trim on THS, priority over automatic electrical Pitch trim
• After nose wheel touch down Pitch trim wheels return to zero automatically, as pitch attitude becomes less
    than 2.5°
• During manual pitch trim operation hydraulic actuators of Elevators maintain at neutral position
• THS electric motors controlled by (one at a time)
    • Motor 1 – ELAC 2
    • Motor 2 - ELAC 1 or SEC 1
    • Motor 3 – SEC 2
• THS electric motor control computer priorities
    • Motor 1 – ELAC 2
    • Motor 2 – ELAC 1
    • Motor 3 – SEC 2
    • Motor 2 – SEC 1
• THS servo jammed will be indicated in ECAM in Amber “PTICH TRIM”
• Pilot action on the wheel with AP engaged cause to disconnect AP
• ELACs do not disconnect, micro switches actuated by the OVRD mechanism ensure computers remain
    synchronized with manually selected position
• Scale adjacent to the pitch trim scale shows relationship between location of the CG and pitch trim setting
    for T/O




                                                     68
Pitch channel Failures

  FAILURES               ELAC 1           ELAC 2                   SEC 1               SEC2              LAW STATUS
                                            a
  No failures
                                      EL – G + Y, THS – 1
    st
  1 failure                a                                                                              Normal Law
   ELAC 2
   normal           EL – B, THS - 2
 channel fail
   nd
  2 failure                                  a                                                          Alternate Law
   ELAC 1                                                                                                with protection if
                                      EL – G+ Y, THS – 1                                                • Double self det.
   normal
                                                                                                               ADR or IR fail
 channel fail                                                                                           • 2nd not self det.
   rd
  3 failure                a                                                                                   ADR failure
 ELAC 2 Altn.                                                                                           • Double ELAC or
                    EL – B, THS - 2                                                                            FAC or SFCC
 Channel fail
                                                                                                               slat chnn. fail
                                                                                                        • Double Hyd. Fail
                                                                                                           (B & G or Y & G)
    th
  4 failure                                                                               a             • Roll normal law
 Both ELAC                                                                        EL – G + Y, THS - 3          loss due to
                                                                                                           - Double Aileron
Altn. Channel                                                                                                 fail
      fail                                                                                                  - All spoilers fail
   th
  5 failure                                                           a                                 • Altn. Law on ELAC
 SEC 2 Altn.                                                                                                   1 + emergency
                                                                EL – B, THS - 2                                Gen. ON
 channel fail                                                                                           With out protection
                                                                                                        if
                                                                                                        • 2nd not self det.
                                                                                                               ADR fail (CAS
                                                                                                               or MACH
                                                                                                               disagree)
                                                                                                        • Triple ADR failure
    th
  6 failure                                  a
 SEC 1 Altn.                                                                                               Direct Law
                                      EL – G+ Y, THS – 1
 Channel fail
    th
  7 failure                a                                                                            • Double IR failure
                                                                                                          (2nd not self
ELAC 2 direct                                                                                             detected )
                    EL – B, THS - 2
 channel fail                                                                                           • Triple IR failure
    th
  8 failure                                                                               a             • All RA fail (when
ELAC 1 direct                                                                     EL – G + Y, THS - 3     L/G extended)
 channel fail
    th
  9 failure                                                           a                                 Auto trim lost only
 SEC 2 direct                                                                                           mechanical trim
 channel fail                                                   EL – B, THS - 2
All computers                                                                                             Mechanical
 fail or total             r                 r                        r                   r                back – up
  electrical                                                                                            • All 4 Elev. Act. In
     failure                           Elevators are in centering mode                                    centering mode




                                                           69
Roll Axis
• Roll control achieved by a Aileron and 4 Spoilers (No: 2,3,4,5) on each wing
• Also associated to the rudder to roll/yaw turn coordination during turns
• Ailerons
    • Drooped down 5° during Flaps extended to follow the contour of the wing
    • Actuators goes to damping mode if double ELAC or Green and Blue hydraulic failure
    • Maximum deflection 25°
    • Each aileron has two electrically controlled hydraulic servojacks, operates one at a time
    • Each has got two control modes
       • Active – Jack position will be controlled electrically
       • Damping – Jack follows surface movement
    • System goes to damping automatically if both ELACs or Blue, Green hydraulic low pressure
• ELAC 1 normally control Ailerons ELAC 2 backup
• ELACs send turn coordination commands to Rudder via FAC 1 & 2
• Automatic flight control roll orders send by FMGC to FACs for turn coordination and to ELACs and to
    SECs via ELACs

Spoilers
• Spoilers controlled by SECs and powered by all hydraulic system. If power failure or hydraulic failure
   surface automatically retracted by aerodynamic forces
• Spoiler maximum defl ection is 35°
• ELACs send orders to SEC 1,2,and 3 to deflect Roll spoilers
• System retracts spoilers to zero position automatically if it detects fault or loss of electrical control

Spoiler control

                                                      SPOILERS
             L1        L2        L3         L4        L5     R1            R2        R3         R4       R5
SEC 1                            a          a                                        a          a
SEC 2                                                 a                                                   a
SEC 3        a         a                                         a         a

•   Roll spoilers
    • Achieved by Spoilers 2,3,4,5
    • Priority received over speed brakes
    • If sum of roll and speed brake commands exceeds the maximum possible deflection of spoiler, surface
        is retracted until the difference between the two surfaces is equal to the roll order

•   Speed Brakes
    • Speed brake lever
       • Contain Qty 2 potentiometers per SEC for Speed brakes ( Speed brake controlled by SEC 1 & 3
           for Spoiler surfaces 3, 4 & 2 respectively)
       • To arm, Speed brakes lever to be pulled up from retracted position
       • At the middle of the travel “Hard point” provided to identify half speed brake position
    • Achieved by Spoilers 2,3,4, Roll spoiler function will OVRD speed brake function
    • Automatically retracts if AOA protection activated
    • Switching to alternate or direct laws are not effected
    • If one Spoiler surface inoperative, other wing same numbered surface will not operates with speed
       brakes but with Roll spoilers operation activates
    • Inhibition
       • When Slats / Flaps fully extended
       • With AOA protection activated
       • Transducer unit fault
       • Abnormal order
    • After inhibition to activate lever must be reset at least 5 sec.
    • Maximum deflection of surfaces
       • Spoiler 2 = 20 °
       • Spoiler 3 & 4 = 40°

                                                       70
•   Ground Spoilers
    • Achieved by all Spoilers 1,2,3,4,5 to destroy the lift at touch down, rollout phases and aborted T/O
    • System armed when lever pulled up
    • Partial lift dumping function (elaborated in SEC)
       • No throttle lever > 20° AND at least one throttle lever in reverse AND only one main L/G
           compressed to bring the other L/G down. (Until both L/G compressed Gnd. spoilers will not
           extends fully only partially 10°)
    • Full extension happens
       • Automatically during rejected take off at a speed > 72 Kts.
       • During landing when both main L/G touch down
           • When Gnd. spoilers armed and all thrust levers at idle
           • Reverse selected (on at least one engine, other thrust lever at idle) if Gnd. spoilers were not
                armed
       • In autoland Gnd. spoilers fully extended at half speed one second after both main L/G touch down
    • Retraction
       • After landing or after rejected T/O when Gnd. spoiler disarmed
       • If Gnd. spoilers not armed retract after thrust levers select idle
       • After A/C bounce the Gnd. spoiler remain extended with thrust levers at idle

Interfaces
• Pilot orders by Side stick goes to ELACs, SECs then servo controls and to FCDC via SEC
• Computer P/B will engage, disengaged and reset respective software
• Hydraulic status sends to ELACs and SECs to activation or deactivation of servo control
• Rudder pedal position to ELCAs to for turn coordination computation then to FAC
• FMGC pitch, roll and yaw orders to ELAC and FACs to computation
• ADIRU sends to flight data and inertial reference information to ELACs and SECs for flight envelop
    protection computations
• FACs receive Rudder position information from ELAC or FMGC to Dutch roll damping and Turn
     coordination
• LGCIU send L/G position to ELACs & SECs
• SFCC Flap and Slat position to ELACs and SECs for law computations
• Radio Altimeters sends Radio altitude to ELACs to compute flare law
• BSCU receive Nose wheel steering commands from ELACs and from SECs to auto brake after Ground
     Spoiler activation
• Wheel speed information sends from each MLG wheel speed to Ground Spoiler activation
• Vertical accelerometers (Qty 4, one for both ELAC command and monitoring channels) sends vertical
     acceleration to ELACs and SECs. Also used to compute Pitch trim function and Load factor function
• Flight control system failures sends to FWC via FCDC for indications and warning computations (ECAM)
• FCDCs send failures to CFDS then CFDS adds general data (time, date, ATA, flight phase) then displays
     on the MCDU
• CFDS sends FCDC bite request and maintenance test




                                                     71
Roll axis failures

 FAILURES            ELAC 1       ELAC2             SEC 1                SEC 2            SEC 3      LAW STATUS
 No failures           a                                          Roll spoiler control
                     AL – B+G                                                                         Normal Law
 ELAC 1 fail                         a                            Roll spoiler control
                                  AL – G+B
 Both ELAC                                                    Roll spoiler control
       fail                                              (yaw damper normal law lost)                 Direct Law
   If ELAC 1            a
 channel one                                                                                           ELAC 2 in
     Aileron         AL – G + G                                                                       slave mode
 actuator fail
If both ELAC                         a
 channel one                                                                                          Normal Law
                                  AL – G+B
actuators fail
                        a                                                                            Other aileron
One Aileron          AL – *+G                                                                          only one
both                                                                                                   actuator
actuators fail                                                                                       operates the
                                                                                                        aileron
  One side                                            a                    a                a
 Spoiler fail
                                                  SP – 3 L&R           SP – 5 L&R        SP – 2L&R
  (Eg. L/H                                        (Spoiler 4 on
Spoiler 4 fail)                                     both side
                                                   retracted)
    Total                                                                                            Roll obtain by
electrical fail                              All computers failed                                     mechanical
                                                                                                     Rudder pedals


Yaw Axis
• Rudder provides Yaw control and Dutch roll damping
• If turn initiated from rudder pedals Roll spoilers and Ailerons ensure automatic Roll / Yaw turn coordination
• Rudder full deflection 25 ° obtain by mechanically Rudder pedals, also pedal signal via transducer goes to
   ELACs, FACs
• On manual flight side stick commands goes to ELACs and generates Yaw damping , Turn coordination via
   FACs. Rudder trim commands send to FACs directly from trim control panel.
• FAC 1 & 2 controls Yaw damper servo actuators, rudder trim and rudder travel limiters. FAC 1 active and
   FAC 2 in hot STBY
• When automatic flight control operation FMGC sends orders to FACs for Rudder trimming, Yaw damping
   and Rudder travel limiting
• Rudder operated by 3 hydraulic actuator operated in parallel
• In automatic operation (yaw damping, turn coordination) green servo actuator drives all three servo jacks.
   If green actuator fails yellow actuator takes over
• If servo control jammed will not indicated, detection by manual operation with hydraulic isolation

Yaw damper servo control
• One in active and other in hot STBY, bypass line with out a restrictor
• Servo control goes to bypass mode if one solenoid valve de energized or hydraulic pressure loss
• Two Yaw damper actuators controlled by each FAC and connected to the Rudder by differential unit




                                                        72
Rudder Trim
    +-               RUD TRIM
                            Q                               Reset P/B Sw. – Resets trim position to zero
    20            NOSE       NOSE
                   L          R                             Control Sw. – Controls actuator, moves
         REESET                                                            neutral point
                                                            Indicator – displays trim direction and value




•   Achieved by 2 electric motors each controlled by associated FAC
•   Maximum deflection +/- 20°
•   In manual flight can apply 1°/sec from trim panel, In automatic flight manual Rudder trim and reset function
    inoperative
•   In automatic flight, asymmetry compensation function available if lateral asymmetry occurs. Yaw automatic
    trim is active for lateral asymmetry and engine failure compensation at 5°/sec
•   Rudder trim causes pedal movement


Rudder Travel Limiter
• Rudder travel limiting achieved by 2 electric motors which controlled by associated FACs. At high speed
   travel limitation is increased
• Depends on the A/C speed
• Speed < 160 Kts
   • Deflection in full 25°
• 160 Kts < Speed < 410 Kts
   • Deflection as a function of speed, law computed by FAC
• Speed > 410 Kts
   • Deflection 3.5° limited as in high speed configuration
   • If both FAC fails, A/C stays in high speed mode until Slats extension

Yaw axis failures
• Alternate Law – Computed in FAC, turn coordination not available and yaw damper limited to +/- 5°
   Rudder deflection
   • Alternate law active if
       • Qty 2 ADR or qty 2 IR or qty 2 ELAC or both Ailerons or all Spoilers fail
       • B & G hydraulic low pressure
       • Loss of pitch normal law
       • Loss of roll normal law
       • Emergency Gen. operation
Yaw mechanical
• Available all the time must be used if
   • Both FAC failure ( If A/C in high speed stays at high speed until Slats extension)
   • Qty. 3 ADR or 3 IRs or G + Y hydraulic low pressure or electrical power on battery


High lift Computation
• Achieved by 2 Flaps and 5 Slat on each wing
• Electrically controlled and hydraulically operated
• Commands initiates from control lever and transfer to SFCC via Command sensor unit(CSU) for both
   Flaps and Slats
   • Moving the lever commands new position to SFCC by CSU then signal processed in Flap / Slat
         lane 1 & 2
   • If demanded and actual position signals are deferent each lane generates demand signal and
         compared between lanes.
   • If commands signals are agreed, command signal generated for PCU valve block activation after
         SFCC controls related solenoid valve
   • After Extend solenoid energized spool valve moves towards to fully extend position, LVDT at the end
         of valve block monitor the Spool valve movement
                                                      73
    •   Then Enable solenoid valve energized to release POB and Flap start s to extend
    •   At the close to the demanded position Retract valve energized to slow and stop the movement and
        control valve spool to neutral
    •   At the end of travel all solenoids de energized and POB applies

•   SFCC controls and monitor the system, each SFCC consist of one Slat and one Flap channel. Each
    channel divided in to two lanes. If one SFCC, PCU or one hydraulic system lost system operation in full
    torque with half speed
• SFCC tests WTB before each flight
• Qty 2 PCUs for Flap and Slat controls, Each PCU consist of qty 2 hydraulic motors, pressure of brakes
    (POB) and valve blocks.
• POB locks in position when commanded position reached or hydraulic failure
• Flap and Slats system powered by Green / Yellow and Green / Blue hydraulics systems respectively
• Three kind of Position pick off units
    • FPPU
        • Provide Feed back of the PCU output position to the both SFCC (2 FPPU, Flaps / Slats)
        • Runaway condition monitored by both FPPUs and APPUs
    • IPPU
        • Used for position indication on ECAM via FWC, located in PCU(Qty 2)
    • APPU
        • Provides any asymmetry of control surfaces (detected by comparing two APPUs) and actual
            position of the surface to both SFCCs, located at end of transmission at each wing tip
Wing tip brakes
    • Each wing tip brake consists of two solenoids controlled by each SFCC and powered by two hydraulic
        power in each wing. During normal operation brake released, and with solenoid de powered
        Slats - L/H wing – Blue / Green and R/H wing – Green / Blue
        Flaps - L/H wing – Blue / Yellow and R/H wing – Green / Blue
    • If brakes applied to Flaps, Slats operation is normal and vise – versa
    • If one SFCC inoperative other able to apply brakes
    • Can be reset only on Gnd. via MCDU, due to both SFCCs cross talk to each other, when resetting has
        to be reset on both SFCCs
    • Applies brakes if SFCC detects following, via FPPU & APPU
        • Runaway – Comparison of APPU and FPPU
        • Over speed – If at least one PPU detects over speed
        • Asymmetry - Comparison between two APPUs
Flap disconnect detection system
    • Inhibits further Flap operation if disconnection detected
    • Consist of 2 proximity sensors on each interconnecting strut on each wing, which measures differential
        movement between inner and outer Flaps
    • Proximity sensors connected to system via LGCIU 1 & 2, also can be tested via LGCIU 1 & 2
    • If disconnection detected PCU de energized and POB applied to stop transmission and on further Flap
        movement (WTB will not applied)

Slat Flap lever
• Selects simultaneous operation of Slats and Flaps, lever selection from 0 to Full (5 selections)


Lever Position     Configuration       Slat angle (°)        Flap angle (°)          Flight Phases
      0                  0                   0                     0                    CRUISE
                                                                                                 HOLD
      1                  1                   18                    0
      1                1+F                   18                   10
                                                                              TAKE
      2                  2                   22                   15           OFF                   APPR
      3                  3                   22                   20
                                                                                         LDG
     Full               Full                 27                   40




                                                        74
ECAM presentation
• “FALP” appears when Flap / Slats not fully retracted
• On Gnd. with selection on position 1 Flaps goes to 1 + F (10°)
• When new position selected position will be indicated in CYAN colour, after surfaces traveled to selected
   position, indication will be Green
• When Flaps goes to full “FULL’ will appear in place of position number
• In flight with selection (extend) on position 1, flaps does not move and with position 2 selection Flaps goes
   to 15°, during retraction also Flaps do not go to 1 + F ( 10 °) position
   • Speed >210 Kts Slats 18° / Flaps fully retraced
   • Speed < 210 Kts Slats 18° / Flaps 10° (1 + F)
   • If A/C T/O with Flaps at 1 + F (10°) and speed reaches to 210 Kts Flaps goes to 0° automatically, but
        even speed < 210 Kts, Flap will not extend again automatically.

Slats Alpha lock protection
    • With lever position 1 and select to position 0
        • Slat movement inhibits with “A-LOCK” pulsing on E/W display if
            • AOA > 8.5 ° or CAS < 148 Kts
        • A – Lock function reset if
            • AOA < 7.6° and CAS > 154° Kts
        • Function will not activates if
            • A/C on Gnd.
            • With CAS < 60 Kts, AOA > 8.5 or CAS < 148 Kts while retraction from 18° to 0 has already
                started
    • Slat channels receives correct AOA and CAS values from ADIRUs for use in A – Lock computation

SFCC interfaces
• CSU sends command signal to each SFCC to
• APPU sends synchro signals to each channel for asymmetry detection
• FPPU sends position of the O/P shaft to each SFCC for system monitoring and control
• SFCC sends discrete O/P to control WTB and PCU to solenoid control
• ADIRU sends corrected AOA and CAS data for A -Lock computation
• LGCIU 1 & 2 sends Flap disconnect data to SFCC 1 & 2 respectively Flap attachment detection failure
• CFDIU send data for failure and Bite tests
• IPPU sends to FWC to warning and Indication on ECAM
• SFCC sends to ELACs to flight control law selection
• SFCC sends to FAC to flight envelop protections
• GPCU receive Flap / Slat data to for Approach and landing via 21 VU
• SECs receives for electrical flight law selections
• Flap position data received by ADIRU for AOA and static port corrections
• SFCC sends to CIDS to automatic passenger sign lighting
• Lever position signal to EIU for select minimum idle




                                                      75
                                FUEL SYSTEM (CHAPTER – 28)
•    Total 5 tank capacity 18932 kg
•    Each wing tank divided in to Outer cell and Inner cell + Center tank
•    Center tank capacity = 6462kg, Inner tank = 5532kg, Outer tank = 704kg, ACT each tank = 2277kg with
     density = 0.785 kg/l
•    Each tank got 2 % additional area for expansion with out spill to vent tank
•    Tank pump pressure 30 psi
•    Fuel is Type 1 system not avail in CFDS back up mode
•    Filling sequence
     • Outer tank
     • Inner tank
     • Center tank
     • Auxiliary tanks 1&2 [Optional]
•    Feeding sequence
     • ACT 2 (transferred to center tank) (Aft tank) [Optional]
     • ACT 1 (transferred to center tank) (Fwd tank) [Optional]
     • Center tank
     • Inner tank (down to 750 kg in each tank)
     • Outer tank (Fuel transferred into the inner tank)
•    Fuel Quantity Indicating System (FQIS) comprises
     • One FQIC located in 90vu
     • Two FLSCU located in 90vu
•    Each main tank has 2 centrifugal boost pumps
•    Wing tank pumps run continuously through out the normal operation but feeding restricted by using
     pressure relief sequence valves
•    Cross feed valve allows to connect L/H & R/H engine supply lines, valve normally closed operated by two
     motors (AC & DC)
•    LP valves isolates engines or APU from fuel supply.
     • Opens – When related engine or APU running
     • Closes – When Engine or APU shut down or Fire P/B out
•    Pressure Switches
     • For each pump to monitor its pressure for low pressure warning
•    APU pump
     • Supply fuel when tank pumps not running, connected to the supply line at the L/H side
     • Powered by AC ESS SHED or STATIC INV. BUS
     • Pump is Single phase motor
•    Transfer valves
     • Allows to transfer fuel from Outer to Inner cells
     • Opens when Inner tank fuel reached to low level sensors (750 kgs)
     • Two level sensors located in each inner cell, each sensor will control two transfer valves one in each
           wing
     • Valve opens when first level sensor in any inner tank becomes dry
     • Ones open valve closes automatically at next fueling (Refueling door opens), can be closed on Gnd.
           by MCDU interrogation
     • Low level sensor and transfer valve both supplied from same CB, each valve powered by own CB, by
           pulling one side low level CB will simulate low level then other side transfer valve will open.
•    Air release valve
     • Each engine supply line got a valve located at the heights point to allow to bled

Tank Pumps
Wing Tanks

          TK PUMP
    1
                         Push IN - Pump start but fuel feed only center tank pumps delivery pressure
    FAULT                          drops bellow threshold
                         Release OUT – Pump stops
    OFF                  Fault ON – Pump low pressure
                                                       76
Mode Selector
    MODE SEL
                        Push IN – Auto selection, control center tank pumps automatically
    FAULT
                        Fault Lt. ON –If either wing tank quantity < 5000 Kg. when center tank > 250 Kg.
     MAN
                                      - Center tank pumps do not stop after Slats extension
                                      - Center tank pumps do not stop after LO level reached
                        MAN Lt. ON – Manual mode selected

Center tank pump
CTRTK PUMP

    PUMP 1
                                 Push IN - Pump control automatically if auto mode selected on Mode
    FAULT                                   selector Sw.
                                          - When low level in the tank will indicates amber in ECAM then
     OFF
                                            T/D 5 min before pumps automatically Sw. OFF
                                          - Mode selector in MAN mode, tank pumps controlled by P/B
                                            selection directly
                        Fault Lt. ON – During MAN mode selection on Mode select with low pressure on
                                        the pump
                        Release OUT – OFF Lt. ON
Cross Feed

    X FEED
                        Released Out – Valve closed (normal position)
     OPEN
                        Pushed In – Valve Open ON LT. illuminates
      ON                OPEN Lt. – Illuminates when valve fully open


Auxiliary Center tanks (ACT) (Optional)

    FAULT               Fault ON – Amber Lt. come ON:
                                        - Center tank Qty < 3000kg and one ACT Qty> 250kg and
                                        - ACT P/B in AUTO
     FWD                P/B Auto (Released out) – Control transfer of ACT automatically if
                                                - A/C in flight and
                                                - Slats are retracted and
                                                - At least one ACT low level sensor wet and
                                                - Center tank Hi level sensor dry for 10 min
                                                (auto transfer stops as soon as above conditions not met)
                        Fwd – Manual transfer to the center tank initiated by opening
                                - ACT transfer valve , ACT 1 or 2 inlet valve, ACT transfer pump starts
ECAM Indications
• Fuel on board (FOB) – Shown in both displays,
•     700       Amber - Not entirely useable due to a failure
                When one tank empty + amber ECAM low level avail, Box shows amber until low level
               disappear
• 5500         - Indication not accurate

•      XX       - Quantity not valid

•    Fuel Temperature –
     • Green – Normal
     • Amber – High or Lower limits exceeded
     • Pulses
         • For Inner cell - + 45 °C < Temp < - 40 °C
         • For Outer cell - + 55 °C < Temp < - 40 °C
•    Engine identification number amber when engine below idle, otherwise white
•    Fuel used indication reset at every engine start, XX – FF not valid


                                                     77
Fuel system operation
• Auto Mode
   • On Gnd. Slate extended all pump P/B in
        • Wing tank pump run all the time
        • Center tank pumps OFF (due to slats extension)
   • During Engine start
        • Fuel used indication reset + Engine identification number becomes White
   • After Engine Start
        • Cent er tank pumps run for 2 min. (regard less of slat position),Center tank pumps has priority over
           wing tanks (Engine start signal received from start valve)
        • Fuel used indication starts to increase
        • After 2 min. time delay Center tank pumps stop (due to slats extension)
   • During T/O
        • After Slates retraction Center tank pumps starts
   • During Cruise
        • After Center tank empty, pumps stop (engines supplies from wing tanks)
        • Inner tank quantity lower to some valve (750 kg), transfer valves open outer cell fuel goes to inner
           cell (transfer valves latched open until next refueling)
   • On ground, engine stopped
        • Engine identification number becomes Amber + LP valves close

•   Manual Mode
    • In Cruise
       • Center tank pumps stopped with fuel in the tank (fault condition)
       • M/C, S/C, ECAM message “Auto feed fault” on E/W display
       • Fault Lt. on Mode Select P/B illuminates ( indicates if either wing tank quantity < 5000Kg. when
           center tank > 250 Kg.)
       •    LO
                       Indication on lower ECAM display pump as supply pressure drops

        •   Unlatch Mode select P/B, “MAN” lt. ON and center tank pumps start
        •   When center tank empty “LO” warning comes ON + SC, M/C, pump fault Lt. ON
        •   Pump P/B manually select OFF, ECAM pump symbol becomes amber

•   Mode select Sw controls only center tank pumps

Fuel System Warning
• L tank pump 1 Low pressure – ECAM message, “LO” on ECAM pump symbol
                                  - Fault Lt. On pumps P/B
• Center tank pump 2 Low pressure – M/C, S/C, pump P/B fault Lt.
                                       - ECAM msg, “LO” on lower ECAM
• R tank pump 1 + 2 LO pressure – M/C,S/C both pumps Fault Lt. ON
                                     - ECAM msg., Lower ECAM both pump “LO”
• Center tank pumps LO pressure – M/C, S/C, both P/B fault Lt. ON
                                     - FOB figure and center tank quantity boxed in Amber as center fuel
                                       not useable
• X Feed Fault – valve position disagree with selection shows Amber ECAM msg.
• Engine 1 LP valve position – M/C, S/C, ECAM msg, lower ECAM valve symbol Amber
• L wing tank LO level – M/C, S/C, A/W Incase of wing tank LO level detection, ECAM msg.,
• R/H transfer valve closed – M/C, S/C, A/W incase of Xfer valve malfunction, ECAM msg., Xfer valve
                                indication on ECAM amber, R outer cell fuel unusable
• L outer tank Hi temp. – ECAM msg., M/C, S/C, ECAM temp. value amber
• R inner tank LO temp. – ECAM msg., LO temp. indication amber
• Auto feed fault – M/C, S/C ( in case of auto feed fault ), ECAM msg., fault Lt. on auto feed mode selector
                       - Center tank > 250 kg + L or R wing tank < 5000kg
                       - Center tank pumps do not stop after slat retraction
                       - Center tank pumps do not stop after LO level reached
• APU LP valve fault – ECAM msg., APU LP valve symbol amber when valve not in correct position


                                                      78
Fuel IDG Cooling System
• Fuel divider and Return valve (FD & RV) controlled by FADEC
• Input signal from sensors via FLSCUs
• Fuel return valve closes
   • Inner cell level drops to low level sensor (IDG S/O sensor) [750 kgs], reduces amount of unusable fuel
   • Inner cell temp. reached to 52.5 °C to prevent engine limitation exceeded
   • LO pressure signaled by all pumps of related wing with X Feed valve closed
   • LO pressure signaled by all pumps from both wing with X Feed valve open
   • When outer cell temp. Reached to 55 °C this prevents large value of Hi temp. fuel entering from inner
       cell in the event of inner cell valve opening
   • If center tank fail to respond to inner tank full level sensor causing wing tank to over flow to surge
       tanks
   • Heated fuel allows to go to outer cell by Fuel divider and Return valve (FD & RV)
• FLSCU 1 (2), EEC 1 ( 2 )

Refuel and Defuel System
• Refueling coupling located R/H wing leading edge, supply fuel to center tank and outer cell. When outer
   cell full goes to inner cell by spill pipe
• Automatic refueling start by outer cells, if selected fuel load exceeds the wing tank capacity the center tank
   refueled simultaneously, approximate refueling time 20 min for all tanks
• Refueling also possible with only battery power is available from HOT BAT BUS 1.
• Battery Sw. for refueling will go off automatically if no refueling operation selected with in 10 min.
• Refueling valve
   • Solenoid operated valve and interchangeable with others, can be manually operated by pushing a
        plunger on valve it self
• Diffusers
   • Prevent turbulence and electrostatic buildup
• Defuel / transfer valve
   • Controlled by refuel panel Sw., when valve open connects refuel galley and engine supply line for
        defueling or transfer purpose.
   • If left open, in Air mode automatically goes to close
• Pressure relief valve
   • Relieve fuel in to the R/H wing Tank in the event of center tank refueling over flow
• Hi level sensor
   • Installed in center and each inner tank
   • When immerse in fuel related refuel valve closes
• Multi tank indicator
   • Display quantity of fuel in each tank, if ARINC bus or internal failure display blanks
• Refuel valve selector

                 OPEN                 OPEN – Valve open
                NORMAL           NORMAL – Auto refueling
                 SHUT                 SHUT – Valve close

        • One selector per tank
          • Automatic refueling - select normal position
          • Defueling – Valve will not open
          • Select open – Valve operation depends on Mode Selector position
          • Select shut – Valve closes, independent of Mode Select position
•   Mode Selector

                 REFUEL

                 OFF

                DEFUEL / X FR
    •   OFF position – Refueling valves close
    •   Refuel position – Operate automatically or manually depending on refuel valve selector position
    •   Defuel position – Opens defuel/transfer valve
                                                      79
•   High level light

                         Blue Hi level Lt. for each tank and comes ON when fuel covered hi level sensor in the
                         tank


•   Open Lt. – Lt. ON when Mode selector set to Defuel/transfer, confirmed valve opening




•   Test Sw. –
    • Select hi level position – Hi level Lt. ON if Hi level sensor circuit and sensor serviceable
•   Pre selector
    • During automatic refueling fuel to uploaded will be controlled as per the selection on the preselected
        display
•   Actual - Shows actual total fuel in the A/C


       88.8
•   Rocker Sw.
    • Desired fuel figure can be selected on the preselector
•   End Lt.
            • Green end light On when automatic refueling completed
    END • Flashes if incorrect fuel preselection or automatic refuel operation stopped with out completion
               of normal operation

Quantity Indication System
• Capacitance type system
   • Fuel mass and temp. measurement displaying
   • Auto controlling of A/C refueling
   • System integrity monitoring using Bite
   • ARINC 429 data for interface to other systems

FQIC
• 2 channels for mass calculations
• Each calculation monitor with other channel then most accurate reading is the operational
• If one Channel fails system operation normal but fault send to CFDS
• Connects A/C system by ARINC 600 connector
• FQIS fail classes
   • Grade 1 - Normal
   • Grade 2 – Normal
   • Grade 3 – Normal + reduced accuracy
   • Grade 4 – Outside normal operation (display blank)
   • Grade 5 – FQIC output
Probe
• Capacitance type probes give to FQIC relation with amount of fuel in the tank
• Center tank = 5 probes
   • Probe # 5 - CIC
• Inner cell = 12 probes
   • Probe # 2 – Temp.
   • Probe # 4 – CIC
• Outer cell = 2 probes
   • Probe # 13 - Temp
• No. 13 & 14 probes located in the outer cell, if failed quantity will be affected (only 2 probes in the outer
   cell )

                                                        80
Capacitance index compensater (CIC)
• Calculates capacitance & di-electric consent of fuel if codensicon failure
• Located in the lowest level point in each wing inner cell and center tank with normal fuel probe
• Duel operation
   • Fully Covered with fuel – measure the di-electric constant
   • Not fully covered – acts as a normal probe
Codencicons
• Gives a signal to the FQIC proportion to dielectric constant & density of each tank
• Located on the floor of each tank
• Consist of two sensors
   • Density measurement                     Both used to calculate fuel quantity
   • Dielectric of fuel

FQIC & FLSCU interfaces
• Shut refuel valve when hi level reached
• Carry out bite check by refuel control panel (bite test of high level sensor & circuits )
• Hi level sensor sends information to FLSCU then FQIC
• Test indicated via FQIC & FLSCU, sensor & system status sent from FQIC to CFDS

Control panel
• FQIC distribute the fuel load for all tanks + auto shut off
• When selector select refuel
   • FQIC check amount selected possible to upload
   • Monitor density of fuel in each tank then distribute among them

Landing Gear Lever
• Send Gnd/Flt. Information when A/C on jacks (Can be refuel when A/C on Jacks)

ADIRU
• Provides acceleration data during flight as a alternate sauce of attitude (normal attitude data comes from
   level of fuel in each tank with comparing tank geometry, will stored in the memory)

CFDS
• By ARNC 429 FQIC sends bite information to CFDS to monitor faults
• Via CFDS individual capacitance can be checked on each probe

FMGC
• FQIC provide fuel parameters to navigation computations
ECAM
• Total & individual quantity information for ECAM to display on system page

Fuel Level Sensing
• Level sensors
    • Contains therrmister and fast blow fuse
• Temp. sensor
    • Contains Platinum wire, resistor + fast blow fuse
• Operation
    • When sensing thermister exposed to air, temp rises by applied current
    • When it immersed high thermal conductivity of fuel comparison with air causes thermister temp. fall
• Sense by multi channel FLSCU 1 & 2
• Hi level sense – (One in each inner & center tank)
    • When Mode selector Sw. select refuel + sensor immersed in fuel
        • Defuel/refuel valve closes
        • Blue hi level Lt. illuminates on refuel control panel
• Low level sensor – ( Qty 2in each Inner & Center tank)
    • Exposure of Center tank low level sensor causes tank pump stop after 5 min time delay
    • Exposure of inner tank low level sensor cause immediate opening of inner cell transfer valves
    • Exposure to air for 30 sec gives LO LEVEL ECAM warning

                                                        81
•   IDG shut off sensor (low level sensor)- (Qty 1 in each Inner cell)
    • Commands IDG fuel return valve to close
•   Full Level – (Inner cell qty.2 each)
         • Causes center tank pumps to stop then Inner cell pumps supply to engines until Under flow level
            reached in inner tank
         • Monitor IDG fuel cooling
•   Underfull Level – (Qty 3 in each inner cell, qty 1 in each outer cell)
    • Center tank pump to start, provided fuel in the tank (deference full & under full level is 500 kg)
•   Over flow – (Qty 1 in vent tank)
    • If center tank pump fail to stop with inner tank full level, fuel will go to surge tank the Over flow sensor
         command return valve to close
•   Temperature sensor – ( Qty 1 in each inner & outer cell) [ colour is Black ]
    • To ensure fuel temp. in engine inlet does not exceed temp. limit to close fuel return valve

MCDU Pages
• FLSS status
  • Bite run out 30 sec after power up
  • Bite 1 – Hi, Surge tank sensors
  • Bite 2 – Rear inner cell transfer valve + some low level sensors
  • Bite 3 - Outer cell underfull sensor + Remaining low level sensors
  • Bite 4 – Inner cell full / underfull, sensor logic control circuits, temp. sensors
• FQIS status
  • List is provides when detected LRU failure or at the last FQIC power up test
  • All classes are reported on Channel 1 & 2, channel 1got priority. Channel number will be displayed
      and failure grade will define GO / NO GO
• Input parameter value
  • Following information displayed
      • Permitivity calculated by cadencicon
      • Density calculated by cadencicon
      • Permitivity calculated by CIC
      • Fuel temperature in inner and outer cells
      • Effective pitch and roll attitudes
      • All capacitance values of the tank probes, CIC, cadencicons
      • Gives status of the FQIS discrete inputs ( 1 = active status )


Auxiliary center tank
• During flight pressured by cabin pressure
• ACT transfer pump located at center tank to transfer by suction and pressure due to the cabin pressure by
    closing vent valves and opening air S/O valves.
• ACT 2 tank will be transfer to the center tank first after 10 min Hi level exposed in the center tank via
    ACT transfer valve, ACT 2 inlet valve after opening air SOV to get cabin pressure and closing vent valves.
• Vent valves will open after transfer completed.




                                                        82
                          HYDRAULIC SYSTEM (CHAPTER – 29)
•   Three independent Hydraulic systems (Green, Blue, Yellow)
•   In normal operation Green and Yellow system provided by engine driven pumps (Green = L/H engine,
    Yellow = R/H engine) and Blue by Electric pump
•   Each system got its own reservoir which is pneumatically pressured by engine # 1 HP air or X bleed duct
•   All reservoirs will be filled by Green ground service panel
•   Accumulators in the system helps to maintain constant pressure during normal operation by covering
    transit demands

Green System
• EDP driven by L/H engine, provide pressure 3000 psi and pump cooling and lubricating flow passes
   through a filter and goes to return line
• Can be pressurized via PTU by Yellow system with out fluid transfer
• Fire SOV located in up stream of the pump to isolates system if required by engine fire P/B
• Reservoir low level and low quantity indication on ECAM by a transmitter and a low level switch
• Reservoir air used to prevent pumps cavitation, low air pressure measured by pressure switch
   (pressure < 22 psi)
• Pressure Sw. monitors EDP output pressure for ECAM indication (threshold pressure = 1740 psi)

HP manifold
• Qty 2 pressure Sw. sends signal to FAC 1, BSCU, ECAM, SEC 1, ELAC 1& 2 other Sw. sends to ELAC 1
   & 2, SEC 2 & 3 (threshold pressure = 1450 psi)
   • HP filter equipped with clogging indicat or measures ∆P > 87 psi
   • Pressure transducer sends system pressure to ECAM & ELAC 1 & 2
   • Leak measurement solenoid valve located on HP manifold isolates flight controls when P/B on
       maintenance panel set to OFF
   • Accumulator damps at small pressure changes filled with Nitrogen pressure 1885 psi
• Leak measurement manifold, operation of spool valve allows associated section to be supplied for leak
   measurement test

PTU manifold
   • Normal braking selector valve which cuts off hydraulic power to the normal braking selector valve
   • Priority valve
   • PTU isolating solenoid valve which deactivates PTU with several conditions
• Return manifold consists of
   • Temp. sensor + temp. transducer sends data for ECAM warnings
   • Filter and clog indicator

Yellow System
• EDP driven by R/H engine, provides pressure 3000 psi and pump cooling and lubricating flow passes
    through a filter and goes to return line
• Can be pressurized via PTU by Green system with out fluid transfer
• Electrical pump use to provide auxiliary power
• Hand pump can be used to open/close cargo door if electrical pump not available, located in Gnd. service
    panel
• Fire SOV located in up stream of the pump to isolate system if required by engine P/B
• Reservoir low level and low quantity indication on ECAM by a transmitter and a low level switch
• Reservoir air used to prevent pump cavitation, low air pressure measured by pressure switch and sends to
    ECAM (pressure < 22 psi)
• Pressure Sw. monitors EDP output pressure for ECAM indication (threshold pressure = 1740 psi)
• Yellow electrical pump runs with Electrical pump P/B press or cargo door operation

HP manifold
   • Qty 2 pressure Sw. sends signal to SEC 1, ELAC 1& 2 other Sw. sends to ECAM, ELAC 1 & 2, SEC 2
      & 3, FAC 2 (threshold pressure = 1450 psi)
   • Pressure transducer send to ECAM & ELAC 1 & 2
   • Leak measurement solenoid valve located on HP manifold automatically prevent flight control
      operation if electrical pump operated by cargo door Sw.
                                                    83
   • HP filter equipped with clogging indicator measures ∆P > 87 psi
   • Accumulator damped at small pressure changes filled with Nitrogen pressure 1885 psi
• Leak measurement manifold spool valve allows associated section of flight controls to be supplied for leak
   measurement test
PTU manifold
   • Priority valve
   • Quick disconnect for maintenance operation to prevent PTU operation
   • Solenoid valve stops PTU operation with Sw. command on the hydraulic panel
• Return manifold consists of
   • Temp. sensor + temp. transducer sends data for ECAM warnings
   • Filter and clog indicator
Blue system
• Electrical pump will be pressurize the system for 3000 psi
• RAT provides hydraulic pressure 2500 psi in emergency use, automatic deployment inhibited on Gnd.,
   located in Blue hydraulic compartment
• Reservoir low level and low quantity indication on ECAM by a transmitter and a low level Sw.
• Reservoir air used to prevent pump cavitation, low air pressure measured by two pressure switches and
   sends to ECAM (pressure < 22 psi meg “LO AIR PRES” ) and press < 30 psi with message “BLUE RSVR”
• Pressure Sw. monitors Elect pump output pressure (threshold pressure = 1450 psi)
HP manifold
   • Qty 2 pressure Sw. sends signal to ECAM, SEC 1, ELAC 1& 2 other Sw. sends to ELAC 1 & 2, SEC 2
       & 3 (threshold pressure = 1450 psi)
   • Pressure transducer send to ECAM & ELAC 1 & 2
   • Leak measurement valve isolates flight controls
   • Priority valve
   • HP filter equipped with clogging indicator measures ∆P > 87 psi
• Accumulator damped at small pressure changes filled with nitrogen pressure 1885 psi
• RAM air turbine can be manually operate or automatically in flight
• Leak measurement manifold spool valve allows associated section of flight controls to be supplied for leak
   measurement test
• Return manifold consists of
   • Temp. sensor + temp. transducer sends data for ECAM warnings
   • Filter and clog indicator

PTU
• Automatically activated when differential pressure between green and yellow system > 500 psi
• When engines shut down PTU allows Green system to be pressurized by Yellow electric pump
• PTU automatically Inhibited
               st                                                              nd
   • During 1 engine start (to eliminate noise) and automatically tested when 2 engine start on Gnd. with
      parking brakes ON or Towing arm attached (Green hydraulic not required for normal braking or
      steering)
   • During cargo door operation with yellow electrical pump
• Two solenoids located in Green and Yellow PTU manifolds will cut off PTU up on inhibited conditions and
   PTU P/B press on hydraulic panel
     PTU
                             Sw. AUTO – Arming of PTU auto mode
    FAULT     A              FAULT – Reservoir low air pressure, low fluid level or OVHT
              U                     - PTU fault
     OFF
              T              Sw. OFF – Solenoid in Green & Yellow HP manifolds close PTU operation
              O

Engine Pump

 ENG. PUMP                   Push IN – Pump pressurize Green (Yellow) system
                             Sw. OFF – Pump in de pressurized mode
    FAULT
                             Fault – Reservoir low air pressure, low fluid level or OVHT
                                   - Pump low pressure (inhibits on Gnd. when engine stopped)
     OFF                           - Lt. goes off when Sw. select off except OVHT condition)


                                                     84
HYD RAT MAN ON Sw.
    HYD
RAT MAN ON                    Press IN – RAT deploy at any time (If automatic failure)




Electrical pump (Blue)
    ELEC PUMP
                                                                    st
                              Sw in AUTO – Pump operates from 1 engine start up until last engine stop
     FAULT
                A             Sw. OFF – Pump
                U             Fault – Reservoir low air pressure, low fluid level or OVHT
      OFF
                T                   - Pump low pressure
                O


•     Can run for long time for Gnd. maintenance purposes with out OVHT hydraulic fluid
•     Blue electrical pump operates if
      • At touch down after nose landing gear compressed + 2min with AC power avail
      • Elect P/B in auto + Nose L/G not compressed + AC power avail from APU
      • One engine run + Elect P/B in auto
      • Elect P/B in auto + Blue OVRD pump select ON

Yellow electrical pump

    ELEC PUMP
                              Press IN – Pump ON
     FAULT                    Fault - Reservoir low air pressure, low fluid level or OVHT
                                    - Pump low pressure (PTU will not be available)
      OFF




Maintenance Panel
                              Sw. Pressed IN – On Gnd. Blue electrical pump can be pressurized for
                                               maintenance purpose provided Electrical pump P/B on
    BLUE PUMP                                  hydraulic panel set to AUTO
      OVRD




      ON



Leak measurement valves
• Located in each HP manifold operated by guarded P/B in maintenance panel
• Valve closes during cargo door operation to prevent hydraulically power the flight control system

     HYD
LEAK MESU. VALVES
                              One for each hydraulic system of Primary flight control to leak measurement
                              Sw press IN – Normal operation
                              OFF – Only on Gnd. valve closes and stops hydraulic supply to primary
                                     flight controls
       OFF




                                                       85
Leak measurement system
• Flight control systems permanently supplied through leak measurement valves
• During hydraulic test PTU connection to be removed to prevent PTU operation
• Spool valves in leak measurement manifold will facilitate select associate section to be tested during test
   and also can be manually close / open for maintenance purposes

Priority Valves
During low hydraulic pressure maintain operation of essential systems by cut off hydraulic for heavy uses.
Closes at pressure 1841 psi

•   During Cargo door operation
    • PTU inhibited by solenoid valves
    • Yellow Leak measurement valves activate to prevent hydraulic pressure goes in to flight control
        systems
    • Provide a signal to SFCC to prevent any Flap movement

ECAM Indications

•   LO AIR PRESS – If low air pressure in the hydraulic reservoir
•   OVHT – Reservoir return hydraulic temp. above normal
•   OVHT(at hydraulic pump) – Pump OVHT




                                                      86
                     ICE AND RAIN PROTECTION (CHAPTER – 30)
•   Permits unrestricted operation in icing and heavy rain
•   Engine intake and last 3 out board wing leading edge Slats if each wing supplied with hot air
•   Flight windows, probes, ports water lines and waste wat er drain masts are electrically heated
•   Optional dual ice detection system informs crew if any icing condition (visual ice indicator).
•   Ice condition may be expected when OAT or TAT < 8 °C

Wing anti-ice system
• Hot air from pneumatic system enters to wing L/E via pressure control SOV, which is electrically controlled
   and pneumatically operated. If electrical or pneumatic failure valve close
• Valve controlled by wing anti – ice P/B in the flight deck
• L/H wing anti-ice valve must be closed before dispatch if faulty

      WING                   Press IN – ON Lt. appears, valve open (In flight), On Gnd. Open only for
                                         30 sec.(for test purpose).
     FAULT
                             Fault Lt. ON –Valve remains open when Sw. set to OFF
       ON                                  - Valve remains close when Sw. set to ON


 System Interfaces
•  Anti-ice P/B sends to valve, SDCA (ECAM warning)+ EIU (engine power increase according to the bleed
   demand)
• Zone controller will control bleed as per demand

Engine air intake anti – ice system
• Air bled from HP compressor of each engine via Anti-ice valve (Energized to close), if lack of bleed air
   spring loaded to close, with bleed air loss of electrical power valve remain open
• When both engine anti-ice valves open Cabin ZC determines demand to FADEC to lower EPR limit

     ENG
                             Pressed IN – Valve open if bleed air avails + ON Lt. illuminates
    FAULT                    Fault Lt. ON – During valve transit
                                          - Valve disagreement with Sw. position
      ON


Interfaces
• Switch P/B sends to valve, SDAC(ECAM indication + warning), Cabin ZC receive valve not close position
     for bleed air management

Dual advisory Ice detection system
• Purpose is to provide better ice detection and save fuel by cut off anti-ice system when not required
• System consist of 2 ice detectors installed on A/C skin and directly connected to FWC to display warning
   on the ECAM E/W display
• Two levels of detections
   • “ICE DETECTED” correspond to elementary detection
   • “SEVERE ICEE DETECTED” corresponding to 7 successive elementary detection
• System operates by electrical power up and sends warning in flight, above 1500ft and when TAT < 8 °C
   even with one ice detector fault
• Detector generates 3 different discrete signals
   • ICE DETECTED” – when engine intake ice detected
   • “SEVERE ICE DETECTED” – when wing area ice detected
   • “DETE CT FAULT” – when two ice detectors faulty – ECAM message appears
• Each detector provided with bite function for continuos monitoring




                                                      87
Probe ice protection system
• System controlled by qty 3 Probe Heat Controllers (PHC)
• PHC 1 controls
   • Captain’s Pitot, Static L & R, TAT and AOA for indicating and monitoring
• PHC 2
   • First officer Pitot, Static L & R, AOA and TAT for indicating and monitoring
• PHC 3
   • STBY Pitot, Static L & R, AOA for indicating and monitoring
• When one engine is running all probes and plates automatically activated can be manually Sw. OFF by
   P/B
• Also can be activated by select probe / window heat P/B press
• On Gnd. Pitot heating reduced and TAT heating cut off
• PHC sends failures to ECAM via respective ADIRU and FWC and direct communication with CFDIU
• Pulling PHC & EIU CB’s cause unwanted heating on the probes and static ports
• 28 VDC for Static ports and PHC, 115 VAC for AOA, Pitot and TAT heating


PROBE / WINDOW
   HEAT                       Press In – Heating available
                              Auto – Probes / windows heated automatically
             A
     ON      U
             T
             O

Window anti-icing and defogging
• System consist of qty 2 WHC (each controls 1 wind shield + 2 windows)
• Heating comes ON automatically with one engine start or Press Probe/window heat P/B
• Each WHC provides temp. regulation, over heat protection and fault indication
• Pulling PHC & EIU CB’s cause unwanted heating on wind shields and side windows
• Wind shields are de iced and side windows demised
• 115VAC used for window heating, 115 VAC dual phases used for windshields
• WHC provides independent temp. regulation between 35 to 42 °C, Heating cut off if temp. reaches 60 or –
   60 °C
• Each window and windshield consist with qty 2 sensors (1 spare)
• Detection of extreme windshield temp or sensor failure causes warning activation and windshield heating
   power cutoff
• In flight windshields fully heated by dual phase current
• WHC type 2 system

Wiper system
• Wipers designed to operate effectively up to 200 kts

Drain mast ice protection system
• Each control unit for Fwd and Aft drain mast
• If normal temp. controller failed temp. sensor in the drain mast it self (switch open at 57 °C) will regulate
    temperature
• Control unit controls temp in the drain mast between 5 °C to 15 °C also monitor by Bite function, system
    status sends to the CIDS to indicate on the PTP, CIDS caution Lt. and also controller face (HU and CU Lt.)
• Test – 2 tests
    • From PTP – If test OK PTP message “DRAIN MAST TEST OK”
    • On the face of the control unit – When test P/B pressed “HTR” and “CU” Lts. will be ON
    • For complete test both tests to be carried out

Potable and waste water line anti-ice system
• System consist of one control unit and each system (potable & waste) 2 heaters and a sensor
• Heating regulated between 6 to 10 °C
• Test
   • Manual test available on the control unit face, if test satisfactory Green colour LED Ltd. Will illuminates

                                                       88
               AIRCRAFT INSTRUMENTS SYSTEM (CHAPTER – 31)
Pin programming
• Used to inform CFDS particular computer status in particular station.

EIS – Electronic Instrument system
• Present data for EFIS & ECAM systems
• Contains Qty 6 Identical & Interchangeable CRT’s

EFIS
• Consist of 3 main function
   • Data acquisition, Processing and displaying
• Contains Qty 4 display units, Qty 2 for Capt’s and Qty 2 for FO’s.
• WXR send data to DMC via 4 ARINC 435 high speed bus
• DMC transfer information to DU via Master DSDL bus
• Feed back from DU to DMC via Feedback DSDL bus
• A/C systems send information to DMC via ARINC 429 bus
• DMC and EFIS control panels linked via ARINC 429 buses.
• FWC used RS 422 buses to send memo msgs to DMC
• Each DMC transmit data via 2 ARINC data buses
   • Low speed unswitched bus to CFDU
   • Hi speed switched bus to FWC and ECAM control panel
• PFD – Indicates parameters need to short term A/C control such as
   • Attitude data
   • Air speed data – Indicated L/H side of the display with significant limit protection and target speed
   • Altitude data – Indicated R/H side of the display as per selected baro setting
   • Vertical speed – Indicated extreme R/H side with analog pointer and digital figure.
   • Heading data – On the bottom with moving horizontal scale.
   • LOC/GS information – Indicated on L/H side and bottom
   • FMA modes – Indicated top of the display concerning FMGC operation.

•   ND – Indicates Navigation and Weather Radar Informations.
    • Rose ILS modes – Indicates A/ C situation with ILS deviation
    • Rose VOR modes – Indicates A/C horizontal situation showing VOR cause and deviation
    • Rose NAV modes – Indicates A/C 360 deg situation with flight plan
    • ARC mode – Display forward 90 deg situation with flight plan
    • Plan mode – Displayed true north oriented flight plan

•   PFD display has priority over ND
•   EFIS control panel Qty 2, each contains
    • PFD /ND transfer P/B – If PFD DU fails transfer to ND display and vise versa.
    • PFD / ND dim controller – Control brightness and Sw off simulates display fault

ECAM
• Contains Qty 2 displays
                      • Upper DU – Engine & Warning display ( E/W )
                      • Lower DU – System & status display ( S )
• ECAM control panel contains
   • Qty 2 dim / bright control Sws – Sw off simulates DU fault
   • 11 Manual system select P/B Sws
   • Qty 2 CLR P/B Sws
   • Emergency cancel Sw
     • Can be cancelled all audio warnings
     • If Red warning , M/W and ECAM msg remains
     • If Amber warning, M/C and ECAM msg will cancel for the rest of the flight, status page will appear
         and “CANCELLED CAUTION” msg will be on E/W DU failure title
   • T/O CONFIG SW – T O power application simulated if configuration OK “TO CONFIG NORMAL”
     msg will appear on E/W display
                                                      89
         •   Conditions
             • Slats or Flaps in T.O configuration
             • Pitch trim in T.O configuration
             • Speed brakes retracted
             • All doors closed
             • Wheel brake not OVHT
             • Both side sticks operative
    •    RCL
         • Emergency Cancel will restore by pressing more than 3 sec.
         • Recall all cancelled messages
    •    ALL
         • Push and hold then all pages will be displayed in 2 sec intervals
         • Can be used even control panel microprocessor failure.

Engine and Warning display
• Dedicated to engine control parameters and permanently displayed.

        PRIMARY ENGINE
        PARAMETERS

                        FUEL

                   SLATS &
                   FLAPS

        WARNING     MEMOS



•   Memo Messages
    • A/C systems functions temporary selected
    • Normal check lists
•   If failure or special msg. detected has got priority over memo page
•   If over fl ow detected down looking arrow shows
•   During T/O and Landing most of them are inhibited and TO INHB msg. will appear.
•   If A/C system parameters drifted “ADV “ appears with pulsing when ECAM mono mode
•   R/H memo page will indicate Normal memo, Secondary failure messages and during T.O mode
    “TO INHIB” msg. will appear.
•   L/H memo page T.O or Landing memo, normal memo, independent failure msg. and action to be
    performed, primary failures will be displayed.

System and Status display

                                 •   Displays one of the 12 A/C system pages, 11 manually selected and
             STATUS &
              SYSTEM                 Cruse page Automatically or with Lt. Test Sw .
               PAGE              •   After a failure shows summery of A/C systems
                                 •   Left part shows
         PERMANENT                   • In Blue limitations & postponable procedure
           DATA                      • In Green landing capabilities & reminders.


•   Cancelled cautions displayed at the bottom
•   Right part shows inoperative systems & maintenance status
•   If any data in status it will be indicated on E/W display as STS if status page not selected.
•   Status page will be displayed automatically during descent after slats extended except page is empty
•   In status page on maintenance part holds messages on Gnd. before engine start up or after engine shut
    down (Phases 1 and 10)




                                                      90
•    Lower half shows some permanent data will be displayed as
     • TAT – Green when normal
     • SAT – Green when normal
     • GMT – Synchronized with cock-pit clock, in Green
     • G.W – Gross weight inhibited in flight phases 2 and after 9
        • Above GMT indication two types of information
        • G LOAD – If load factor out of limits (amber) > 1.4g or < 0.7g
        • Altitude selected on FCU (Green) in metric provided G Load not indicated
•   System page logic in modes
    • Manual mode - Can OVRD all the other
    • Failure mode – Auto appears due to a warning / caution
    • Advisory mode – Auto appears due to parameters drifting
    • Flight phase mode – Auto appears due to A/C situation

ECAM & EFIS failures
• If ECAM E/W display failed automatically transferred to system display, as priority to E/W display
• If PFD failed automatically transferred to ND display
• After ECAM double failure E/W manually can be transferred to ND, if system page required, need to hold
   P/B manually.
• ECAM / ND transfer Sw will select ECAM display to ND due to ECAM DU failure but Not vise – versa
• ECAM control panel failure will not effect to EMER CANC, CLR, RCL, ALL and STS functions.
• SDAC both failures will cause lose of Amber warnings but Engine, fuel, flight control, wheel system pages
   remain available.
• FWC both failures will cause lose of aural warning, text msg. on E/W display, attention getters, no data to
   DMC and no advisory messages as they generate by FWC and only ECAM messages.

ECAM advisory and failure related modes
• Alerts in 3 levels
   • Level 3 - Warnings
      • Highest priority, Red master warning lt. Flashing + continues repetitive chime + Red. ECAM
           messages.
      • Action to be performed immediately.(Effecting A/C safety)
   • Level 2 - Cautions
      • Amber master caution lt. + Single chime + Amber ECAM messages.
      • Action left to the discretion of the crew
   • Level 1 – Cautions
      • No LT + no Chime + local indication or ECAM messages.
   • Status megs – No warnings or caution but requires maintenance action, will appear on status
      maintenance page + pulsing after engine shut down.

Failures
• Independent failures – does not effect to other system
• Primary failures – Causing loss of other equipment (Red or Amber)                   indication on E/W DU
    L/H memo area.
• Secondary failures – Failure due to primary failure (Amber), Indicated on lower R/H of E/W with Θ mark

Failure classification
• Class 1
    • Requesting T/S to be fixed before next flight
    • Got operational consequence on the flight
    • Will be displayed in the MCDU on Last/current leg and Last/current leg ECAM report
    • Inform to crew on E/W DU

•   Class 2
    • Failure to fixed with in 10 days
    • No immediate operational consequence on the flight
    • Will be displayed on ECAM status page under maintenance title
    • Will be displayed in the MCDU on Last/current leg and Last/current leg ECAM report

                                                     91
•   Class 3
    • Minor failure can be fixed on next maintenance check
    • No operational consequence
    • Will be displayed on Avionics status page

System Types – Depends on the memorization capacity of the system and kind of link between CFDIU
• Type 1
   • Memorization of 64 flight legs, data link 2 ARINC 429 IN and OUT data lines
   • Menu is available to talk directly with the system
   • Menu contains
      • Last leg report
      • Previous report
      • LRU identification
      • T/S data – Contains data constituting snapshot of system and presented in hexadecimal language
      • Class 3 faults
      • Test
      • Ground scanning – Only on Ground and established by forcing operation of the Bite in
          system normal mode (same Bite operation as in flight)

•   Type 2
    • Memorization of last flight leg only, data link one ARINC 429 OUT line and discrete IN line
    • Present a menu with only last leg report and operational function depend on the system
    • Does not communicate directly with the system, system permanently transmits data on the system bus
       to CFDS
•   Type 3
    • No memory only test or reset, data link 2 discrete IN and OUT lines
    • Available only test & reset function.

Advisory
• Due to parameter drifting on specific system, relevant system will be displayed on lower display with
   corresponding key Lt. appears on the ECAM cont. panel with ECAM normal mode
• If ECAM mono display mode E/W page “ADV “ sign will flash to get crew attention and ECAM control panel
   relevant page P/B LT. starts flashing.

Attention Getters
• Warning messages. accompanied with Master warning & Master caution

•   Master Warning


    MASTER             Red light flashes
     WARN              Level 3 warning


•   Master Caution

                       Amber light
    MASTER             Level 2 warning
     CAUT



DMC – (Display Management Computer)
• Divided to 4 parts – Data acquisition channel, PFD,ND, ECAM processing channels
• Process data to generates codes and Graphic instructions.
• DMCs converts WXR ARINC 435 bus in to 4 digital buses ( one clock and 3 colour ) to EFIS display units
• DMC #1 controls Capt’s PFD, ND, E/W displays via Master dedicated serial data links ( Master DSDL)
• DMC #2 controls FO’s PFD, ND, System display via Master dedicated serial data links ( Master DSDL)
• Qty 3 DMCs , #3 DMC STBY can be manually transferred to any other DMC failure provided faulty DMC
  not removed from the rack, as switching relay located in the DMC it self.
                                                   92
•   Each DMC can process only Qty.3 displays
•   DMC s common to EFIS and ECAM systems.
    • DMC receives Information not correspond to generate warning
              • Navigation and AFS
              • Engine FADEC system
              • Fuel Qty
              • WBS

FWC (Flight Warning Computer)
• Carry out 3 functions
  • Data acquisition, Flight phase computation & Data warning computation
• Hart of the ECAM system
• Generates
  • All warning megs to be displayed,
  • Attention getters
  • Computes flight phases
  • Aural warnings
  • Provides ECAM warning messages to CFDS.
• Inputs received to FWC used to
  • Generate RED warnings
  • A/C system synoptics
  • DFDR
• FWC Out puts
  • Discrete for attention Getters
  • Discrete + Analogue to audio signals
  • ARINC 429 for data information
  • RS422 buses to deliver memo message to DMC

SDAC (System Data Acquisition Concentrator)
• Both SDACs are Identical
• Cary out 3 functions
   • Data Acquisition, concentration and digitalization
• Receives various signal and send to
   • FWC – To generate Amber warning
   • DMC – To create synoptics
• Inputs received to SDAC
    • To generate AMBER warnings
    • A/C system synoptics
    • DFDR
• SDAC outputs
   • ARINC 429 data buses used to deliver to DMC.
• Double SDAC failure will loose lot of information except input direct to DMC

                •   Display unit indicates input failure not a display fault



Flight Phases (Computed by FWC)
1. Door / Oxy – On Gnd If APU starting after 10 sec appears or If engine starting after start.
                      st
2. Wheel – (After 1 engine start) if flight control operated for 20 sec Flight Cont. page appears. (side stick or
    rudder deflection > 22 dig.)
                st
3. Engine – (1 Eng. T.O power & 80kts), most warning inhibited , T.O INHIBIT msg. on E/W display
4. Engine – (80kts & lift off), most warning inhibited , T.O INHIBIT msg. on E/W display
5. Engine – (lift off & 1500 ft), most warning inhibited , T.O INHIBIT msg. on E/W display
6. Cruse – (1500ft & 800ft), appears when Slats retraced + Eng. No longer at T.O power. Disappears when
    L/Gear select down (Wheel Page appears)
7. Wheel – (800ft & touch down), most warning inhibited , T.O INHIBIT msg. on E/W display
8. Wheel – (Touch down & 80kts), most warning inhibited , T.O INHIBIT msg. on E/W display and Gnd
    spoilers displayed after touch down
                                                        93
                          nd
9. Wheel – (80 kts & 2 Eng S/Down ), LDG INHIBIT message disappeared
                         nd
10. DOOR – (5 min after 2 Eng. S/Down ), FWC starts new flight leg in phase 1

Flight Phases
                                                                                  5 min AFTER ENG
            1st ENG T/O                                 TOUCH DOWN                  SHUT DOWN
                PWR            1500 ft or 2 min
                               AFTER LIFT OFF
                                                      800 ft             2nd ENG SHUT
    ELEC PWR ON                                                              DOWN
                            LIFT OFF
                                                                            80
           1st ENG        80 Kts                                            Kts
           START

      1           2        3           4          5            6     7      8           9       10


    DOOR     WHEEL                 ENGINE               CRUISE            WHEEL               DOOR



•    APU page appears when APU master Sw. selects to ON and disappears with RPM > 95%for 10 sec. Or
     Master Sw. selects to OFF
•    Engine page appears when selects to crank and disappears 10 sec. After end of start sequence

Clock
• Clock failure or loss of power supply digital display will be lost
• Loss of main electrical power, time(UTC & ET ) counted in memory via built in battery except for chrono
   function
• Clock provides information via ARINC 429 bus to FMGC, FDIU and CFDIU.
• Display can be tested by ann. Lt test Sw.

ON BOARD MAINTENANCE FACILITIES
• Acquisition of system data performed by 3 major electronic systems
   • ECAM – Monitors operational data to display warnings and system information
   • DFDRS – Records operational parameters for incident investigation purpose
   • CFDS – Monitors bite data in order to record system failures.
• Consolidation
   • In normal operation ECAM permanently displayed normal A/C parameters.
   • An anomaly detected ECAM shows abnormal parameters and its warning then CFDS records failure
     via bite system
• Maintenance operations divided in to 3 groups
   • Minor T/S via ECAM & CFDS through MCDU
   • In-depth T/S can be performed through CFDS and printed reports
   • Long term maintenance performed via help of DFDRS
• CFDS has got a back up
• Non volatile memory holds memory during power failure.

TESTS
• Power up test
   • Is a safety test, to ensure compliance with the safety objectives.
   • Executed after long power cuts on Gnd ( > 200 ms)
   • Tasks of power up test
      • Test microprocessor
      • Test of memories
      • Test of ARINC 429 & other circuits
      • Configuration tests



                                                           94
•   Cyclic tests ( Operational Tests)
    • Carried out all the time without disturbing operation
    • Tasks of the test
       • Check wach dog
       • Check RAM
•   System test
    • Purpose to offer test the system for T/S
    • Performed after replacement of LRU
    • More complete than power up test
•   Specific test
    • Purpose of the test is to generate stimuli to various command devices (valves, actuators.)

CENTRALIZED FAULT DISPLY INTERFCE UNIT (CFDIU)
• Receives failure megs from other A/C systems
• Consist of 2 distinct channels
   • Normal channel – Ensure all the functions
   • Standby channel – Operates when normal channel faulty
• CFDS can memorize up to 64 previous legs bite reports
• On Gnd memorization only for the Bites
• Receives city pair and flight number from the FAC
• Receives A/c ident from FDIU and sends to all type 1 systems
• Receives flight phases and ECAM warning from FWC
• Obtain Engine serial numbers from DMC and send to EVMU, DMC receives from engine control unit.
• If A/C clock fails time receives from own clock
• Normal mode
   • Scans all connected systems and memorize all failure to generate Last (current) Leg Reports and Last
       (current) leg ECAM reports.
   • In flight always in normal mode

•  Menu mode
   • Dialogs only with selected system for tests
   • Can be selected only on Gnd.
• CFDS back up mode
   • Automatically displayed during CFDS failure
   • Added to CFDS menu in case of minor failure
   • If the serious fault when CFDS selected directly back up mode appears
   • In flight no function available
   • On Gnd only system report test possible for the main systems.
• CFDS Phases
   • Ground /Flight transition
         • Event 1
                                 st                                                       st
            • At the soonest; 1 Engine start + 3 min if flight number entered prior to 1 engine start.
            • At the latest: A/C speed > 80kts flight number not entered prior to engine start.
         • At the event 1 leg number is incremented
    • In flight Phase
         • From event 1 until A/C speed < 80 kts + 30 sec for type 1 & 3 systems considered flight
         • For type 2 systems considered in flight from 30 sec after lift off to touch down
    • Flight /Ground transition
         • After touch down A/C speed < 80kts + 30 sec
PFR filter mode
• Purpose to improve operational use of PFR by filtering all spurious or unjustified failures/messages.

•   FWC sends primary and independent ECAM failure information to CFDS
•   MCDU key board to start bite and interface with CFDS




                                                     95
Last/Current Leg Report
• Current Leg Report
    • Failures occurred concerning all systems during flight
    • Each msg contains text of the failure, ATA reference and flight phase and time of the failure occurs
    • A function correlates the source failure msg. with the resulting failure msg.
                                                                    st
         • Source – Name of the system affected by failure (1 system identified fault)
         • Identifier – Name of the system affected by an external failure which is correlated with source
                         failure (Failure also seen but not at first)
• Last Leg Report – current leg reports automatically convert to last leg after the flight to Gnd CFDS flight
    phase transition.
• Class 1 & 2 failures will be indicated
Last/Current Leg ECAM Report
• Current Leg ECAM Report
    • All the warning megs appeared on upper ECAM during flight
    • These megs are Primary or Independent warnings
    • CFDS counts number of same msg. appears in the same flight and displayed in front of the msg. with
         in brackets.
    • Class 1 & 2 failures will be indicated
Previous leg report
• At each new flight leg, last leg report transfer to previous leg report
• Can store 200 failures over last 63 legs
• Displayed only on Gnd
• Flight leg counter (-XX ) number of flight leg before last flight leg. (E.g. – 01 means one before last leg)
• Prints only MCDU screen displayed page at a time
Post flight report
• Sum of last leg and last leg ECAM report
• Can only be printed on Gnd. and can be seen as a print only.
• Contains list of last leg report and fault megs. with associated time, flight phase and ATA reference
• Beginning of PFR recording
    • If flight number inserted before engine start, fist engine start + 3 min
    • If not, A/C speed > 80kts
• End of PFR recording
    • A/C speed < 80kts + 30 sec
• Calculates when A/C in the flight mode as per CFDS flight/ground conditions
Avionics Status
• List of systems affected by a failure
• Only available on Gnd
• Information presented permanently updated in real time.
• Also indicated class 3 failures and will be identified with in brackets. (CLASS 3)
• Class 1& 2 failures also indicated.
System report test
• Avail only on ground, enable dialog the CFDS and one system computer at a time
Flight and Ground conditions
• For Type 1 & 3 systems
    • Will be calculated as per CFDS conditions
         • If flight number inserted before engine start, fist engine start + 3 min until speed<80kts + 30 sec.
         • If not, A/C speed > 80kts until speed<80kts + 30 sec.
• For Type 2 systems - Form Lift off to touch down
Printer
• Prints CFDS and additional reports
• Additional reports comes from
    • AIDS
    • ACARS
    • FMGS
    • EVMU
• In manual mode commands comes from MCDU
• Data comes from low speed ARINC 429 buses
• Data out put to the system by one ARINC bus

                                                       96
DFDR
• Records mandatory parameters and consist of
   • Flight data interface unit (FDIU)
      • Collects and process parameters from SDACs, FWCs, DMCs, CFDS, DFDR event P/B and Clock
      • Stores mandatory parameters in DFDR and QAR
   • Digital flight data recorder (DFDR)
      • Can store data of last 25 hrs.
      • Under water locator beacon attached to DFDR
   • Three axis linear accelerometer (LA)
      • Measures the acceleration of the A/C along three axis
   • Quick access recorder (QAR)
      • Stores data as FDR for Gnd. performance, maintenance or condition monitoring tasks
• System energize automatically
                         st
   • On Gnd. during 1 five min. after electrical net work energized
   • On Gnd. with one engine running
   • In flight (even engines not running)
• On Gnd. system stops automatically
                         nd
   • Five mins. After 2 engine stops
• On Gnd. crew can operate DFDR manually by pressing GND CTL. P/B

DFDR Event P/B

   DFDR
                             P/B press – Set a event mark on the DFDR tape
   EVENT




Aircraft integrated data system (AIDS)
• Main function of to process condition monitoring for various A/C systems in order to make maintenance
    easier such as
    To perform
    • A/C engine condition
    • APU condition
    • A/C performance monitoring
    • A/C trouble shooting
• System consist of
    • Data management unit (DMU) including Smart AIDS recorder (SAR) and optional Personal computer
        Memory card international association (PCMCIA) interface
        • Collects and process various parameters in order to prepare and store various reports
        • Sends reports automatically to ACARS
        • Generation of various reports according to defined conditions, stored in the non volatile solid state
             memory of the DMU
        • Recording of the parameters in the internal memory (SAR) and external recorder (DAR)
             • SAR records parameters relating to particular flight events dedicated by the DMU
    • Optional on ground equipment called ground support equipment (GSE)
    • MCDU allows the crew to program the system and display the reports only one at a time
    • Flight data interface unit (FDIU) sends parameters to DFDR and DMU
    • Digital AIDS recorder (DAR)
        • Can store data of the last 50 hrs. on a cassette or a disk
    • Printer
        • Prints reports for various flight phases, does automatically and also response to the crew pushing
             AIDS printer P/B




                                                      97
      AIDS
                             P/B press – Causes immediate printing of a specific report, depending on the
       PRINT                             flight phase. Crew then can use MCDU to select another report for
                                         immediate printing



Basic operation
• Parameters delivered to the DMU can be called by
    • Parameter label call-out
        • Annabel to display parameters using ARINC 429 characteristics
        • Parameters displayed in raw values and refreshed once per second
        • Up to 16 parameters can be simultaneously monitored
    • Parameter alpha call-out
        • Annabel to display parameters by using alpha numeric code
        • Parameters will be displayed in engineering values
• Report control
    • 13 standard reports to A/C, Engine and APU
    • Beside automatic trigger manually can be generated via MCDU, AIDS printer push button or ACARS


Following C.B’s can be reset in flight in any malfunction occurs in the relevant system

•   CIDS
    • DIR 1 and ESS
    • DIR 1 and 2 / NORM
    • DIR 1 and 2 / BAT
•   FWC
    • FWC 1 &2
•   BSCU

•   ELAC or SEC reset
    • Do not reset more than one computer at the same time
    • Reset of flight control computers is possible in flight, even if not requested by the ECAM, provided only
       one reset is performed at a time
    • For ELAC only, reset not recommended in case of uncommented maneuver in flight
•   SFCC and EEC, EIU should not be pulled




                                                      98
                               LANDING GEAR (CHAPTER – 32)
Gears
• Gear and doors electrically controlled and hydraulically operated (Green)

                              Red unlock Lt. – Gear not locked in selected position
              UNLK            Green triangle Lt. – Gear locked down




Landing Gear Control Lever
• If nose wheels not centered and Nose shock absorbers not extended L/G lever locked in down position
   (Proximity detectors supply signal)

                              Red arrow Lt. – Not down locked when A/C in landing configeration.

                              UP – L/G retracts, while L/G doors open normal brake system brakes wheels
                                    automatically
                              Down – L/G extends, Interlock mechanism prevents from accidentally retraction
                                      while A/C on Gnd.(locks the lever down by shock absorber on the main
                                      L/Gs compressed or nose wheel steering not centered. L/G hydraulic
                                      system remains pressurized as long as the L/G extended.




             DOWN


    Gravity gear extension

                                 When normal extension system fails, gear can be extend by
          GRAVITY                                         - Pull the handle and rotate 3 turns clock wise

           GEAR
           EXTN
           GEAR
            PULL
              &
            EXTN
            TURN




•   Rotation of the handle closes Cut –out valve and connect all hydraulic lines to return line then releases
    door and L/G down

                              Red unlock Lt. ON – Gear not locked in selected position
              UNLK            Green triangle Lt. ON – Gear locked down

                              ECAM indication

•   Doors stays open L/G lock down by spring force, Nose L/G lock down by aerodynamic force
•   L/G lever must be set down to Sw. OFF UNLK Lts.(L/G system depressurized and nose gear doors stay
    open, nose wheel steering lost)



              UNLK
                              Red unlock Lt. OFF – Gear locked in selected position
                              Green triangle Lt. ON – Gear locked down
                                                      99
Sequence
Gears and doors are uplocked
• Safety valve open + Residual pressure supplied to door close line down stream of safety valve
• 0<Turn<1.5
   • Cut out and vent valves open then connects hydraulic return lines to de pressurize the system
• 1.6<Turn<1.8
   • Door up locks released
• 1.9<Turn<3
   • Finally L/G up locks released and L/g extends by gravity

Gear and Doors extension and retraction cycle
• Electrically controlled by LGCIU 1 & 2
• During each gear up selection LGCIU switch over between them automatically or one LGCIU failure
• Gear and door up and down positions are detected by duplicate detectors
• Locks the L/G lever in down position if all shock absorbers not extended for safety
• Nose wheel automatically centered a cam when shock absorbers extended
• Safety valve
   • Cuts L/G hydraulic supply in normal L/G extension / retraction
• Cut out valve
   • Cuts L/G hydraulic supply in free fall extension
• LGCIU 1 provides indication to the Indicator panel, LGCIU 1 & 2 both provides ECAM indication

Normal retraction sequence
L/G down and locked A/C in flight
• L/G lever select up (LGCIU changes over to other)
• Door open
                             Red unlock Lt. ON (Gear not locked in selected position)
             UNLK
                             Green triangle Lt. ON (Gear locked down)



•   After doors fully open Gears retracted

              UNLK           Red unlock Lt. OFF- Gears locked at selected position (now up)
                             Green triangle Lt. OFF– Gears not locked down


•   All the L/G locked up, Doors closes
    • ECAM indication shows doors locked up
•   Hydraulic supply to L/G circuit automatically cut off by safety valve when speed > 260 kts (ADR 1 or 3)

Normal Extension
All gears retracted and up locked, all doors closed and up locked, safety valve not open
• Select L/G lever down
     • Safety valve open LGCIU in command controls retraction sequence
                              Red unlock Lt. ON – Gear not locked in selected position
             UNLK             Green triangle Lt. OFF – Gears not locked down



•   L/G Doors open – ECAM indication
•   When all hydraulically operated door open L/G extends

            UNLK             Red unlock Lt. OFF – Gear locked in selected position
                             Green triangle Lt. ON – Gear locked down




                                                      100
•     When all L/G locked down, Doors closed

              UNLK             Red unlock Lt. OFF – Gear locked in selected position
                               Green triangle Lt. ON – Gear locked down

                             ECAM indication Doors closed + L/G down and locked
Landing gear system indications

                                       L/G System indicating Panel      ECAM Indication (LGCIU 1 & 2)
                                                (LGCIU 1)


                UNLK                                UNLK




                                                    UNLK
             Locked Down



One LGCIU detects L/G in transit
Other LGCIU detects L/G down
             lock
One LGCIU detects L/G up lock
   Other detects down lock
      Both L/G in transit


    One LGCIU detects L/G up lock
       Other detects in transit

        Both detect L/G up lock                  No symbol                             No symbol
    Up lock engaged while gear lock                                                           UP LOCK
                 down

Disagreement between lever and
             L/G                                                                       L/G CTL

•     Nose L/G flight mode information comes only after gear extend and wheels are centered
•     Door by pass valve operates only on ground manual door opening purpose

Safety valve
• ON/OFF valve,
• Opens
    • ADIRU 1 & 3 speed < 260 kts OR
    • Main landing gear compressed OR
    • Ground power connected
Cut Out valve
    • Operates with manual gear extension handle (mechanical valve)
L/G selector valve
• Consist of
    • L/G selector valve
    • L/G door selector valve
• Each valve has a solenoid and each solenoid got two coils, one for each L/G control sub system



                                                      101
Proximity detectors

                       Landing Gear (System 1 & 2)                      Doors (System 1 & 2)
                      Nose         L/H          R/H              Nose            L/H            R/H
Up lock                2             2            2               2               2              2
Down Lock              2             2            2               4               2              2
Air/Gnd                2             2            2                -               -             -


Brake system
• Four modes of operation
   • Normal braking
   • Alternate braking with anti skid
   • Alternate braking without anti skid
   • Parking brake

Brakes
• Carbon multi disc brakes installed in main gear wheels
• During take-off nose wheels are automatically centered by two centering cams

Brake Fan
• Used in the main wheels

       BRK FAN

        HOT
                             Press IN – Fans start if L/H main L/G down and locked
         ON
                             HOT Lt. ON – When brake OVHT detected


Normal Braking
• System available when
   • Green Hydraulic pressure is present
   • A/SKID & N/W STRG switch is ON
   • Parking brake not ON
• Anti skid and auto brake systems available
• System controls through BSCU and no brake pressure indication in the flight deck
• Electrical control
   • Via pedals Manual braking –
       • Peddle order sent via electrical signal from Transmitter to BSCU, then opens selector valve to
           provide pressure to normal servo valves via Automatic selector valve
       • Depending manual braking order and Anti-skid order BSCU regulates Normal servo valve
   • Automatically
       • In flight when L/G lever set to UP
           • In order to stop wheel rotation before enter to L/G bay applies brakes from lift off until L/H
               down lock release or 3 sec. after L/G lever select up
           • When L/G lever select up BSCU open selector valve and energize normal servo valve
           • Nose wheels mechanically brakes at the end of the travel
       • On Gnd. by Auto brakes system
           • Purpose
               • To reduce the braking distance in case of aborted T/O
               • To establish and maintain a selected deceleration rate during landing
           • Braking starts when Gnd. spoilers deployment orders present from SEC. BSCU opens
               Selector valve and allow Hydraulic pressure to supply to brakes through Automatic selector
               and Normal servo valves
           • Depending upon deceleration signal and Anti-skid regulation BSCU regulates Normal servo
               valve to obtain correct pressure on brakes



                                                     102
            •    System arms when crew presses LO, MED or MAX P/B if
                 • Green pressure is available
                 • Anti – skid system has electric power
                 • No failure in the braking system
                 • At least one ADIRU is functioning
            •    System activates
                 • When Gnd. spoiler extend
                 • At least two SECs must be operative

          LO (MED, MAX)
                             In flight – Select before landing LO or MED
                DECEL        On Gnd. before T/O, HI select for aborted T/O
                             ON Lt. – System Armed
                 ON
                             DECEL LT. – Selected deceleration achieved (actual deceleration is 80% of the
                                             selected rate)

•   MAX mode
    • Normally selected to T/O
    • Maximum brake pressure applies as soon as the system generate ground spoiler order
•   MED mode
    • Normally selected during landing
    • Applies progressive pressure 2 sec after ground spoiler deployment
•   LO mode
    • Normally selected during landing
    • Applies progressive pressure 4 sec after ground spoiler deployment

Alternate brake with anti-skid
• System operates when
    • Yellow hydraulic system pressure available
    • A/SKID & N/W STRG switch is ON
    • Parking brake not ON
• This mode automatically operates when Green pressure loss or failure in normal brake system during
    operation or BSCU Bite test
• Uses yellow hydraulic system backed by accumulator
• Automatic selector selects green to yellow pressure automatically
• Electrical pedal orders convert to hydraulic pressure by Auxiliary low-pressure control system to Dual valve
    and regulate braking pressure.
• BSCU ensure anti-skid regulation through Alternate servo valves
• Triple indicator in the center instrument panel indicates pressure delivered to the left and right brakes as
    well as accumulator pressure
• Auto brake inoperative

Alternate brake without anti-skid
• Deference between with anti-skid is no regulation from alternate servo valve, valve keeps fully open
• Anti skid regulation can be disconnected
    • Electrically A/Skid & N/W Steering Sw. set to OFF or power supply failure
    • Hydraulically if Yellow breaks pressure accumulator only supplies the brakes
• Brake pressure has to be limited by peddles (acting on the dual valves)
• With accumulator pressure only maximum of 7 full brakes can be performed
• Auto brake inoperative




                                                     103
Parking Brake
When handle pull and turn yellow pressure applied to the brakes

    PARKING BRK
    PULL & TURN     OFF

                          ON

              PARK BRK


•     Supplied by Yellow hydraulic pressure or Accumulator pressure
•     When activated all other brake modes and anti skid system inoperative
•     Accumulator pressure can maintain up to 12 hrs.
•     Parking brake lever set to ON
      • BSCU electrically energize Parking brake control valve and BSCU deactivates other brake systems
      • Yellow pressure reaches normally open Alternate servo valves through Dual SOV
      • Pressure delivered to L/H and R/H brakes will be indicated on Yellow pressure indicator
      • When Parking brake OFF control valve energize in opposite way and other brakes restore
      • Yellow accumulator can be pressurized by Yellow electrical pump
      • Alternate servo valves opens to allow to apply full brakes

Anti-skid system
• When wheel is on the verge of locking, system sends brake release orders to the normal and alternate
    servo valves
• Anti-skid deactivates when ground speed < 20 Kts
• System can be On or OFF by anti – skid & nose wheel steering switch
• Reference speed for the system received by ADIRUs or if all ADIRUs fail reference speed equals to grater
    of either main L/G wheel speed and deceleration limited to 1.7 meters/sec

Break pressure indicator




•     Indicates pressure in the yellow brake accumulators
•     Indicates yellow pressure delivered to left and right brakes as measured up stream of the alternate servo
      valve

Nose wheel steering
• Electrically controlled by BSCU and hydraulically operated (Green)
• Range +/- 74° bellow 22 kts if orders from hand wheels and +/- 6° bellow 40 Kts if orders from pedals
• Receives hydraulic pressure if
   • A/SKID & N/W STRG switch is ON and
   • Towing control lever in normal position and
   • At least one engine running and
   • A/c on Gnd.
   • Nose L/G door closed
• Push button on the wheel can prevent rudder pedal orders to go to BSCU




                                                       104
Anti skid & nose wheel steering switch

    A/ SKID &
    N/W STRG

            ON               ON – If green pressure available
                                    - Anti skid available
                                    - N/W steering available
            OFF                    If Green pressure lost
                                    - Yellow hydraulic pressure takes over automatically to power breaks
                                    - Anti skid remains available
                                    - N/W steering lost

                                OFF – DC supply of the braking and steering control unit (BSCU) isolated
                                      - Yellow system powers the breaks
                                      - Anti skid deactivated
                                      - N/W steering lost
                                      - Deferential breaks remain available through pedals
•   Switch selection will activate or deactivate nose wheel steering and anti skid

BSCU
• Receives orders from
   • Captain’s and FO’s steering hand wheels (orders added algebraically)
   • Rudder pedals
   • Autopilot
• BSCU transform these orders into nose wheel steering angle
                                                                   st
• BSCU consist of system 1 & 2, at each energization system power 1 will take control




                                                     105
                                     LIGHTS (CHAPTER – 33)
Cabin lights
• Controlled by FAP light control panel, part of CIDS
• MAIN ON P/B pressed
   • Cabin and entry area Lts. Come to full brightness
   • WDO, CLG, Entry BRT and cabin BRT integral Lts. illuminated
• MAIN OFF P/B pressed all above-mentioned Lts. and Lav. And ATT Lts. will switch OFF
• Entry area lighting
   • Controls Fwd and At entrance Lts.
   • When engines running flight deck door opens Fwd left entry area Lts. automatically goes to Dim 2
         position (10% brightness)
   • If MAIN OFF selected before, entry area can directly Sw. ON by pressing BRT.DIM 1 & 2 P/B Sws.
• Lavatory P/B
   • At power up or Main P/B pressed lavatory. Lts does not light
   • Lav Lt. P/B pressed lavatory lights comes ON for 50%, if door close lights goes to 100% brightness
• Attendant work Lights
   • ATTN P/B pressed individual attendant Lts. can be control by its own Sw.
• Reading lights
   • Controlled by READ P/B select On and associated PSU P/B
• Cabin Lts., Reading Lts., Entry Lts., Attendant work Lts are Controlled by CIDS directors through DEU”A”,
   brightness will be controlled by DEUs
• PTP can test Reading Lts., Attendant work Lts., Decoration Lts., reading Lts. power units (drives Qty 3
   reading Lts.)

Service compartment light system
• Avionics compartment Lts. automatically Sw. ON when access door open provided flight deck “AVIONICS
   COMP LT” Sw. select to auto, If Sw. select to ON all dome Lts. will illuminates

    AVIONICS
    COMPT LT
               A       Auto - Avionics compartment lights automatically controls by door Sw.
      ON       U       ON – Avionics compartment lights ON
               T
               O


External Lights
• Taxi and Take off Lts. located on the NLG in a fixed position

      NOSE
                        T.O – Taxi and T.O Lts. ON
               T.O
                        Taxi – Taxi Lt. ON
               TAXI
                        OFF – All Lts. OFF
               OFF
                       Taxi and T.O Lts. automatically go OFF when the nose L/G retracted

•   Runway turn OFF lights
    • Located in the NLG
    • Sw. select ON – Both lts. illuminates
•   Wing and Engine scan Lts
    • Located either side of the fueslarge
•   Navigation Lts.
    • Red Lt. located in the L/H side wing tip, consist of two Lts. illuminates one at a time
    • Green Lt. – Located I the R/H side wing tip, consist of two Lts. illuminates one at a time
    • White Lt. – Located on the APU tail cone, consist of two Lts. illuminates one at a time
    • All Lts. controlled by 3 position NAV Lt. Sw.



                                                      106
Landing Lights.


       LAND
                         ON – Landing Lts. ON
              ON
                         Retract – Lt. OFF and stored
              OFF
                         OFF – Lt. OFF but not retracted
              RETRACT

•    RED anti-coalition beacon Lts
     • One on the top and the other at the belly of the A/C

•    Strobe Lts
     • Located at the each wing tip
     STROBE
                   ON           ON – Lt. illuminates
               A                OFF – Lt. OFF
               U
               T                Auto – Lt. automatically lights when L/G shock absorbers extended
               O
                   OFF

•    Logo Lts.
     • Located on the THS
     • Controlled by Nav & Logo Sw.


Emergency Lights.
• Provide illumination of
   • Cabin and exit areas
   • Exit location and exit marking signs at each passenger / crew doors and emergency exit doors
      • Controlled by No smoking Sw. in the flight deck
   • Floor proximity emergency escape path marking system (FPEEPMS)
   • Lavatory auxiliary lights
      • Powered by 28 VDC essential bus only
   • Emergency escape hatch handles
      • Controlled by No smoking Sw. in the flight deck
   • Escape routes over the wing
   • Door escape slides
      • Lts. illuminated when slides armed and doors open

System control
• From flight deck

    EMER EXIT LT
                   ON           ON – OVHD emergency Lts. EXIT Lt. and proximity marking illuminates

                   ARM          OFF – Emergency Lts. OFF, Exit and emer. escape handle Lts ON provided
                                      No smoking Lt. Sw. set to ON or AUTO with L/G extended
                                ARM – Proximity emergency escape path marking system comes ON when
                   OFF                - normal A/C power or DC ESS SHED bus is lost
                                       Over head emergency Lts. comes ON if
                                       - Normal A/C power lost
                                       - DC ESS SHED bus fails
                                       - AC BUS 1 fails
                                      Exit signs come ON
                                       - Normal A/C power lost
                                       - DC ESS SHED bus fails
                                                        107
      OFF
                               OFF Lt. ON – System Sw. selects OFF from the flight deck


•   From cabin (Located on the FAP)

                        Sw. pressed ON – Emergency lights illuminated as flight deck EMER EXIT LT
      LIGHT                              Sw set to ON
      EMER




    NO SMOKING
                  ON           ON / OFF – Activation and deactivation of No smoking, seat row number
              A                            and Exit signs and emergency escape handle Lts. ON
              U                          - Low chime activates when Sw. ON/OFF
              T                Auto – L/G down and locked signs Sw. ON + Emergency Lts. and
              O                           emergency escape handle Lts. ON
                  OFF

•  Associated emergency Lts. will be powered by
   • 28 VDC Essential bus via the Emergency power supply units (EPSU)s
   • EPSU integrated batteries when 28 VDC essential bus is lost
• EPSU
   • Qty 4 located in the cabin, two in the ceiling (above L 1 and L 2 doors) and two between emergency
        doors (one on each side)
   • When batteries power the system, can supply for minimum 12 min.
Operation
• 28 VDC Essential bus supply the operation power and 115 VAC supply the sensing power
• EPSU monitors the correct voltage of the AC and DC bus bars
• EPSU converts 28VDC into 6VDC to illuminates emergency Lts. and charge internal 6VDC batteries from
   essential bus bar
• If 28VDC essential bus bar voltage fails below 16VDC, EPSU internal batteries power the system at least
   12 min., batteries will not charge
• In the event of cabin depressurization exit marking signs and exit location signs automatically comes ON
• Independently Sw. position integral Lt. off the respective crew doors comes ON when PAX crew doors
   open with escape slides armed

Test
• EPSU test circuits checks
   • Condition of the battery units, logic units and related loads
• Test can be performed
   • First from the PTP, if BAT OK and SYS OK lights do not come ON to be checked from individual
     EPSU P/Bs
   • Battery capacity test
     • Emergency Lt. Sw. to be set to armed position
     • Select PTP system test and Emer light battery message
     • Enter pass code to get access then ENTER
     • Press BAT membrane SW. on the PTP panel face to activate test, Green integral Lt. comes ON
     • Test will take approximately 2 hrs.
     • If test pass BAT OK light comes ON next to BAT tast Sw.
     • Any failure on the system, failure message will appear on the PTP and BAT OK light will not come
          ON. Then all EPSU individual test to be carried out




                                                    108
•   Emergency light system test
    • Indicates condition of the internal loads, monitoring circuits and related external loads of the
       EPSUs
    • Press SYS membrane SW. for 1 sec. on the PTP panel face to activate test
    • If PTP not involved to any other function system test report will be shown on the display and if
       failed failure message will be written on the CIDS director GND SCAN memory.
    • If test pass SYS OK light comes On and light go off after few seconds




                                                 109
                         NAVIGATION SYSTEMS (CHAPTER – 34)
Aircraft navigation systems provides to the crew the data required to flight for with in most appropriate safety
requirement
These data divided in to 4 groups
• Airdata / Inertial reference system
• Landing and taxi aids
• Independent position determining
• Dependent position determining

Radio Navigation control
Automatic tuning
• FMGC controls tuning of VOR, DME, ILS and ADF through RMP (RMP is transparent, system operates
    even RMPs Sw. OFF)
• In normal operation FMGC 1 controls each system receivers 1 and FMGC 2 controls receivers 2
• Abnormal operation, failure of FMGC 1or 2, remaining FMGC controls all receivers

USING MCDU
• MCDU display on RAD/NAV page information coming from FMGC are indicated in small fonts
• Manually entered data indicated in big fonts
• Manual tuning
   • Permits to crew to select through MCDU required frequencies to display on EFIS
   • To returned to auto tuning mode the manual tuning has to be cleared
      (Write “CLR” on scratch pad by pressing CLR P/B then press line key next to the line to be cleared)

Back up tuning
• RMPs provides back up to radio navigation tuning, if both FMGC failed or Emergency generator powered
• ILS course and frequency are the only data exchanged. Selected values on RMP 1 or RMP 2 are same for
    ILS 1 & 2
Tuning using RMP
• Select NAV Sw. (Green Lt. ON)
• Select required P/B to be tuned (VOR,ILS …)
• Tune required frequency on the STBY/CRS window and press transfer Sw.
• Select required course on same window
• Press transfer key to prepare window for another setting


RMP
• STBY operation is used for navigation in case of dual FMGC failure provided NAV P/B pressed IN

                ACTIVE                                         STBY/ CRS




      VHF1        VHF2        VHF3


       HF 1                   HF 2         AM


                                     STBY NAV                                 ON
       NAV        VOR          ILS         MLS        ADF         BFO

                                                                              OFF


•   ON /OFF Sw. – Controls RMP power supply
•   NAV Sw pressed - Only performed after dual FMGC failed, use as a back up (RAD/NAV selection)
                   - If no any other STBY NAV Sw. pressed, displays shows communication frequencies
                   - On MCDU RAD/NAV page inhibited

                                                       110
•   SEL Lt. – Illuminates when other RMU select own side selection (VHF 1 selected by RMP 1 or 3)
•   VOR, ILS, ADF press (one at a time) – Changes display to last RMP memorized values (Freq. Course or
                                               Runway heading)
                                             - Any time communication freq. Still selectable by pressing
                                               corresponding key
• BFO – Can be set by pressing the key to listen Morse code of station identification
• STBY / CRS window – If course displayed, associated frequency will be displayed in the active
                             window
                           - If cause displayed in STBY/CRS window, by pressing transfer key active
                              frequency will display in both windows (to provide next frequency selection)
• Active window – Shows the frequency in the system identified by the Green LED in selected key
MCDU
• Allows to display the radio navigation frequencies (automatically or manually) on specific page called
   RAD / NAV
• Align IRS from page INIT via FMGC
• Initiates test for all navigation systems and T/S via CFDS
ACP
• Enable to control all radio reception signals
• DME identification signal can be selected by using knob of collocated VOR or ILS
Standby Instruments
• Standby compass
    • Located in windshield center post, in normal configuration stowed and correction card glued to side of
        the compass assembly
 • Standby Horizon
     • Flag in view
        • Electrical failure
        • Gyro speed drops below 18000 rpm
     • Fast resetting can be done by pulling caging knob
• Standby Altimeter
    • Qty 4 bug to set reference altitude setting
    • Internal vibrator only operative in flight
    • Baro correction displayed in hecto pascals
• Standby Airspeed indicator
    • Qty. 4 manually adjusted bugs to set reference speed
• DDRMI
    • Combine VOR/DME RMI
    • L/H display – DME 1
    • R/H display – DME 2
    • Single pointer – VOR 1 bearing
    • Double pointer – VOR 2 bearing
    • DME display goes to blank if failure detected and dashes with NCD(out of range station)
    • Heading failure will be indicated by Red HDG flag (comes from ADIRU 1or 3 if ADIRU 1 fails)
    • VOR failure will be indicated by Red VOR flag and corresponding pointer goes to 3 O’clock position
    • VOR NCD will be indicated by corresponding pointer goes to 3 O’clock position but no flag
    • Receiving information from ADIRU 1 & 3

Air   data Reference and Inertial Reference Systems (ADIRS)
•     Consist of Qty. 3 ADIRUs and own set of probes and sensors + common CDU
•     Airdata and Inertial reference both located in one unit called ADIRU
•     Air date reference system
      • Each ADR receives other 2 ADR inputs to cross check
      • Mainly computes Speed and attitude information from air parameters
      • AOA sensors 1,2 & 3 connected to ADR 1,2 & 3
      • TAT 1 connected to ADR 1 & 3 and TAT 2 connected to ADR 2, each sensor consist of two sensing
                                  nd
           elements. On TAT 2, 2 sensor does not used
      • Provides barometric altitude to ATC for mode “S”
      • Data for FAC for various characteristic speeds
      • Data for WXR for antenna stabilization

                                                     111
•     Inertial reference system
      • Mainly computes Heading, Attitude and Position from Laser gyros and Accelerometers
      • Normally each IR receives 3 ADR inputs, but own ADR input used to IR data computations
      • Provides true heading when
           • Above 82° north
           • Above 73° north between 90° and 120° west (magnetic polar heading)
           • Above 60° south
•     ADIRU switching control
      • Each IR unit consist of two discrete inputs called Auto and Manual
      • On IR 1 and 2 Auto inputs are permanently grounded, On IR 3 both inputs connected to “ATT HDG”
           and “AIR DATA” transfer Sws. for selection.
      • IRs selects inputs from other ADRs as per ground provided on auto or manual inputs as per switching
           selection

                                                                              ADR bus selected by IR
                   Auto                             Manual                       according to its pin
                                                                                    programming
                 Ground                         Ground or Open            First from int ernal bus,
                                                                          then Bus “A”(if int. bus fails)
                                                                          then Bus “B” (if bus “A” fails)
                   Open                              Open                               Bus “A”
                   Open                             Ground                              Bus “B”

•     Air data module (ADM)
      • Total Qty 8
          • Captain’s side
              • Qty 1 for Pitot and 2 for Static
          • FO’S side
              • Qty 1 for Pitot and 2 for Static
          • STBY
              • Qty 1 each for Pitot and Static
      • Receives one pressure and several discrete signals
      • Discrete inputs determines ADM location and type of air data to provide to the ADR
      • Out put is digital ARINC bus

ADIRU display unit
• Can be used as a back up for ADIRU alignment
• Checks ADR operation

        ADR
                              Push button press – OFF LT. ON
       FAULT
                                                 - Related ADR out put buses will be disconnected
                              Fault Lt. ON – ADR failure
        OFF


         NAV                  NAV – Normal mode of operation provided full inertial data in the system
OFF                ATT        ATT – System still energized but IR dow n graded
                                  - Magnetic HDG to be entered keyboard and update frequently
                                  - Back up mode of operation if NAV mode lose provides only attitude
                                    and Heading information

         IR




                                                     112
       IR                     Fault Lt. ON – IR fault
     FAULT                              Steady Lt. – Respective IR lost
                                        Flashing – Attitude and heading information can be recovered by
     ALIGN                                            selecting to ATT
                              Align Lt. ON – During alignment phase
                                             - Lt. flashing
                                                     - Alignment error
                                                     - P. Pos not entered with in 10 min of NAV selection
                                                     - Difference in 1° P.Pos at last shut down and entered
                                                       position
      ON BAT                  Lt. ON – when 1 or more IRU operating on batteries
                                      - Comes On for 5 sec during power up test
                                      - Comes ON for few second at the beginning of the alignment, not
                                        for a fast realignment
Data selector
   • Test – Tests Lt. in the panel
   • TK/GS – Displays true track and ground speed
   • PPOS – Present latitude and longitude displayed
   • WIND – True wind direction and wind speed displayed
   • HDG. – True heading and TTN – time to Nav. Gives remaining time to complete alignment
   • STS – System and maintenance messages displayed (maintenance and action codes)


•   DMC 1 receives data from ADIRU 1 & 3
•   DMC 2 receives data from ADIRU 2 & 3
•   DMC 3 receives data from all 3 ADIRUs
•   ADIRU 1 for Capt’s instruments and ADIRU 2 for FO’s and ADIRU 3 for STBY
•   ADIRU 2 send TAT and SAT to ECAM system page, If ADR 2 fails ADR 3 provides as a backup after
    manual selection

Manual Switching
• Mainly for recover displays
Automatic Switching
• If one ADR 1 or 2 fails ADR 3 automatically transfer to ADR 1 or 2 for internal computations only. Not for
    display purpose
Control panel operation
• When select NAV Sw. wait until “ON BAT” Lt. disappear after each selection
• If ADIRU comes from shop need to enter P. Position two times as ADIRU compares last P. Position and
    last position
AUIRU power supply

                              Normal Bus                                Emergency Bus
                         AC                DC             AC ESS          DC ESS                   HOT

    ADIRU 1                                                  a                                      a
                                                        115 VAC + 26                              28 VDC
                                                            VAC
                                                                                                   a
    ADIRU 2               a                                                                   (Only for 5 min
                   AC bus 2 - 115 VAC                                                         during emergency
                       & 26 VAC                                                                configuration )
                                                                                                    a
                                                                                          •     Back supply
                                                                                                when ATT/HDG
                                                                                                Sw. at Capt’s
                                                                                                position
    ADIRU 3               a                                                               •     Back supply
                   AC bus 1 - 115 VAC                                                           only for 5 min
                       & 26 VAC                                                                 ATT/HDG Sw.
                                                                                                at normal
                                                                                                position

                                                       113
ADIRU indications
• Local warnings on PFD and ND will be created by DMCs (eg. Flags…..)
• ECAM ADIRU warnings and cautions monitored by FWC
PFD indication
Attitude
• Pitch
     • Shows pitch angle on a scale
     • Pitch angle more than 25° or -13°, guidance symbol and FMA will removed
• Roll
     • Comprises roll graduations 0° to 67°, roll angle > 45° guidance symbol and FMA will removed
• Roll index
     • Moves with roll scale and provides roll angle
• Flight path vector
     • Indicates actual A/C inertial trajectory
     • Used as a reference when FD is engaged in Track / flight path (TRK/FPA) angle mode
     • FPV – Created by IRs and FPD – created by FMGCs
• Discrepancy
     • Discrepancy detected between captain’s and FO’s Amber “CHEK ATT” will be displayed on both ATT
        displays (Threshold - 5°)
     • Detection compared by 2 IRs in use with in the FWC
• Failure
     • Will be displayed by Red “ATT” flag
     • Flag flashes then steady
     • Detection compared by 2 IRs in use

Heading
• Magnetic heading will be displayed on lower part of PFD (Scale 5° between graduations)and white line on
    horizon (Scale 10° between graduations)
• Lower scale yellow line shows fixed heading reference
• Green diamond shape symbol indicated actual track
• TRU will indicates when true heading indicates instead of magnetic heading (Used Lat. > 73° north and
    60° south)
Discrepancy
    • Discrepancy detected between captain’s and FO’s Amber “CHEK HDG” will be displayed on both
        HDG displays (Threshold - 5°)
    • Detection compared by 2 IRs in use with in the FWC
• Failure
    • Will be displayed by Red “HDG” flag and all graduations will be diapered on the scales
    • Flag flashes then steady
    • Detection by associated ADIRU

Airspeed
• Displayed on L/H side of the PFD (Computed Air speed)
• Display starts from 30 Kts, bellow 30 Kts set to NCD, Range 30 to 520 Kts
• Yellow fixed reference line shows actual airspeed on the scale
• Mach number displayed speed > 0.5 M and no ILS selection, disappeared at o.45 M
Failures
• Will be replaced by Red “SPD” flag, if Mach number failure number will be replaced by RED “MACH” flag

Vertical speed
• Displayed on the R/H side of the PFD, graduation Feet per min.
• Green pointer shows VS in analogue form
• Above threshold numerical valve in hundred of feet comes in to view
   • Displayed
        • V/S > 200 Ft/MN or V/S < -200 Ft/MN
• Excessive speed causes both indications amber
• Inertial V/S not avail Baro V/S will indicate
   • Amber box surrounds the numerical value       7

                                                   114
Failures
• Red “V/S” flag appears if total indication failure

Altitude
• Displayed on the R/H side of the PFD
• A/C altitude indicated on window counter hundred of feet and drum tens and units
• Baro reference STD,QNH or QFE according to the selection on the panel
     • Knob
        • Pull – STD selection
        • Push once – QNH
        • Puss twice - QFE
Discrepancies
     • Discrepancy detected between captain’s and FO’s Amber “CHEK ALT” will be displayed on both ALT
        displays (Threshold - 250 ft if baro selection QNH or QFE, 500 ft if STD selected)
     • Detection compared by 2 IRs in use with in the FWC
• Failure
     • Will be displayed by Red “ALT” flag
     • Flag flashes then steady
     • Detection by associated ADIRU

N/D indications
ROSE Mode
• Displayed 360° around fixed A/C symbol
• Speed indication shows on the left upper corner
    • GS – Ground Speed – Computed by IR
    • TAS – True Air Speed, computed by ADR, both goes to dashes if NCD,
              - Displayed only if speed > 100 Kts
    • Wind shows in Green L/H upper corner
        • Origin in degrees with respect to the true north
        • Wind force in Kts displayed if speed > 2 Kts
        • Arrow shows direction with respect to the A/C heading, displayed if speed > 2 Kts
        • Shows dashes if NCD
Heading
• Fixed lubber line with rotating compass rose
• If indication is True heading TRU shows
Discrepancies
    • Discrepancy detected between captain’s and FO’s Amber “CHEK HDG” will be displayed (Threshold
        - 5°)
    • Detection compared by 2 IRs in use with in the FWC
• Failure
    • Will be displayed by Red “HDG” flag
    • Flag flashes then steady
    • Detection compared by 2 IRs

ARC Mode ( Rose Nav mode indication same as Arc mode except it displays 360° full range )
• Display 90° sector ahead of the A/C
• Information comes from FMGC
• WXR indication possible
• Speed indication shows on the left upper corner
   • GS – Ground Speed – Computed by IR
   • TAS – True Air Speed, computed by ADR, both goes to dashes if NCD,
            - Displayed only if speed > 100 Kts
   • Wind shows in Green L/H upper corner
      • Origin in degrees with respect to the true north
      • Wind force in Kts displayed if speed > 2 Kts
      • Arrow shows direction with respect to the A/C heading, displayed if speed > 2 Kts
   • Shows dashes if NCD


                                                       115
Heading
• Fixed lubber line with 90° arc
• If indication is True heading TRU shows
Discrepancies
    • Discrepancy detected between captain’s and FO’s Amber “CHEK HDG” will be displayed
        (Threshold - 5°)
    • Detection compared by 2 IRs in use with in the FWC
• Failure
    • Will be displayed by Red “HDG” flag
    • Flag flashes then steady
    • Detection compared by 2 IRs

PLAN Mode
• Information comes from FMGC
• Displayed active and other way points as per the flight plan after action on the MCDU
• WXR display not possible
• Reference to the True heading
• Speed indication shows on the left upper corner
   • GS – Ground Speed – Computed by IR
   • TAS – True Air Speed, computed by ADR, both goes to dashes if NCD,
              - Displayed only if speed > 100 Kts
   • Wind shows in Green L/H upper corner
       • Origin in degrees with respect to the true north
       • Wind force in Kts displayed if speed > 2 Kts
       • Arrow shows direction with respect to the A/C heading, displayed if speed > 2 Kts
   • Shows dashes if NCD
Warning Messages
• Although ADIRU ECAM warning messages are Amber, Directly comes from FWC
• ADR 3 or IR 3 failed during active fault Lt. will be shown, but if failure happens during emergency
   configuration ADR 3 or IR 3 fault warning will be inhibited
• Over speed ( M/W + CRC)
   • VMO/MMO – Clean configuration, speed > VMO + 4Kts / MMO + 0.06
   • VLE – Speed > VLE + 4Kts with L/G not up locked or L/G not closed
   • VFE – Speed > VFE + 4Kts with slats and / or Flaps extended
• Stall (M/W + CRICKET+ synthetic voice)
   • AOA test only on Gnd., During test all aural warnings will be available

Landing and Taxing aids
• Head up displays
    • Piloting aids system for rollout, take off and landing
ILS
    • Used to obtain optimum A/C position during approach and landing
    • Allow A/C to follow the optimum descend
    • LOC and G/S beams created by Gnd. station at known frequencies
    • Components are Qty 2
         • Antennas – Qty. 1 LOC and G/S common for both receivers
         • Receivers – Can be tested by P/B on the face and LED for indications
    • System connected to
         • PFD and ND for display
         • EFIS for display control
         • FMGC for auto tuning
         • MCDU for manual tuning
         • RMP for back up tuning
         • ACP for ILS audio signal
Indicating
• ILS display indicated in Magenta
• ILS 1 information will displayed on PFD 1 and ND 2 (For monitoring and comparing)

                                                     116
• ILS 2 information will displayed on PFD 2 and ND 1 (For monitoring and comparing)
On PFDs
• As soon as EFIS PFD control panel ILS P/B pressed IN
   • Displays a the bottom L/H corner
       • Station ident –
           • LOC and G/S valid
           • ILS ident valid
       • Frequency valid
           • LOC and G/S valid
       • DME distance
           • When ILS/DME available
• ILS indication flashes when ILS display not selected in approach mode
• If excessive deviation, ILS scale and vertical/lateral index will flash
• Flags
   • Red “ILS” flag will indicated if both G/S and LOC both signals failed at the L/H bottom corner +
       Red “LOC” & “G/S” flags

On NDs
• As soon as the EFIS control panel mode Sw. selected to ILS
   • All the ILS indications displayed on Rose ILS mode
   • If ILS P/B selected and Mode Sw. selects NAV or ARC on EFIS control panel, ILS course pointer will
       be indicated on NAV and ARC modes
   • On Rose ILS mode
       • Top R/H corner
           • Selected ILS
           • ILS frequency
           • ILS course
           • Station identification
       • If excessive deviation, ILS scale and vertical/lateral index will flash or
       • Course pointer indicated when ILS course selected by
           • FMGC (automatically or manually)
           • RMP (backup)
       • LOC deviation bar not shown if NCD
       • Flags
           • Red “ILS” flag will indicated if both G/S and LOC both signals failed
           • If ILS failure course pointer be comes Red + points to 12 O’clock and lateral bar will remove

Auto tuning
 • FMGS automatically tunes own side ILS receiver through own side RMP (RMP transparent)
 • If one FMGC failed discrete switching signal switches tuning port to connect other FMGC directly to ILS
     receiver bypassing RMP
Manual tuning
• MCDUs can tune own side ILS receivers through own side FMGCs
• To return to auto tune mode manual mode to be cleared
Backup tuning
• If both FMGCs failed backup tuning can be performed by RMPs
• Either RMP tunes both ILS if NAV mode selected on RMP 1 and 2
• RMP 3 not connected to the navaids tuning
• During emergency electrical configuration only RMP 1 is supplied
LGCIU
• sends FLT/GND information to count flight legs
ILS data sends to
• FMGCs to A.C guidance during T/O, Approach and landings
• Sends to FWC for ECAM warnings
• ILS 1 send to GPWS for mode 5 computation (descend bellow G/S)
• Discrete signal sends to FMGCs to inhibit frequency changes in ILS receiver when land mode < 700 ft
• CFDIU to T/S and testing only on Gnd.


                                                    117
Multi Mode Receiver System
• Combination of ILS and GPS
• Components used
   • Qty. 2 ILS antennas
   • Qty. 2 GPS antennas
   • Qty 2 MMR units
• System connected to
   • PFD and ND for display
   • EFIS for display control
   • FMGC for ILS auto tuning and GPS position
   • MCDU for ILS manual tuning
   • RMPs for ILS backup tuning
   • ACP for ILS audio signal
   • ADIRU for GPIR data
• GPS indicating
   • Data indicating on MCDU (GPS monitor page)
       • GPS position leg
       • True track
       • GPS altitude
       • Figure of merit
       • Ground speed
       • Number of satellite tracks
       • Mode
   • NDs
       • Availability of GPS primary navigation function

Auto tuning
 • FMGS automatically tunes own side MMR receiver through own side RMP
 • If FMGC failed discrete switching signal switch tuning port to connect other FMGC directly bypassing
    RMP
Manual tuning
• MCDUs can tune own side MMR receivers through own side FMGCs

Backup tuning
• If both FMGCs failed backup tuning can be performed by RMPs
• Either RMP tunes both MMR if NAV mode selected on RMP 1 and 2
• RMP 3 not connected to the navaids tuning
• During emergency electrical configuration only RMP 1 is supplied

Antennas
• G/S and LOC antennas common to both receivers

GPS primary function
• Tracks the RF signals from satellite and computes its own position and output the GPS data to 3 ADIRUs
• GPS three dimensional A/C position, velocities and exact time used by hybrid computation by 3 ADIRUs
• If one GPS failure, ADIRU automatically selects operative GPS to hybrid GPIR data
• To reduce initialization time MMRs receive position data, time and date from own ADIRUs
• As long as GPS/IRS mode is active, radio updating DME/DME or VOR/DME is not allowed
• FMGCs to A.C guidance during T/O, Approach and landings
• Sends to FWC to ECAM warnings
• MMR 1 send to GPWS for mode 5 computation
• Discrete signal sends to FMGCs to inhibit frequency changes in MMR receiver when land mode < 700 ft
• CFDIU to T/S and testing only on Gnd.




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Independent position detection system
• Detection with out taking any ground station information
    • Weather radar – WXR indication shown on N/D
    • Radio altimeters – Provides A/C height with out independent of atmospheric pressure
    • TCAS – Detects A/C in vicinity immediately
    • GPWS – Warns to crew about the A/C behavior

Weather Radar System
• Contains
   • Antenna – Controls in azimuth and elevation by the transceiver, scans 180° in azimuth and +/- 15° in
                 Tilt, movement at 2 DC motors and angle detected by synchros
   • Wave guide – Radio frequency signals exchange between transceiver and antenna
   • Transceiver Unit – Operates in “X – band” frequencies and digitizers video signal for display on the
                          ND, test can be done on the face test Sw. and indicator Lts.
   • Control Unit
      • ON / OFF Sw. – System energized and operates provided selection in Rose or Arc mode
      • Gain knob – Allows to set the gain as required. In auto selection optimum setting automatically
                        adjusted, If Sw. not in Auto, will be indicated on ND R/H lower area as “MAN” in
                        Green except during failure or Test
      • Mode selector
           • WX – Normal mode of operation, colours depends on the precipitation of intensity
           • WX / TURB – Correspond to weather or turbulence detection. Turbulence detection limited to
              40 NM from A/C. Turbulence areas are displayed in Magenta on ND (P > 5mm/s)
           • MAP – Used in backup navigation to detect land and water boundaries. Manual gain control is
              recommended
   • Tilt Knob – Allows to change antenna elevation manually in 1/4° steps in the rage of –15° to +15°, tilt
      information displayed in R/H lower corner of the ND except during any failure or Test mode
• ADIRU 1 & 3
   • Provides antenna stabilization and Ground speed for Doppler mode correction
• LGCIU
   • Provides flight/Gnd. signal to count flight legs

Indications
• Indicates on the Capt’s and FO’s NDs when ARC or Rose modes selected provided no faults on avionics
    ventilation system (extract and blower fans OK)
• WXR transceiver sends video signals to ND via DMCs. Each data cable terminated at the end by low
    inductance (68 Ω) to avoid signal return
• In Plan mode transceiver de- energized
• CFDIU allows system to be tested
• Test message will be in Amber “WXR TEST”

Failure Messages
• In RED – Image will be lost (Eg. WXR T/R, WXR ANT, WXR CLT, WXR RNG)
• In Amber – Image will not loose (Eg. WXR WEAK, WXR ATT, WXR STAB)

Precautions
• During refueling – Range > 100 meters arc
• Free from metallic obstacles range > 5 meters arc
• Free from any body with in range > 1.5 meters arc

Predictive Windshear System (PWS)
• PWS system
   • Uses Doppler principle to detect windshear
   • Windshear threshold will be detected by horizontal and vertical wind velocity, gravity and A/C true
        speed
   • Windshear happens due to sudden change of wind speed or direction over small distance down or
        upward movement of air, when A/C is near to the Gnd. level during approach or T/O
   • Displayed on cap’s and FO’s PFDs and NDs with WXR display
                                                    119
    •    Receives data from ADIRU 1 & 3 for velocity calculations
    •    LGCIU signal to detect L/G extension for determine A/C landing or T/O mode
    •    Two type of qualifier actions required to activate windshear system
         • Type “A”
            • QA 1 and QA 2 – Provides by ATC/TCAS control unit indicates position of AUTO/ON/STBY
                Sw.
         • Type “B”
            • QB 1 and QB 2 – Provided by EIU 1 & 2 engine oil pressure to identify engine running
                condition
    • Automatically activated RA < 2300 ft provided at least one of the each type qualifiers avail
• On WXR control unit, Sw. provided for windshear system Sw. Auto or OFF
• Radio altimeter provides altitude
• Discrete input to TCAS, GPWS or FWC to inhibit warning to give priority to windshear
• Stall warnings got higher priority than windshear
• Audio warnings go to loudspeakers via audio mixing box
• Enhance GPWS provide priorities for windshear warnings
    • PWS warnings
    • PWS cautions
    • GPWS terrain warnings
    • GPWS terrain cautions
Indications
• Events shows on capt’s and FO’s NDs and Alerts shows on both PFDs
• Indicates only on ND 10 NM range, at the time windshear generated, range is not in 10 NM, message
    appear on ND to select correct rang (“W/S SET RNG 10 NM”). This warning can be Red or Amber
    • Red or Amber depends on the PWS alert level
• Indicates only in Arc & Rose modes

Windshear AUTO/OFF Sw. on control panel
• AUTO – Windshear automatic operation enables even WXR ON/OFF Sw selects to OFF
• OFF – System OFF

Failures
• Amber “PRED W/S” , if fault detected,
    • A/C on Gnd. or Flap / Slat lever not in 0 position
    • Wiindshear Auto/Off Sw. on WXR control unit in Auto position

Alert levels
• 3 levels
    • Level 3
         • Between 50 and 1200 ft (Warning alert)
             • Aural warning message “GO AROUND WINDSHEAR AHED” , during approach and
               “WINDSHEAR AHEAD” during take off
             • Visual warning Red “W/S AHEAD” on PFD
    • Level 2
         • Between 50 and 1200 ft (Caution alert)
             • Aural warning message “MONITOR RADAR DISPLAY”
             • Visual warning Amber “W/S AHEAD” on PFD
    • Level 1
         • No windshear advisory above 1500 ft.
         • No aural or visual warning only the windshear icon superimposed on the radar image

Radio Altimeter System
• Determines the height of the A/C during initial climb, approach and landing phases
• Operating range of the antenna according to attitude is limited to +/- 30° in pitch and roll
• Components
   • Transceivers Qty. 2 – Test P/B allow to carry out test for the system, located in the Aft cargo
   • Antennas Qty. 4
       • Transmission and Receiving, all antennas identical

                                                     120
Indications
• Displayed on both PFDs, altitude < = 2500 ft
• Altitude shows
    • Numerical figure on the attitude sphere Gnd. Area
         • Green
            • If DH selected – RA > DH + 100 ft and RA < 2500 ft
            • If not selected – RA > 400 ft and RA < 2500 ft
         • Amber
            • If selected – RA < = DH + 100 ft
            • If not selected – RA < = 400 ft
         • Up to 50 ft increments in 10 ft, from 50 to 5 ft increments in 5 ft and from 5 ft to touch down in 1 ft
            increments
    • Ground rising runway (Altitude < 300 ft)
         • In the final phase of the approach altitude < 150 ft white lower limit of attitude sphere moves up to
            reach the Gnd.
    • Red ribbon next to altitude scale (Altitude < 570 ft)
         • Represent the field elevation, when A/C on Gnd. top of the ribbon is on the middle of the altitude
            window
• RA 1 and RA 2 provides indication to PFD 1 and PFD 2 via DMC1 and DMC 2 respectively
• If one transceiver fail DMC switches to other transceiver automatically
                                                                           th
• DH will be inserted to the system via MCDU and displayed on PFD 4 column of the FMA.
Out puts
    • For GPWC to create terrain warnings
    • FMGC for processing data
    • FWC for call out indications and warnings
    • ELACs for integration into flight parameters

•     EIU inhibits test on Gnd. with engine running (N2 > minimum idle)
•     LGCIU sends flight/ ground logic to count the flight leg
•     CFDIU for system test

Failures
• When Slat and Flap lever not in zero and both RA fails Red “RA” flag shows in place of the height
    information
• With both RA fail (Independent of slat/flap lever position) Red ribbon indication goes out of view and White
    lower line remains in its position

Automatic call out
• Bellow 400 ft RA altitude announced by synthetic voice generated by FWC

TCAS
• TCAS II indications for flight plan modifications only in vertical plane
• Detects only ATC equipped A/C


                                                                Proximity          Other traffic         Out of
      Intruder            RA                   TA             traffic volume         volume            detection
                                                                                                        volume

    With out ATC      No detection       No detection             No detection     No detection
     operative
                       TA only no          TA only no           TA only no           TA only no
ATC mode “A”        relative altitude   relative altitude    relative altitude    relative altitude
                         RA, no
ATC mode “C”           maneuver                                                                       No detection
 or mode “S”          coordination      TA with relative      Traffic info with   Traffic info with
                         RA with           altitude           intruder relative   intruder relative
      TCAS II          maneuver                                    altitude            altitude
                      coordination
                                                            121
•   TCAS system components
    • Computer
       • Functions
          • Processing for operation control
          • Transmission / reception for intruder accusation
          • System test can be done by the face results will show in LEDs
    • Antenna Qty 2
       • Directional antennas, provides azimuth information A/C with in surveillance area
       • Includes 4 passive and independent vertically – polarized elements
    • Control panel
       • Combination of TCAS and ATC, connected to the computer via ATC transponder
       • Mode selector
          • TA – Provides only traffic advisories no RA
          • TA/RA – Normal operating mode, provides preventive and corrective advisories
          • TFC – Provides all traffic indications of all A/C (8 maximum)
       • Above/N/Bellow Sw. – Surveillance can be expand over TCAS equipped A/C
          • Above – From -2700 ft to +9900 ft
          • Normal – From -2700 ft to +2700 ft
          • Bellow - From + 2700 ft to -9900 ft

•   ATC transponder Mode “S” permits communication between TCAS and TCAS equipped and detected A/C
    through the communication link function for exchanging coordination messages
• RA provides Radio altitude used as a reference determines computation sensitivity level and triggers
    inhibit orders
• ADIRU 1 IR part provides magnetic heading and pitch and roll attitude for TCAS computer and ADR
    provides baro altitude for ATC transponder
• CFDIU testing and T/S
• LGCIU for flight leg counting + L/G extend signal
• On Gnd. only TA mode operational
• Number of intruders can be displayed is 8
• Limited to A/C altitude to 48000 ft
• Synthesized voice generated by TCAS computer and sends to loudspeakers, voice level can not be
    adjusted by the crew
• Inhibition signals receives to inhibit TCAS by Windshear, Stall and GPWS
Indications
• Display on
    • PFD – VSI RA maneuver orders
         • Red area – Forbidden vertical speed sector
         • Green area – Fly to vertical speed sector
    • ND – Intruder bearing, distance and mode of threat
         • Range ring – Indicates 2.5NM range (only displayed range selected to 10, 20 or 40 NM)

       •             Indicates only intruder V/S exceed 500 ft /Mn

       •             Indicates RA , 100 ft bellow climbing

           - 01

       •             Indicates TA , 100 ft bellow climbing

           - 01

       •             Indicates Proximity traffic, 100 ft bellow climbing

           - 01

       •             Indicates other traffic, 100 ft bellow climbing

           - 01


                                                     122
•   10.3 NM + 21  Indicates if direction indication is not possible displayed on the lower part of the ND
                   can be indicate only two intruders (most threatening), most dangerous intruder will be
                   indicated on the left side in Red and other in Amber on the R/H side next to it
                   (Fault can be a antenna failure)
•   “TCAS: CHANGE MODE” appears in Red or in Amber if threat detected by TCAS while ND selected to
                           Plan mode
•   “TCAS : REDUCE RANGE” Appears in Red or in Amber if threat detected by TCAS while ND selected
                              to range above 40 NM in Arc or Rose mode

Failures
• Red “V/S” indicate vertical speed information failure
• Red “TCAS “ indicates TCAS failure, system can not deliver RA data
• Red “TCAS” and flashes 9 sec then steady on ND - TCAS internal failure

GPWS
• Components
  • GPWS computer – Sw. on the face of the computer Status/ History select to
     • Present status – Read out of system operational status on bite display
     • Flight history – Readout of the system failures stored from the previous 10 flight on bite display
  • Qty 2 Warning Lts.
  • Control panel

•   FWC sends inhibit signal to GPWC during stall and windshear warning triggered

Indications
• Visual warning

                             GPWS Lt. ON – When GPW system activates in mode 1 to 4
      GPWS                   G/S Lt. ON – Glide slope advisory alert, mode 5
                             Sw. pressed IN – P/B sends Gnd. signal to trigger test sequence (avail on Gnd.
       G/S
                                               and in flight when 1000 ft < RA < 8000 ft)
                                             - Cancels G/S visual and aural warnings when triggers
Control panel
       SYS

      FAULT                  Fault Lt. ON – GPWS fault
                             OFF – GPWS warnings inhibits
       OFF



     G/S MODE

                               OFF – G/S mode warnings inhibits

       OFF



    FALP MODE



                             OFF –Inhibits flap abnormal condition inputs (mode 4) and generate
       OFF                        “GPWS FLAP MODE OFF” on ECAM memo page (E/W)
    LDG FLAPS 3

    LDG FLAP 3
                                ON – Selects landing flaps 3 position generates the Green “GPWS
                                      FLAPS 3” message on the ECAM mono page (E/W)
        ON




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EGPWS (Enhanced GPWS)
• Prevents control flights in to terrain
• Boundaries of the alerting envelop exceeds aural alert messages and visual annunciations and displays
   are generates on the ND
•   Terrain clearance floor (TCF)
   • Increase the terrain clearance envelope around the airport runway to provide protection control flight in
       to terrain.
• Terrain awareness alerting and display (TAD)
   • Incorporation of terrain database to predict conflict between flight path and terrain and to display the
       conflict terrain.
• System comprise of
   • EGPWC
   • Two warning lights
   • Two “Terrain on ND” switches
   • Control panel
• Indications
   • Visual warnings on ND, in addition to the basic indications and warnings.
   • Terrain data will be displayed on NDs aut omatically in place of WXR image when terrain caution or
       warning is detected or any time by using the “TERR ON ND” P/B
   • Terrain is not shown if > 2000 ft bellow the reference altitude and if the terrain elevation is with in the
       400 ft of the runway elevation nearest the A/C.
   • High density Red – Terrain > 2000 ft above A/C altitude
   • High density Yellow – 1000 ft < terrain < 2000 ft above A/C altitude
   • Medium density Yellow – Terrain that is 500 ft(250 ft gear down) below to 1000 ft below A/C altitude
   • Medium density Green – Terrain that is 500 ft(250 ft gear down) below to 1000 ft below A/C altitude
   • Light density Green – Terrain that is 1000 ft to 2000 ft below A/C altitude
   • Black – No close terrain
   • Light density magenta – Unknown terrain

•   EGPWC receives inputs from navigation system to monitor A/C position respect to terrain, also receives
    PWS alert from WXR system to determine priorities
    • Stall, windshear and PWS has priority over EGPS
    • EGPWS has priority over TCAS and change RA to TA
    • By Emergency cancel P/B can cancel EGPWS aural warnings
•   Outputs from EGPWC goes to CFDIU to maintenance purposes and to AIDS

       TERR
      FAULT
                             P/B press – Inhibits terrain awareness
                             Fault Lt. ON – Fault detected on the Terrain detection system
       OFF



    TERRAIN ON
        ND
                             P/B press – Terrain data will be indicated on ND


       ON



EGPWC
• Conceit of PMCIA card to upload or down load internal information (PMCIA card does not remain inside
  during normal operation)




                                                      124
Dependent position detection System
   • Navigation through Gnd. station or satellites
      • DME – Gives slant distance to Gnd. station, Frequency control automatically (from MCDU via
          FMGC ) or manually (via RMPs)
      • ATC – Gnd. operator to identify A/C with out communication with flight crew
      • ADF – Radio compass system using providing azimuth of NDB with A/C center line
      • VOR – Provides bearing of the Gnd. VOR station respect to magnetic north and A/C angular
          deviation related to pre selected coarse, Frequency control automatically (from MCDU via FMGC)
          or manually (via RMPs)
      • GPS – Based on the measurement of the transmission time of signals broadcast by satellite

DME
• Provides digital slant distance from selected Gnd. station
• Components
  • Qty 2 Interrogators – Test P/B on the face will test the system
  • Qty 2 Antennas – Same antenna used to transmission and receptions
• Connected to
  • PFD – Shown on lower L/H bottom
  • ND – Shown on lower L/H bottom
  • DDRMI – For indicating
  • EFIS – for display control
  • FMGC – For tuning
  • RMP – Backup tuning
  • ACP – for DME audio signal

•   DME signal sends to FMGC to radio distance computations
•   Suppressor signal sends to ATC to prevent simultaneous transmission and interrupt reception
•   Audio signals sends to AMU to go to flight deck speakers
•   Crew can adjust volume of DME identification tone by pressing ACP VOR P/B or ILS P/B if collocated
    ILS/DME (for ILS, should be selected on the EFIS control panel)
•   During normal operation FMGC tunes own side DME interrogator via own RMP at port “A”
•   With failure of one FMGC other side FMGC tunes DME interrogator after signal from RMP to DME to
    select port “B”
•   Each MCDUs can manually tune both DMEs via FMGCs
•   If FMGC both failed enable backup tuning by RMPs

Indications
• Display signals send to
    • PFD
         • If DME and ILS stations collocated, will be indicated at L/H lower in Magenta colour after ILS P/B
            selection on the EFIS panel
    • ND
         • Mode selector selects to Rose or Arc and ADF/VOR select Sw on VOR, DME will be indicated at
            the L/H lower corner in Green.
         • Mode selector on Rose NAV or Arc mode can be able to indicate DME and VOR/DME stations
            which are in the navigation data base after selection of VOR.D P/B on the EFIS control panel.
    • DDRMI
         • DME 1 and 2 will be indicated L/H and R/H side windows respectively

Failures
• Red “DME’ flag will displayed instead of distance on PFD L/H lower corner or ND L/H lower corner
• ND indication will be replaced by dashes if interrogator not receiving Gnd. signal (NCD)




                                                     125
ATC
• Transponders connected with TCAS system
• Components
   • Qty. 2 Transponders – Test Sw. on the face allow to test the system
   • Qty. 4 Antennas – Top and Bottom antennas provide better diversity coverage
   • Control unit
       • STBY – NO transmission and answer inhibited (electrically supplied but not operating)
       • XPDR – Answers are transmitted on Gnd. and in flight by selected transponder
       • Code from 0000 to 7777
       • 7700 – Emergency configuration
       • 7600 – Complete Radio failure
       • Fail Lt. – Transponder failure
       • Ident P/B – Additional identification pulse will be generated in Mode “A” and mode “C” codes
       • 1/2 Sw. – Allow to select desired active transponder
• During normal operation one active and other inn STBY
• Operating modes
   • Mode “A”
   • Mode ”C”
   • Mode “S”
       • Main function is surveillance
• Suppressor signal sends to ATC to prevent simultaneous transmission
• ADIRU 1 and ADIRU 2 provides baro altitude to the transponders for Mode “C” operation, If one fails crew
   has to select manually to ADIRU 3
• FMGC provide flight number

ADF
Radio navigation aid,
• Provides
    • Identification of the relative bearing to a selected Gnd. station called NDB
    • Aural identification
• Components
    • Receiver – Test P/B on the face allows system test
    • Antenna
• System connected to
    • ND for display
    • EFIS for control display
    • FMGC for auto tuning
    • MCDU for manual tuning
    • RMP for backup tuning
    • ACP for tone identification
• On NDB approach FMGC automatically tunes receiver via RMP
• With failure of one FMGC other side FMGC tunes ADF interrogator after signal from RMP to ADF to select
    port “B”
• FMGCs, through MCDUs can manually tune ADF 1
• If FMGC both failed enable backup tuning by RMP 1
• ADF antenna consist of Loop and Sense antennas in one unit, comprises of
    • One pre amplifier for each antenna, supplied by ADF receiver in +/- 12 VDC
    • Test loop which enable a self test
Indication
• Data sends to NDs via DMCs
• Station ident audio signal send to loudspeakers via AMU
• Mode selector set to Rose, Nav or Arc modes and ADF selector set to ADF on EFIS control panel ADF
    indications will be indicated on ND L/H lower corner. Tuning mode will be indicated as R or M such as by
    RMP panel or Manual respectively
• In Rose, Nav and ARC modes with EFIS control panel NDB P/B pressed can monitor ADF stations in the
    data base (magenta triangles)
• DDRMI
     • Will indicates only selected ADF bearings provided ADF selected on VOR/ADF selector

                                                    126
Failures
• Red “ADF” flag will displayed instead of distance on PFD L/H lower corner or ND L/H lower corner
• NCD causes pointer disappear

VOR
• Medium range radio navigation aid
• Maker beacon system also attached to VOR 1 receiver
• Components
   • Qty 2 VOR/Marker receivers - Test P/B on the face allows system test
   • Dual VOR antenna –Located on the top of the tail
   • Marker antenna – Located on the belly of the A/C
• System connected to
   • ND, PFD and VOR/DME RMI for display
   • EFIS panel for control display
   • FMGC for auto tuning
   • MCDU for manual tuning
   • RMP for backup tuning
   • ACP for VOR/MKR audio signal

•   During normal operation FMGC tunes own side VOD/MKR interrogator via own RMP at port “A”
•   With failure of one FMGC other side FMGC tunes VOR/MKR interrogator after signal from RMP to DME to
    select port “B”
•   Each MCDUs can manually tune both side VOR/MKR via FMGCs
•   If FMGC both failed enable backup tuning by RMPs
•   VOR data send to FMGC for flight plan computations
•   MKR antenna connected to only Receiver 1
•   VOR and MKR audio signals can be heard by selecting the volume on ACP
•   Receiver sends audio signals to AMU for loudspeakers

Indications
• Mode selector set to Rose VOR or ARC and VOR selector set to VOR, ND will indicates
    • R/H upper corner – VOR frequency, course and station identification (VOR 1 info. will display on
         Capt’s and VOR 2 info. will be on FO’s )
    • L/H bottom corner – VOR 1/ DME distance and tuning mode and station ident
    • R/H bottom corner – VOR 2/ DME distance and tuning mode and station ident
• Two types white pointers will indicate the bearing on heading dial
    • Single pointer indicates VOR 1
    • Double pointer indicates VOR 2
• Course and lateral deviation
    • Course pointer indicates selected course and same indicator middle(Lateral index) part will indicates
         deviation
• TO/FROM indication displayed by the arrow head of the Lateral index
• Rose Nav and Arc positions with VOR.D P/B on the EFIS panel set can monitor selected and not selected
    data base VOR stations
• DDRMI
     • Will indicates only selected VOR bearings provided VOR selected on VOR/ADF selector
Failures
• Red “VOR” flag will displayed instead of distance on ND L/H lower corner for Arc mode, Rose VOR mode
    Red flag will be displayed at the center of the display
• Dashes represents NCD




                                                    127
                            OXYGEN SYSTEM (CHAPTER – 35)
Crew oxygen
• Provided by high pressure oxygen cylinder if cabin pressure is lost
• Cylinder can be isolated by manual ON / OFF valve + direct reading indicator give pressure indication in
   the cylinder
• Pressure regulating transmitter
   • Directly connected to high pressure cylinder
   • Consist of high pressure stage with integrated pressure transducer for ECAM indication and low
       pressure stage
   • Regulates pressure to low pressure 78 psig (pounds per square inch gage)
• Over pressure protection
   • High pressure safety out let is frangible disk – Rupture of the disk will be at 2500 – 2775 psig
   • Low pressure safety outlet is pressure relief valve – at 175 psig
   • Indication
       • Green disk removed and yellow indicator appears, connected to both high and low pressure
            discharge lines
• Supply valve
     CREW
    SUPPLY
                             Sw. pressed IN – Supply valve opens (Power applies only 1.5 sec)
                             Sw. released OUT – Supply valve closes (Only on Gnd.)
     OFF


•   Low pressure manifold
    • Consist of
        • Pressure Sw.
            • Activates message on the ECAM Door / Oxy page
            • Indicates low pressure detection in the manifold
                • Amber “REGUL LO PR” appears if pressure < 50 psi
        • Test port
•   Hi pressure Indication
    • Indicated in ECAM Door / Oxy page
    • Reading
        • Amber if - 0 – 400 psi
        • Green if – 400 – 1850 psi
        • Amber half frame – pressure < 1500 psi
•   Crew oxygen mask utilization
    • When 100% position – User breaths pure oxygen
    • Rest test slider – For control oxygen supply during test and mask operation

Passenger and cabin crew oxygen
• Provided by chemical oxygen, locates in PCU, lavatories, and cabin stations, can be used for 13 min.
• Masks drops
   • Automatically
       • Cabin altitude > 14000 ft
       • Auto announcement starts on PA system
       • System On white indicator Lt. ON
       • Time delay relay powers the oxygen power relay for 30 sec.(cuts OFF power to mask door
           solenoids)
       • After 30 sec system powered through Timer reset P/B
       • Pressing TMR RESET Sw can stop tape announcement.
   • Manually
       • Flight deck action on the “Mask Man ON “ Sw.
       • Auto announcement starts on PA system
       • System On white indicator Lt. ON
       • Pressing TMR RESET Sw can stop tape announcement.
       • By manual release tool (if door not opened during electrical door operation)
                                                  128
MASK MAN ON
                             Sw. press IN – Masks releases
                             Sw. in auto –Masks automatically drops with cabin altitude increases




                             Lt. ON –When passenger oxygen system electrically operated
   SYS ON




  TMR RESET
    FAULT
                            Fault Lt. ON – Time delay relay failure, door latch solenoid powered > 30 sec.
                            Sw. Press IN – Announcement stops
                                          - System resets
     ON
                                          - ON Lt. illuminates
                                          - System ON Lt. OFF
                                          - Auto announcement stops
                                          - SYS ON Lt. switch OFF
Passenger oxygen unit operation
• Passenger pulls the mask pin in the generator released chemical reaction starts
• Indicator turns from yellow to black

Portable oxygen
• Supply to attendance, passengers and flight crew in emergency
• Smoke hood
    •    system provides breathing means eye protection for crew and cabin attendants, allows to move freely
        to extinguish fire
    • Smoke hood can be used for 15 min. and fire resistant
    • Smoke hood in good condition indicator is Green, if Red hood unserviceable
    • Tamper seal for preflight inspection
    • Annular container in the hood pulls of compressed oxygen releases amount of oxygen user needs
• High pressure portable cylinder with continues flow type masks used for first aid to the passengers




                                                     129
                         PNEUMATIC SYSTEM (CHAPTER – 36)

•   Bleed air system got 3 different sauces
    • APU
    • Engines
    • Ground cart
Engine
    • Two different stages
                  th
        • IP – 7 HP stage
                     th
        • HP – 10 HP stage,
HP valve
• Opens and regulates at 36psi when IP pressure is low
• Spring loaded to close in absence of up stream pressure
• Closer of PRV leads HP valve to close by PRV – HPV sense line
• In flight EEC maintain HPV close by energizing solenoid located on the sense line if
    • Engine speed > Idle speed
    • Altitude > 15000 ft
    • Wing anti-ice close
    • Normal pack configuration (2 pack operation)
    • In case of low and excessive up stream pressure (closer pneumatically)
• Position indication goes to ECAM via BMC
Intermediate pressure valve
• Protects IP stage by reverse flow when HP valve open
Engine Bleed valve (PRV)
• HP & IP bleed pressure goes through PRV
• Operates pneumatically, control down stream pressure to 44psi
• Spring loaded to close in up stream pressure is lost
• Position indication goes to ECAM via BMC
• CTS powered by 28VDC via BMC
• Pneumatically Controlled by CTS located in down stream of precooler. CTS operation in TWO modes
    • Pneumatically
        • Over temp. protection of down stream of precooler by thermostat to reduce PRV flow rate
        • Over heat protection of down stream of the precooler
        • Controlled close in case of reverse flow
    • Electrical Mode
        • PRV shut off function solenoid energized by
            • Flight deck panel (engine bleed valve P/B select OFF or Fire P/B push)
            • BMC if
                • Over temperature
                • Over pressure
                • Leak detected
                • Engine starter valve open
                • APU bleed set to ON

    ENG BLEED
     FAULT
                           Fault LT ON – Down stream of bleed valve hi bleed temp. or pressure
                                     - Wing leak detection
                                     - Engine bleed leak detection
     OFF
                                     - Engine bleed not closed
                                     - Pylon leak detection
                                     - If one loop inoperative then other detects fire
                                     - Bleed valve not close during engine start
                                     - Bleed valve not close with APU bleed ON
Switch pressed IN – Bleed valve opens if
                    - Upstream pressure > 8 psi.
                    - APU bleed P/B switch OFF or APU bleed valve close
                    - No on side wing or pylon leak and no over pressure or over temperature has detected
                    - Engine fire P/B not pop out
                    - Engine start valve closed
                                                    130
Pressure transducers
• Located down stream of the PRV (one in each side) to provide ECAM bleed pressure via BMC 1 & 2 and
    SDAC
• Located down stream of HPV (one in each side) and provides signal to BMCs to monitor HPV and PRV
Precooler
• Located in pylon, air to air heat exchanger regulates temp. at 200 °C
• Cooled by fan air and air controlled by FAN AIR VALVE
Precooler outlet temp. sensor
• Provide ECAM indication and used to system monitoring via BMC (one for each side)
Fan Air Valve
• Controlled by CT (control thermostat) pneumatically located down stream of precooler
• Spring loaded to close in the absence of air pressure

APU
• Bleed passes through APU bleed valve, electrically controlled and operated by fuel pressure
• APU bleed valve got priority over engine bleed valves

APU Bleed valve

    APU BLEED
     FAULT
                                Fault Lt. ON – APU bleed leak detected (APU bleed valve and cross bleed
                                               valve close)
ValvON
                                               If engine was running own bleed valve opens
Vvvvv                          Sw. pressed IN – APU bleed valve open if
                                                  - APU fire P/B not released
                                                  - No L/H & APU leak detection (if leak dection on R/H side
                                                    cross bleed valve closes)
                                                  - APU RPM > 95%
                                                  - NO shut command

Cross Bleed Valve

        AUTO
SHUT            OPEN

                             AUTO – Open & Close with APU bleed valve
                             Auto open if
                                     - Mode selector auto
                                     - APU bleed not close
                                     - Engine Fire P/B not released
                                     - No leak inhibition during engine start
                             Manual Mode
                               OPEN – Valve open
                               CLOSE – Valve close

•   Cross bleed valve located in L/H side of the cross bleed duct allows to interconnect engine air systems
•   Electrically controlled by 2 motors
    •    Primary motor – Auto mode
    •    Secondary motor – Manual mode (can OVRD auto mode)
Leak Detection
• Provides to detect over heat in the vicinity of hot air ducts in the wings, pylons and fuselage
• Monitors following zones
   • Wing and Packs – Double loop
       • Left loop monitors bleed ducts, cross bleed valve and APU check valve
       • Right loop monitors bleed ducts and cross bleed valve
   • Pylons – Single loop with one sensing element
   • APU bleed duct – Single loop
• BMC 1 receive Loop “A” , Eng.1 Pylon and APU loop leak detection signals
• BMC 2 receive Loop ”B”, Eng. 2 Pylon leak detection signals
• BMC 1 & 2 cross talk then via AND logic provide warnings

                                                     131
Wing leak detection causes
• Bleed valve of the related side to close automatically
• Associated Fault Lt. located on the air-condition panel comes ON
• Cross bleed valve closes automatically except engine start
• APU bleed valve goes to close automatically if leak concerns at the left wing except engine start
Pylon leak signal causes
• Bleed valve on the related side closes automatically
• Associated Fault Lt. located on the air-condition panel comes ON
• Cross bleed valve closes automatically except engine start
APU leak signal causes
• APU bleed valve closes automatically except engine start
• Associated Fault Lt. located on the air-condition panel comes ON
• Cross bleed valve closes automatically except engine start

BMC
• Monitoring by 2 BMCs
        • Bleed pressure
        • Bleed Temperature
        • Leek detection
• Normal configuration
    • BMC 1 – Monitors left side of cross bleed system
    • BMC 2 – Monitors right of cross bleed system
• If BMC 1 fails other will monitor except APU and Pylon
• Both BMC fail no aural warning only ECAM message + crosses on system page
• BMC interfaces
    • With SDAC to provide ECAM indication
    • CFDIU for maintenance data
    • Opposite BMC to provide wing loop leak status, bleed parameters
    • APU ECU to bleed valve control
    • Zone controller
 IF one BMC failed monitoring of main parameters kept valid
    • HPV
    • PRV
    • Precooler outlet temp. sensor
    • Following ECAM warnings will be avail
        • Over pressure
        • Over temperature
        • Wing leak
 • Automatic control of PRV will be lost
 • Associated Fault Lt. on air-condition panel lost
 • Pylon leak warning for associated engine
 • If BMC 1 APU bleed leak warning will be lost




                                                     132
                            WATER AND WASTE (CHAPTER – 38)
•   Distribute portable water to the toilet and the galleys
•   Dispose waste water
•   Store toilet water

Potable water system
• Supplies to Galleys and Lavatories from pneumatically pressured water tank
• Water tank located in aft of fwd cargo compartment, capacity 200 lt.
• System pressurized by
      • On Ground by compressor unit
      • In flight by compressed air tapped from Engine cross feed line
• Distribution lines routed under floor, some of them are heated
• In each lavatory water line can be isolated by manual shut off valve
• Water heater located under the wash basin, temperature maintained at 45° – 48° C
Filling
• Can be done by Fill drain valve operated by Fill / drain control handle located in potable water service
      panel, simultaneously operate motorized Drain overflow valve to vent the system
• Water quantity transmitter close the Fill / Drain valve when high level reached
• Each valve manual operation possible by control handle in each valve
Draining
• Achieved by selecting Fill / Drain valve to drain position, then another 2 motorized drain valves will be
      opened and over flow valve open for venting the system
Waste system
• Drainage waste either from galleys and lavatories Discharge over board via heated drain masts
• Each lavatory consist of Drain valve, operates only some amount of water is collected. Drain valve
      prevents permanent loss cabin pressure through drain lines

Toilet systems
• Waste from lavatories will be collected in under flow waste tank through vacuum system
• Vacuum system controller controls the system
• To flush the toilet bowl portable water used
Operation
• When flush Sw. pressed Flush control Sw. initiates flush sequence, as the flush cycle starts flush cycle in
    the other toilets are inhibited for approximately 15 sec.
• Vacuum generator starts after 1 sec for 15 sec. controlled by vacuum controller, then water valve opens
    for 1 sec.
• Flush valve will be opened by FCU for 4 sec to dispose waste to the tank through differential pressure
    (manual SOV located in the drain line to shut off the line if flush valve defective)
• Vacuum generator creates deferential pressure between cabin and waste tank to move waste
• Vacuum generator operates
    • During climb up to 16000 ft
    • During descend after12000 ft
• Vacuum generator controlled by altitude Sw. if Sw failed L/G signal used as a back up
• Waste tank
    • Capacity 170 Lt., Located in aft of bulk cargo
    • Consist of
         • Water separator in the vacuum line
         • Liquid level transmitter (Hydrostatic pressure) – Sends signal to VSC
         • Liquid level sensor (Ultrasonic type)
• Vacuum system controller (VSC)
    • During A/C power up on Gnd. and on flight, internal and external circuit monitored continuously
    • Controls and monitor system operation
    • Reports to system failures to CFDS
    • Tank is full indication sends to “system inop” indication in the FAP
    • Liquid level indicators in FAP and service panel controlled by VSC
    • During toilet servicing FCU inhibited the toilet flushing


                                                        133
•   Flush control unit (FCU)
    • Bite in each FCU monitors
        • Water valves
        • Flush valves
        • Internal control circuitry
    • If fault is detected transmit to VSC

•   Forward attendant panel (FAP)
    • Indicates waste quantity and if system is inoperative, signals come from VSC

                             Lt. ON – 115 VAC defect
                                       Level transmitter shows full and sensor not
    SYSTEM
                                       Service door open + L/G down
     INOP




                             Lt. ON – FCU defect (x – shows defective FCU located toilet)
    LAV X
    INOP




                                                     134
                  AUXELARY POWER UNIT (CHAPTER – 49) [APIC]
•   Can be used in flight and GND.
•   On Ground.
    • Supplies bleed air for engine start and air-conditioning
    • Supplies electric power
•   During take off
    • Supplies bleed air for air-conditioning thus avoiding a reduction in engine thrust caused by the use of
         engine bleed air for this purpose when optimum A/C performance is required
•   In Flight
    • Backs up the electrical and air-condition system
    • Can be used to engine start
•   Oil system used to cool AC generator
•   Fuel supply
    • Either booster pumps or APU feed pump depends on APU feed line pressure monitored by pressure
         Sw.
    • If pressure not available (batteries only or pumps off) the APU FUEL PUMP starts automatically
    • ECB controls the fuel flow
•   ECB computes
    • Fuel-air ratio corresponding to load
    • Meters fuel flow
•   Fuel pressure used as muscle pressure for IGV actuator and BCV, controlled by ECB
•   ECB full authority digital engine control system( FADEC)
•   IGV and BCV controls air flow into load compressor to avoid Over temperature of power section
    • If Over temp. Causes IGV & BCV will go to close position
•   De–oil solenoid opens during starting to reduce viscosity of cold oil to remove load on the APU starter
•   During shut down De–oil valve operates to reduce oil pressure than air pressure at the seal to prevent oil
    leaking
•   CFDS interrogation and restart possible only RPM < 7%

Electronic Control Box (ECB)
• Start sequence control
• Control and monitoring of the APU
• Initiates power up test and monitoring test
• Acts as a interface between A/C and APU
• Receives data and send parameters to ECAM

ECAM page presentation
• Speed – Red = Over speed
• EGT – Normal condition =Green, Pulses in advisory, Red = over temp.,
• Bleed Pressure – Amber XX indication not available
• Fuel low pressure – Amber msg. appears line pressure < 15 psi
• Inlet flap position – “FLAP OPEN” displayed flap fully open + M/Sw. select ON, Pulsing = Flap not fully
   closed with in 3 min after M/Sw. select OFF
• Low oil level – Pulsing if level in the gear box reached low level, (Qty < 4 lt.)
• Low oil pressure – Deference between APU bleed pressure given by ECB and correct average pressure
   from ADIRU 2
• AC generator load – APU Gen. capacity 90 KVA, Shows Amber if Over load or Voltage or Frequency out
   of range
• Voltage & frequency – 120v < V < 110v, 410Hz < Frequency < 390Hz
• AVAIL Lt. – Speed > 95%, other wise no indication
• Normal control of APU carried out from flight deck, emergency shut down can be done from external
   control panel at nose L/Gear




                                                      135
Master Switch
                        •   Sw. pressed IN –
     FAULT                  • Provide control & power supply for operation + Blue ON light appears + APU
                                page on ECAM system display
       ON                   • ECB performs power up test
                            • APU air intake flap opens
                            • APU fuel isolation valve opens
                            • APU fuel pump start if no boost pump in operation
                        •   Fault Lt. ON when
                            • Automatic shut down occurs (APU or ECB faults)
                        •   Sw released OUT – Normal shut down initiates

Start Push Button

      AVAIL             •   Pressed
                            • Initiates start sequence, Blue ON Lt. illuminates until speed = 95%
       ON                   • AVAIL Lt. illuminates 2 sec. After speed > 95% or speed > 99.5%



Ignition and Starting
• Start Control (controlled by ECB)
     • APU speed = 55% starts logic of ECB cuts off supply to start contractor, switch off starter motor
     • Timed acceleration loop of ECB allow APU to accelerate to governed speed
     • APU may obtain power to start from A/C batteries or normal electrical system or ground services
     • APU starting is permitted through out the normal flight envelope
• Ignition system
     • Consist of qty 2 Igniters available, Igniter plug
     • Ignite and maintain combustion during start phase
     • Operates until speed 55% during starting
     • During shut down Ignition starts from speed 95% - 7% to burn unburned fuel

Fire Push Button
                        •   Released OUT – Emergency shut down initiated



   APU FIRE
       PUSH




External APU shut off Push Button

                        •   Push IN
                            • APU emergency shut down with out any time delay + cancel horn




APU Fire Light
                        •   During fire RED light illuminates on ground with horn




                                                     136
APU management
• Keep rotation speed constant to obtain correct AC generation
• Protect power unit over temp.
• Avoid low compressor surge
• Control safe APU start & ease maintenance

Powerup
     M/Sw. ON
Select
    • APU LP SOV open
    • Fuel pump logic energized
    • ECB controls opens Intake flap, when fully open ECB receives fully open signal then carry out power
      up test
   • After power up test enter to watch state
   • Speed < 7% and no prohibition state, ECB enters to Preparation state

Press Start Push Button
       • ECB initiates Start sequence (any shut down signal will shut APU with out any delay)
• Start P/B pressed +100msec
    • Main Electrical stage selected by ECB is
       • Back up start contactor close
• Back up contactor close + 1.5 sec
       • Ignition exciter activated
       • Gear box De-oil valve energized
       • Main start contactor close
• Speed > 3%
    • 3 way solenoid valve and fuel solenoid valve selected
• Speed > 5%
    • Fuel flow controlled
• ∆EGT > 10 C
    • Indicate acceleration control to 100% speed
• Speed > 55%
    • Ignition exciter deenagized
    • Main start contactor deenagized
    • Gear box deoiling valve deenagized
• Speed > 55% + 5 sec.
    • Back up start contactor deenagized
• Speed > 95%
    • Surge control loop activation
    • APU “AVAIL” Lt. ON + ECAM “AVAIL” message appears + E/W display memo page “APU AVAIL”
       message appears ( If bleed selected “APU BLEED” message will appear)
• Steady state
    • Speed control
    • Constant what ever the load applied, achieved by fuel flow actual speed compared with a speed datum
       (100%) which varies with air inlet pressure and temperature
    • Load compressor surge control ( avoids compressor surge )
       • Achieved by Control / metering of BCV
       • If surge control fails BCV fully open to discharge incase of reverse flow detection, APU
            automatically shut down by ECB
    • Avoid APU over temperature
       • By controlling IGV position to reduce air load and give priority to electrical load, achieve by
            metering position of IGV
• Cool period and shut down
    • During stop command from M/Sw.
       • Total load cut off by
            • IGV close
            • BCV move to discharge position
            • AC generator exciter OFF
            • Then APU goes to 120 sec cooling period

                                                   137
•   Normal Shut down
    • M/Sw released if bleed air not selected
        • APU shut down immediately (simulates Over speed condition)
             • Stop fuel supply (speed reduced)
             • “AVAIL” Lt. OFF , IDG deenergized
    • Speed < 90%
        • Gear box deoil solenoid valve open to reduce oil pressure then air pressure to prevent oil leaking
    • Speed < 7%
        • Air intake flap close
•   Normal shut down with bleed ON, will take 120 sec for cooling
    • If first bleed Sw OFF, still take 120 sec from bleed OFF point
    • 30 sec will take to close the air intake flap
•   Protective Shut Down
    • ECB control starting / running parameters
    • If abnormal parameter detected immediately shut down even bleed air supplied
    • Parameters to shut down
        • Over speed by monopole at 105%, if not at 107% by PMG on cooling fan
        • Over temperature
        • Low oil pressure
        • High oil temperature
        • Start period timer
        • Sensor failure
        • Air intake flap
        • No flame
        • Reverse flow
        • No acceleration
        • Loss of DC power
        • ECB failure
        • Generator HI oil temperature
        • Loss of speed sensing
        • IGV shut down

•   Emergency shut down
    • APU fire P/B select OUT
    • APU external shut off push button press
    • ECB initiates automatic shut down when fire detected on GND.
•   APU warnings
    • Auto shut down
       • M/C, A/W, Fault lt on M/Sw., ECAM APU page automatically appears
       • Conditions
          • Air inlet flap closed
          • Over speed
          • No acceleration
          • Slow start
          • Sensor failure
          • Over temperature
          • No flame
          • Reverse flow
          • Low oil pressure
          • HI oil temperature
          • DC power loss
          • ECB failure
          • Loss of speed signal
          • IGV shut down
          • Generator high oil temperature
    • Emergency shut down
       • A/W, M/C, M/Sw. fault Lt. ON, ECAM APU page on system display
       • Occurs when APU shut off Sw. press on the external panel or automatic fire detraction
                                                   138
ECB interfaces
• ECB powered by
   • Via APU main control relay
       • At least 1 battery required
       • A/C DC network
       • 28 VDC PMG
            • To prevent power loss during power changeovers (Power loss > 200 msec ECB will loose
                control)
            • Provide speed signal as a back up if both monopols failed and shut down APU (at 107%) if not
                response to monopoles (at 105%)
• Master Switch
   • Sends discreet stop signal to ECB
       • ECB fault Lt. ON
       • Auto shut down or power up test fail
• Air intake failure
   • Open/close position receive by ECB
   • Then open/close feed back signal send to ECB
• Start P/B
   • Discreet start sequence
       • ECB sends ON Lt., APU starts
       • Speed > 95% “AVAIL” Lt. ON
• Back up and Main start contactor
   • ECB receives discreet input from Main & back up contactors then send signal to energize or
       deenergize
• Emergency stop
   • ECB act as per shut down discreet signal
• LGICU
   • Received GND./Air signal
• APU fuel feed system
   • Discreet low pressure Sw. sends signal to LP SOV
• EIU
   • During main engine start
       • Receive to position IGV to open/close
       • BCV to modulate
• BMC
   • When APU control Sw. select ON
       • BMC sends signal to ECB to open bleed control valve
• Zone controller
   • Via ARINC 429 data bus ECB receives position of IGV & BCV as per demand
• GEN. oil temperature Sw.
   • Receive analogue input from sensors in the generator
• SDAC 1 & 2
   • ECB sends indications and warning signals to display on ECAM
• CFDS
   • ECB is a Type 1 system connected to CFDS for fault and BITE testing
APU bleed system
• System is fully automatic
• ECB sets APU speed to meet the demands on the air bleed system and in view of the air and Gnd.
   configuration

        Bleed demand –Ground / Flight                                     N %
                                 Nil                                       99
        Ground            Main engine start                               101
                            Air condition                               *99/101
                   Flight                                                 101

*APU speed: 99% if the ambient temperature < 25° C
            101% if the ambient temperature > 30° C
                                                   139
                                     DOORS (CHAPTER – 52)
ECAM indications
• Green – When doors closed, Amber – When doors not locked
• Slide
   • White when Armed
   • Disarmed no indication
   • Disarmed and door open – Amber dashes
• Stair door – Amber when stair door not locked via SDAC

Main doors
• Consist of Qty. 3 proximity Sws.
    • Escape slide Sw – White slide arm Lt. powered when system is armed
    • Handle Sw. – Handle stow position monitored for door close indication on ECAM via SDAC
    • Hook Sw. – Door lock indication on ECAM via SDAC
Indications
• Red and White lights located below door window can be visual from inside and outside
• White Lt. ON
    • Slide armed and door not locked, when door try to open
Door indication
         • ECAM door close indication appears only both Hook and Handle Sws. Sense NEAR
         • IF one Sw. sense FAR door not locked indicated on ECAM
Slide indication
         • ECAM slide armed indication and Door Lt. appears from both Handle and Escape slide Sws. via
             SDAC
         • Slide armed and door locked – White “SLIDE” and Green door symbol
         • Slide armed and Door not locked – White “SLIDE” and Amber door symbol + White Slide Lt. on
             the door ON
         • Slide armed and door locked – Only door Green symbol
         • Slide disarmed and door not locked – Door symbol amber and amber dashes for slide
• Red Lt. ON
    • Cabin pressure Lt. flashes when
         • residual pressure in the cabin > 0.04 psi and
                 • Slide disarmed + Engines not running
                                                                  CABIN
Mechanical indicators                                           PRESSURE
• Top of the door indicates door locked or unlocked
• Girt bar locked or not will be indicated at the slide arm

•   Pressure Sw. to monitor cabin pressure located in the Fwd Avionics compartment
•   Emergency opening system
    • Disarmed mode
        • Girt bar locked on the door
        • Damper / emergency operation cylinder damps the door movement
    • Armed mode
        • Girt bar locked on the fuselage
        • Damper / emergency operation cylinder powered by gas bottle to open the door automatically and
           deploy the slide

Emergency Doors
• Total qty. 4, can be opened from inside or out side
• Escape slide will automatically deployed if not can be deployed manually
• Each door consists of Qty. 2 proximity Sws.
  • Handle cover flap Sw - Door position will be indicated on ECAM via SDAC
      • Door locked – Door symbol Green ass Sw. target is NEAR
      • Not locked – Amber indication as Sw. target is FAR
  • Handle escape slide Sw.
      • Activates by lever which provides slide indication on the ECAM and door armed white Lt. via
           SDAC

                                                      140
        •   Proximity Sw. sense Slide armed when target is FAR
        •   Slide armed door locked – White “SLIDE” symbol and Green door indication on ECAM
        •   Slide armed door not locked
            • White “SLIDE” symbol on ECAM
            • Door symbol amber
            • Slide armed Lt. between two doors           Slide armed
            • M/C in flight deck                                                           SLIDE
        •   Slide disarmed and door locked                                                ARMED
            • Door Green symbol only                      Door closed
        •   Slide disarmed and door not locked
            • Door amber symbol
            • Slide symbol replaced by amber dashes

                              Lt. ON - Slide armed and door not locked, activated by Handle escape slide
                                       Sw.
      SLIDE
     ARMED


Cargo doors
• Fwd and Aft cargo doors operated by Yellow hydraulic system
• Bulk cargo door manually open inwards
• Locking is monitored by qty 3 proximity sensors and indicated on ECAM
   • Handle Sw. – Provides door indication on ECAM via LGCIU
   • Locking shaft Sw. – Electro selector valve powered when Sw. target FAR
   • Frame Sw. - Provides door indication on ECAM via LGCIU
• Door
   •    locked
       • Both Handle and Frame Sws. Targets must be NEAR
   • Not locked
       • One Sw. sense FAR
• Green Lt. in door operating Sw. area indicates door fully open and locked, Switch located in the door
   actuator, This Sw. only for Green Lt.

•   Electrical control system
    • Enable logic
        • Electro selector valve powered
             • Locking shaft proximity Sw. target far
             • Manual selector valve operated
                 • When manual selector valve operated, integrated proximity sensor sends a signal to the
                     LGCIU to open the electric selector valve and to start electric pump of the yellow hydraulic
                     system. Time delay to switch off pump when closing, allow to lock the door (manually)
                     before door return back from latch position. Time delay starts from the time operating
                     handle is released
•   Can be operated by hand pump if hydraulic not available by holding the operating Sw. and operating hand
    pump by selecting selector valve to manual

Bulk cargo door
• Manually operated and door lock status monitored by proximity Sw. for ECAM indication

Avionics compartment doors
• Total Qty 4, Open / close monitored by Proximity switches for ECAM indication

Air Stair
• Can be operated from cabin (switches located at L1 door) or nose L/G steering lock box Sws.
• Door monitored by proximity switch for ECAM indication




                                                      141
                   POWER PLANT (CHAPTER – 70) [IAE V2500-A5]
•   Thrust – 22000 lbs.
•   Controlled by FADEC, provides engine control, monitoring and maintenance trouble shooting
•   Consist 5 primary modules
    • Fan
        • LP rotor ( N 1 ) consist fan and 4 stage compressor, driven by 5 stage turbine, with 3 bearings
    • Intermediate case
    • HP system (Compressor, combustion chamber and turbine)
        • Combustion chamber located between HP turbine and compressor
        • HP rotor ( N 2 ) consist of 10 stage compressors driven by 2 stage turbine, supported by 2
            bearings
    • LP turbine
    • Accessory drives
        • Located at lower fan case, composed of
            • Angle gear box
            • Main gearbox
                • Driven by HP rotor via internal and angle gear box
                • Consist of gear train that reduces and increases rotational speed to meet specific
                    requirements of each accessory
                • Hydraulic pump, IDG connected to main gear box

•   Engine fuel system
    • Designed to provide fuel to
       • Combustion chamber feeding
       • Cooling fuel for engine oil and IDG oil
       • Compressor air flow control and turbine clearance control
    • Fuel feeding
       • A/C tank fuel enter to LP valve (controlled by Fire P/B and Eng. Master lever) and LP pump. After
            pump goes to Fuel cooled oil cooler before fuel filter. ∆P Sw. on the cooler indicates to flight deck
            if filer is clogged. Fuel temp. sensor on cooler controls Fuel diverted and return valve (FD & RV).
            Next to filter is HP fuel pump, supply fuel to Fuel Metering Unit (FMU).
       • Fuel goes through fuel flow meter to distribution valve which supply 20 fuel nozzles
       • FMU consist of
                   • Metering valve
                   • Over speed valve
                   • Pressure raising and SOV – Closes when engine master lever set to OFF
               • All functions in the FMU controlled by EEC via torque motors (T/M)
               • FMU mounted servo regulator provides and regulates fuel to FMU to T/Ms and
                   • Air cooled oil cooled actuator (ACOCA)
                   • Booster stage bleed valve actuator (BSBVA)
                   • Variable stator vain actuator (VSVA)
                   • Active clearance control actuator (ACCA)
       • Part of the fuel used to cool IDG & Eng. Oil, functions controlled by FD & RV. Returned fuel will go
            back to outer tank under certain conditions
       • EEC will control FD & RV, FMU T/Ms, ACOCA, BSBVA, VSVA and ACCA operation.
       • EEC performs control and fault analysis to regulate fuel and engine operation in all conditions.
       • If EEC both channels fail actuators and servo valves fail safe operation.

    •   Heat management system
        • Heating and cooling of fuel, Eng. Oil and IDG oil will be done by Air cooled oil cooler, Fuel cooled
           oil cooler and IDG fuel cooled oil cooler under control of EEC
        • EEC acts on HMS through FD & RV and ACOC modulating valve.
        • Engine hot oil passes through ACOC and FCOC, ACOC modulation valve control air flow across
           ACOC to keep oil and fuel in limits
        • FD & RV varies cooling fuel flow from max. to min.
        • FD & RV controls Eng. Oil, IDG oil, Fuel temperature minimizing ACOC

                                                       142
        •   EEC controls HMS through 4 modes of operation by taking account of Eng., fuel and oil
            temperature
            • Mode 1
                • Normal return to tank
                   • When engine not in high power setting some fuel return to tanks then heat absorbed
                        in the tank fuel
                   • Return valve opens + ACOC close & fuel goes through IDG FCOC & FCOC to tank
            • Mode 3
                • Engine at high power setting
                   • All the heat will absorbed by burned fuel
                   • Fuel flow is too low to provide required cooling
                   • Fuel will not go to the tank
                   • ACOC valve modulates + return valve close
                   • Fuel goes through IDG FCOC & FCOC via HP pump
            • Mode 4
                • Selected when normal mode + high engine fuel temperature
                • Oil system use to achieve a supplemental cooling of fuel
                   • ACOC valve fully open
                   • Return valve open and fuel goes to tank
                   • Fuel goes through IDG FCOC does not goes through FCOC
            • Mode 5
                • Selected when conditions same as mode 3 but not permitted due to IDG oil temperature is
                   excessive or return to tank not possible due to high return oil temp.
                • ACOC valve fully open
                • Fail safe mode off operation
                • Fuel will circulate through IDG FCOC, FCOC through HP pump
        •   Temperat ures of tank fuel and engine parameter settings will take account to inhibition of fuel to
            tanks
FADEC
• Provides full range engine control and operation through out the flight with dual channel electronic engine
   control and several sensors
• Provide engine system regulation and scheduling to control thrust to optimum engine operation such as
   • Power setting ( EPR or N 1)
   • P2 / T2 heating
   • Acceleration deceleration times
   • Idle speed governing
   • Over speed limits (N 1 & N 2)
   • Fuel flow control
   • VSV control
   • Compressor heating bleed valve control
   • Booster stage bleed valve control ( BSBV)
   • HP turbine cooling
   • Hp / LP turbine active clearance control (HP/LP TACC)
   • Automatic and manual engine starting
   • T/R control
   • Oil and Fuel temp. management through HMS
Power supply
• FADEC self powered by dedicated PMG generator when N 2 > 10%, consist of 2 channel power out puts
   “A” & “B” (115VAC convert to 28 VDC) fed to EEC Channel “A” & “B” respectively
• Also powered by A/C power system ( 28 VDC) during starting, as a back up and testing when engines not
   running (115VAC used for Ignition system and P2/T2 probe heating)
• FADEC system automatically depowerd on Gnd.
   • 5 min after A/C power up
   • 5 min after engine shut down
   • Fire P/B pulled (via EIU)
• Some signals directly hard wired from EEC to some other systems such as
   • TLA signal from throttle resolver to EEC
   • ADIRU

                                                     143
•   Using bite system EEC can detect and isolates failures
    • Single input signal failure
        • No channel changeover, channel in control uses other inputs from other channel via cross channel
            data link
    • Dual input signal failure
        • System runs on Synthesized valves of healthiest channel
    • Single output signal failure
        • Automatic change over to standby active channel
    • Complete output signal failure
        • No power avail to drive torque motor or solenoid system goes to fail safe position
    • Fail safe control
        • If a channel is faulty and active channel can not ensure one engine function, this control moves to
            “fail – safe” position

FADEC Principle
• EEC interface with A/C system via EIU (Engine Interface Unit), Primary parameters EPR, N1, N2, EGT, FF
   sent directly to ECAM. Secondary parameters sent to ECAM via EIU. (EPR = P4.9/P2)
• One EIU for each engine located in 85 & 86vu
• Provides automatic thrust control and thrust parameter limit computation in according to EPR or N1(back
   up mode)
• EEC channels “A” & “B” powered by DC ESS bus and DCBUS 1 respectively
• Managers thrust according to two thrust modes
   • Manual mode depends on TLA
   • Auto mode depends on Auto thrust generated by AFS
• Two idle mode selections
   • Approach idle – When slats extended
   • Minimum idle - Can be modulated up to approach idle during engine anti-ice and wing anti-ice
• Limits for Over speed monitoring N1 & N2 to prevent exceeding speed limits. Also monitors EGT & EPR
• Provides optimum engine operation controlling FF, compressor air flow and turbine clearance
• Monitor and control engine starting by EPR, EGT, N1,N2 and can abort or recycle
• Controls engine starting and Ignition in auto or manual mode when initiates from engine start or engine
   manual start panels
• Supervi ses T/R operation entirely, if inadvertent deployment command to restow. During reverse operation
   thrust controlled as a function of N1
• To provide full rage of control and monitoring EEC interface with
       • ADIRU – Air data parameters TAT, PT(total pressure), P0 (Altitude), Mach number, Both ADIRUs
            send signals to both channels
       • EIU – Concentrate A/C signals
       • Fire P/B and FADEC Gnd. power P/B and A/C power connected to EEC via EIU
       • Other computers to flight deck indications and auto thrust control
       • EEC 2 channels receives separate inputs to avoid malfunctions and fault isolations
       • EEC compares ADIRU airdata signal inputs and sensor inputs for more accuracy, sensor inputs
            are P2, T2 and P0
       • Both EEC channels provides output buses same time identical parameters to each computer
            • Engine control parameters
            • EEC status and fault indications
            • Engine condition parameters
            • Engine rating parameters
            • FADEC system maintenance data
       • EEC receives signals from TLA and engine sensor signals and checks range limits and rate limits
            then performs interface fault detection test
• EIU interfaces
   • Functions
       • Concentrate signals from flight deck panels
       • Activates engine start panel “FAULT” lt.
       • To ensure the segregation of 2 engines
       • Provide electronic engine control with A/C power supply
       • Give required logic and information from the engine to A/C systems

                                                    144
        •   With auto flight system EIU communicates with FCU
        •   EIU comprises with
            • Discrete inputs –Gnd. open circuit types
            • Digital inputs – Differential type, working range 1 – 9 volts
            • Digital outputs – ARINC 429 lines
            • Discrete outputs – On 28V DC open circuit or Gnd. open circuit types
            • Analogue inputs – From oil pressure and quantity transmitters, oil temp. sensor, No 4 bearing
                scavenge pressure transducer, Nacelle temp. sensor
            • Power supply switching
                • Inputs
                     • 28 VDC for own power supply and FADEC power supply, 115 VAC for Ignition control
                • Out puts
                     • Voltage for FADEC power supply or engine Ignition power supply
        •   Performs
            • Acquisition of information
            • Transmission of messages
            • Logics, oil low pressure, APU boost
            • Fault detection logics carried out by internal bites
            • Transmission of results to CFDS
        •    Auto thrust function carried by FMGC, sends command signals to engine through FCU and EIUs
        •    FMGC directly receives inputs from EEC does not go through EIU, EIU also Receives same
            inputs from EEC
        •    EIU receives Environmentally control system signals from zone controllers such as
            • Air condition
            • Wing anti-ice
            • Nacelle anti-ice
        •   EIU receives engine starting control signals from flight deck panels and send to starting. With EIU
            malfunction engine starting not possible
        •   CFDS interfaces faults and bite memory through EIU
        •   BMC interfaces with EEC for bleed control via EIU
        •   LGCIU gives L/G compress signal
        •   SFCC provides Slat/Flap lever retracted position
        •   SEC provides TLA< -3°

Ignition and starting system
• Pneumatic starting system drives HP rotor at a speed high enough to initiate start
• EEC control ignition through a relay box and starting through a start valve
• Ignition “A” powered by “AC ESS BUS” and transferred to “STAT INV BUS” when static inverter in
     operation
• Automatic start
     • EEC opens the start valve and only one ignition exciter energized when HP rotor speed is normal
     • EEC provides full protection during starting sequence
     • After starting is finished closes start valve, cutoff ignition
     • Any fault during start automatic start abort the start procedure
     • FADEC automatically alternates igniters used on successive starts
     • Igniters comes ON automatically at 10% <N2<16% and cut off at 43% N2
• Manual start
     • Start valve opens when engine manual start P/B pressed IN
     • Ignition system energized when Master lever set to ON position (both igniters start and stop at 43%)
     • No automatic shut down function
• Cranking
     • Ignition inhibited during wet or dry cranking
• Continuous ignition
     • Via EEC manually using rotary Sw. selection
     • Automatically by FADEC with engine running and
         • Engine anti – ice P/B set to ON
         • Max TO thrust selected (EPR or rated N1 mode)
         • Flex TO thrust selected (EPR mode)
                                                      145
          • EIU data failed (Ignition and/or bleed configuration data)
          • Approach idle selected
          • In flight unscheduled sub idle or surge
          • Master lever cycled from ON to OFF then back to ON position
• Start sequence aborted 50% N2 automatically if
     • Starter valve failure
     • Ignition failure
     • PRSOV failure (Fuel)
     • Not start
     • Hang start
     • No N1 rotation
• Auto start
     • APU started with electrical power and bleed power ON
          • Mode select Sw. set to Ignition start + EEC arm automatically
          • Master lever ON
              • LP fuel SOV open
              • EEC will open starter valve
              • N2 increases
              • PRSOV de-energized due to master lever ON
          • N2 = 16%
              • EEC provides ignition
              • Ignition automatically selected by EEC + ECAM engine page display
          • N2 = 18%
              • EEC opens FMU
              • Due to fuel flow PRSOV opens (any malfunction EEC closes start valve )
          • N2 = 43%
              • EEC closes starter + stop ignition
              • Engine is now stable at idle set ignition Sw. to normal (If ignition Sw. left on ignition selection
                  continues ignition starts)
              • Any time M/Lever select stop, engine shut down due to PRSOV closer
Start failures
• Automatic mode
     • During start ( Ignition select+ M/lever ON) PRSOV does not open
          • M/C Fault lt on engine control panel + ECAM message
          • Engine automatically shut down (Select M/lever OFF + Ignition Sw. normal)
     • Start time exceeded
          • With in 2 min start valve does not close
          • M/C, S/C ECAM msg.
• Manual mode
     • During start (Ignition select + Start P/B on start control panel press + M/lever ON) PRSOV does not
          open with fuel pressure rising
          • M/C, ECAM msg. FAULT LT. on engine control panel
          • Manuel engine shut down (EEC does not shut down engine)
              • Start P/B press + M/lever OFF + Ignition selection set to normal)
     • Start time exceeded
          • M/C, S/C and manual engine shut down to be done
Air system
• Ensures the control of compressor airflow and turbine clearance
• Compressor air flow
     • Provided by
          • Booster stage bleed valve system – Permits booster compressor air flow discharge in to fan air
              stream to ensure booster compressor output matches the HP compressor at low engine speed
              and deceleration
          • Variable stator vain system – Directs airflow in to HP compressor 4 initial stages to prevent stall
              and engine surge
                                         th             th
          • Additional bleed valve at 7 (qty 3) and 10 (qty 1) stages of the HP compressor – Complete the
              compressor air flow control
          • All these are controlled by EEC
                                                        146
•   Turbine clearance control and cooling
                                                            th
    • EEC controls ACC valve for HP & LP turbine and 10 stage make up air valve for supplementary
        internal cooling of the turbine
    • Ensure blade tip clearance for better performance
    • EEC controls dual ACC valve with discharges fan air through manifolds to cool the surfaces of the HP
        & LP turbine cases during climb and cruise
                                                                         th              nd
    • Make up valves supplies supplemented air from HP compressor 10 stage to cool 2 stage vanes,
        hubs and both disks of the HP turbine, during cruise valve close

•   No4 bearing compartment cooling
                    th
    • Cooled by 12 stage air of the HP compressor
                                            th
    • Air cooled air cooler (ACAC) cools 12 stage air of the HP compressor before goes to No.4 bearing
       compartment, fan air then goes to over board
•   Nacelle temperature
    • Monitored by temp. sensor installed in ventilated core compartment and indication provided to ECAM
       lower display except during engine start (Ignition indication will be replaced)

Engine Control presentation
• Engine FADEC Gnd. Power panel (located on the maintenance panel)

            ENG
       FADEC GND PWR
      1              2
                                            Pressed IN – Provides Engines 1 or 2 FADEC power when
                                                         engines Shut down
                                                        - ON Lt. illuminates
     ON                ON



Engine MAN start panel (located on the OVHD panel)

            ENG
          MAIN START
      1                2
                                            Pressed IN – Open Engine start valves in the manual start mode
                                                         or during engine cranking
                                                        - ON Lt. illuminates
     ON                ON



•   N1 mode Push buttons

           N1 MODE
      1                2
                                            Pressed IN – If engine control mode failure can be selected N1
                                                           mode manually
                                                        - If One or both engine thrust no longer be managed
     ON                ON                                 in EPR mode (both engines must be in the same
                                                          mode)
                                                       - ON LT. illuminates

•   Thrust Levers
    • T/lever positions are transmitted by electrical signals to the FADEC system
    • Each T/lever is fitted with a reverse thrust latching and an auto thrust instinctive disconnect push
        button.
•   Engine panel (Located on the center pedestal)
    • Provides
        • Control start sequences in automatic and manual modes
        • Engine cranking
    • Consist with
        • Rotary selector to initiate either an IGN START or a CRANK sequence
                                                      147
        •      Qty 2 Master levers to control the HP fuel valve and provide FADEC functions command for rest
        •      Qty 2 indicator lights with FIRE and FAULT legends

Fault Lt.   ON
      •      Automatic start abort
      •      Start valve fault
      •      Disagreement between HP fuel valve position and commanded position

Engine control panel

                                  ENG
            MASTER 1                              MASTER 2
                  ENG                                ENG
        ON         1                                  2        ON
       OFF                                                     OFF
                                  MODE
                                  NORM

                          CRANK           IGN
             FIRE                         START         FIRE

             FAULT                                     FAULT



              1                                            2


Engine thrust management
• Predicted EPR indicated by white circle on the EPR indicator corresponds value determine by the Trust
   lever angle
• Thrust limit modes
   • Depends on the TLA and will be indicated on the E/W display be EEC
   • T/ lever in between two detents upper limit considers as the T/ limit
   • Modes
        • CL : Climb
        • MCT : Maximum continuous thrust
        • FLX : Flexible take off
        • TOGA : Take – off / Go around
• EPR Limit
   • On each T/ limit mode selection EPR limit will be calculated according to the airdata indicated next to
        the Thrust limit mode indication on the E/W display
• EPR Target
   • Computed by FMGC
   • For other thrust functions FMGC computes according to airdata and engine parameters and send to
        EEC
• EPR Command
   • A/THR engaged
        • A/THR active (T/lever < Flex / MCT)
            • Regulates the fuel flow with FMGC EPR targets
        • A/THR not active ( T/lever > Flex / MCT)
            • EPR correspond to the T/lever angle
   • A/THR not engaged (Manual control mode)
        • EEC process EPR command according to the TLA
• Actual EPR
   • Actual value given by ratio of the LPT exhaust and inlet pressure
   • Displayed in Green on the EPR indicator and also compare with EPR command
• Max EPR
   • Indicated as amber index
   • Limit value of the EPR corresponding to the T/lever full foreword position



                                                       148
•    Back up N1 mode
     • Rated N1 mode
             • If EPR sensor failure EEC automatically reverts to rated N1 mode (P2 or/and P5 sensor fail)
             • On the ECAM EPR indicator crossed amber
             • EEC uses TLA and airdata reference
            • A/THR system not available + A – floor lost
        • To select N1 mode both engines N1 P/Bs must be pressed IN manually
            • Signal send corresponding FADEC system to conform or to force N1mode selection
            • On the ECAM EPR indication crossed and N1 mode limits displayed instead of EPR limits
            • On the N1 indicator, predicted N1 (white circle) replaces the predicted EPR
     • Unrated N1 mode
        • If ADR signal not available or T2 sensor fail (engine inlet total air temperature) or programming
            plug not installed
            • EEC reverts to unrated N1 mode from rated N1 mode or rated EPR mode to unrated N1 mode
            • N1 limitation no longer computed
            • N1 command directly related to the TLA
            • No longer engine protection from over boost (e.g. Go around)
•   EPR recovery logic
    • With FADEC in either rated or unrated N1 mode, switching OFF the ENG N1 MODE P/B will permit to
        return EPR mode if failure has disappeared
•   Thrust control unit (Qty 2 units)
    • Consist of
        • Qty 2 Resolvers
        • Qty 6 Potentiometers
•   Pressure raising and shut off valve (PRSOV)
    • Part of FMU (not a LRU)
    • Isolates fuel supply to fuel nozzles
    • Opens during engine start when fuel pressure high enough for FMU control

Primary parameters (displayed on E/W display)
Exhaust gas temperature (EGT)
• Actual EGT
    • Normally Green
    • Reading remain Green but Pointer pulses in Amber Temp. > 610 °C
• Max EGT
    • Amber dot (610 °C)
    • Will nor displayed during engine start
• Max possible EGT
    • Red strip
    • At 635 °C Red line appears
        • Disappears after both engines shut down or after maintenance action on MCDU
    • During engine start Red tick appears at 590 °C
N1 indication
• Normally used in T/R operation to manage the engine power
• Used as a backup if EPR sensor failure
• Actual N1
    • Normally Green
    • Pulses Red if reading > 100%
    • Pulses Amber if reading > N1 rating limit in N1 mode
• Max possible N1
    • Indicated as Red strip
    • Appears when 100% exceeded and a Red mark remains at the max value achieved
        • Disappears after both engines shut down or after maintenance action on MCDU
N2 indication
• Indicates the HP rot or speed in Green
• If speed > 100% become Red crosses
• Disappears after both engines shut down or after maintenance action on MCDU
• High lighted in gray during start sequence
                                                    149
Fuel flow indication
• Indication in Green
• Units on KG/H

EPR
• Actual EPR – Indicates in green
• EPR command arc – Only displayed with A/THR engaged in blue
• EPR TLA – Correspond to T/L position indicated with white circle
• EPR max – When T/L in full fwd provided EPR, in amber index
• REV – Amber when T/R door unlock or unstowed
       - Green when T/R fully deployed
• EPR rating limit – Displayed on R/H top of the E/W display with correspond to the limit mode selection
                    - Computed by FADEC
• EPR limit mode – displayed selected mode in blue
   • In flight or on gnd. with engine stopped – mode correspond to the detent of the most advanced T/L
      position
   • On Gnd. with engine running – What ever the lever position limited to TOGA thrust limit. If Flex mode
      selected “FLEX EPR” will be displayed what ever the T/L position between idle and FLEX/MCT

Secondary parameters (displayed on the system display)
• Fuel used
• Oil quantity
• Oil pressure
• Oil temperature
• Vibration
• Oil filter clog
• Fuel filter clog
• Ignition – appears during start sequence instead of nacelle temperature
• Start valve position
• Engine bleed pressure
• Nacelle temperature

N1 sensors
• Comes as a one unit with Qty 4 sensors
    • Qty 2 N1 speed sensors, one for each FADEC channels
    • Qty 1 N1 speed spare sensor (Only for N1 the sensors)
    • Qty 1 EVMU input sensor (trim balance sensor)

Dedicated N2 generator
• Qty 2 output plugs
   • One for each FADEC channel (A & B)
• Consist of Qty. 4 windings
   • Two windings provides AC voltage to power FADEC channels “A” and “B”
   • One provides N2 speed sensing to the FADEC for indication and monitoring and same winding in the
       generator provides N2 speed for EVMU monitoring
   • Other winding provides engine low speed sensing and indication to the EEC channel “A”
   • N2 speed signal is derived from the frequency O/P of dedicated generator

EPR probes
• P2/T2 probe
   • Qty 3 electrical connections
       • Qty 2 electrical connections to EEC (each channel) for T2 signal
       • 115VAC probe heating connection
   • One pneumatic P2 signal to EEC
• P4.9 sensors
   • Pneumatic sensor provides total pressure of the exhaust gas stream to EEC

EGT thermocouple
   • Qty 4 T/C rakes
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Vibration pickup
    • Located on the fan area to monitor vibration on fancase (by EVMU) and to indicate on the ECAM

Thrust Reverser
• Controls by EEC via Hydraulic control unit (HCU)
• Each translating cowl operated by Qty 2 hydraulic actuators
• Actuators are synchronize by a flexible cable running in side the hydraulic tube
• Lock out pin can lock the sleeve at Fwd thrust position
• To deactivate T/R, HCU also must be deactivated with the provided safety pin
• When T/R selected, signal sent to EIU and EEC then to T/R via HCU (hydraulic control unit)
• Actuation of T/R
    • Each cowl got two hydraulic actuators
    • Actuator receives fluid from HCU, controlled by EIU and EEC
• Reverser control
    • Throttle control unit sends TLA signal to
        • EEC by means of resolvers
        • EIU by means of potentiometers, via SECs for EIU inhibition relay closer
        • EEC supplies a signal to isolation valve and directional valve located in the HCU to select T/R
             deployment and stow sequence
        • Supply to the directional valve also depends on the closer of the EIU inhibition relay
        • To command the T/R EEC needs “air Gnd. signal, supplied by the LGCIU via the EIU
        • When deploy sequence is commanded pressure in the lower actuator releases the locks as the
             four actuator position move rearward to deploy the reverser
• REV indication on the ECAM
    • Displayed Amber on the middle of the EPR dial when at least one translating cowl unstowed
    • If this happens in flight REV flashes for 9 sec and then remain steady
    • REV becomes Green when T/R cowl at deployed position
    • No indication at stowed position
• Proximity switch (Qty 2 for each engine)
    • Located on the lower actuator provides lock position to the EEC(sleeves lock or not)
• Reverser test can be carried out via MCDU
• LVDT sense an uncommanded movement of the T/R from the stowed or deployment and provide reverser
    position to EEC (Qty 2 for each engine)
• LVDT located in the upper actuator and proximity switch located in the lower actuator on each cowl
    (L/H cowl signals for channel “A” and R/H cowl signals for channel “B”)
• Pressure Switch (Qty 1for each engine located on the HCU)
    • Two contacts on each Sw. provides energiesation signal of the isolation valve & hydraulic pressure to
        each channel of EEC
• Auto restow
    • In forward thrust, if EEC detects any uncommanded movement > 10% from stow it commands an auto
        restow of the T/R
    • Following auto restow isolation valve in the HCU remain energized for the rest of the flight
    • In forward thrust, if EEC detects any uncommanded movement > 15% from stow it commands to
        engine to go to idle power
• Auto redeploy
    • In reverse thrust if EEC detects any uncommanded movement > 10% from fully deploy it commands
        auto redeploy of the T/R
    • When auto redeploy initiated to counteract inadvertent stow EEC will command the isolation valve to
        close and maintain close until forward thrust has been reselected
    • During reverse thrust if EEC detects any uncommanded movement > 22% from full deploy it
        commands engine idle power
• Requirements to deploy T/R
    • FADEC channel operating with its associated throttle reverse signal
    • R/H and L/H MLG compressed signal from LGCIUs
    • TLA reverse signal from at lease one SEC




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Oil system
• Dry sump full flow type system
• Major components
     • ACOC
     • FCOC
     • Oil tank

System includes
• Supply circuit
    • Tank oil passes through pressure pump and filter to lubricate bearing compartment and angle gear box
    • Oil temperature sensor is used for Heat management system
    • Oil differential pressure (∆P) switch for monitoring and warning to the flight deck when scavenge pump
       is clogged
    • If scavenge filter becomes clogged ∆P Sw. send a signal to open bypass vavle
    • ECAM activation will be ∆P > 12 psi and Bypass valve opens at 20 psi

•   Scavenge circuit
    • Qty 6 scavenge pumps sucks oil from Fwd and Aft bearing compartments, angle and main gear box
       then return to the tank through scavenge filter
    • Oil temperature sensor is used for Heat management system
    • Oil differential pressure (∆P) switch for monitoring and warning to the flight deck when scavenge pump
       is clogged
    • If scavenge filter becomes clogged ∆P Sw. send a signal to open bypass valve
    • ECAM activation will be ∆P > 12 psi and Bypass valve opens at 20 psi


•   Vent circuit
    • Air in the scavenge oil separated in the tank by deaerator and deoiler
    • No 4bearing oil goes to deoiler to separate air in the oil through No:4 bearing scavenge valve which
       maintains the compartment differential pressure to ensure adequate sealing
    • At low engine speed No:4 bearing scavenge valve will be fully open and close to minimum area at high
       engine speeds
    • Pressure transducer installed on the line monitors No:4 bearing scavenge pressure.
    • Separated air will be OVBD




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