Circulatory Respiratory System

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Circulatory Respiratory System Powered By Docstoc
					Circulatory & Respiratory
         System

        By: Alica Boleware
             Grace Oh
            Daniel Naji
    The Respiratory System

   The respiratory system is situated
     in the thorax, and is responsible
      for gaseous exchange between
      the circulatory system and the
    outside world. Air is taken in via
       the upper airways (the nasal
       cavity, pharynx and larynx)
        through the lower airways
      (trachea, primary bronchi and
    bronchial tree) and into the small
    bronchioles and alveoli within the
                lung tissue.
  Respiratory System:
The Anatomy of the Nose

                    The nose consists of certain parts,
                   such as: external meatus- triangular-
                  shaped projection in the center of the
                  face; external nostrils - two chambers
                  divided by the septum; septum - made
                     up primarily of cartilage and bone
                   and covered by mucous membranes.
                    The cartilage also gives shape and
                   support to the outer part of the nose;
                      nasal passages- passages that are
                    lined with mucous membranes and
                  tiny hairs (cilia) that help to filter the
                                     air.
        Respiratory System:
     The Anatomy of the Pharynx



   Pharynx can be divided into three
         regions: nasopharynx,
          oropharynx, and the
            laryngopharynx.
       The Pharynx:
The Anatomy of Nasopharynx
     Continuous with the nasal cavity via the internal
      nares.
     Lined by respiratory epithelium.
     Contains the opening to the auditory tube, also
      called the Eustachian Tube, which connects the
      pharynx to the middle ear cavity.
       It functions to ensure that the air pressure
         within the middle ear cavity is equal to
         atmospheric pressure.
     Contains the pharyngeal tonsil.
      The Pharynx:
The Anatomy of Oropharynx

      Oropharynx
        Inferior to the uvula and superior to the
         epiglottis.
        Lined by non-keratinized stratified
         squamous epithelium due the fact it is a
         common pathway for food and air.
        The palatine tonsils are located near the
         opening of the oral cavity into the pharynx.
         The Pharynx:
The Anatomy of Laryngopharynx
        Laryngopharynx
          Inferior to the epiglottis and superior to the
            split between the larynx and the esophagus.
          Similar to the oropharynx, it is lined by
            non-keratinized stratified squamous
            epithelium because it is a common
            passageway for food and air.
          Lingual tonsils are located on the posterior
            surface of the tongue, which also places
            them near the opening of the oral cavity
            into the pharynx
 The Respiratory System:
The Anatomy of the Larynx
                  The Larynx routes food and air down
                   their correct passages. Larynx has an
                  arrangement of 9 cartilages connected
                     by membranes and ligaments and
                       lined by respiratory epithelium.
                  Certain kinds of cartilages (all hyaline
                    expect epiglottis), such as: thyroid,
                  cricoid, epiglottis (made up of elastic
                         cartilage) and 3 small paired
                     cartilages. Thyroid cartilage is the
                      largest and its midline laryngeal
                      prominence, which is the famous
                    male’s “Adam’s apple.” The 3 pairs
                   of small cartilages form much of the
                      posterior and lateral larynx. The
                  epiglottis extends from the base of the
                     tongue to its hinge on the superior
                                thyroid cartilage.
    The Respiratory System:
    The Anatomy of Trachea

    The trachea extends from the larynx to the mediastinum, where
        it splits into 2 primary bronchi that are lined by respiratory
         epithelium which is also associated with abundant mucus
                                    secretion.
         The trachea is reinforced by about 18 C-shaped rings of
         cartilage. These rings prevent the trachea from collapsing
        during inspiration. The open portion of the cartilage rings is
      posterior and there you find the trachealis muscle. The lack of
       posterior cartilage is significant due to the fact it provides the
      esophagus with room to expand when a large bolus of food is
                                   swallowed.
      The trachea has a carina which is the point where the trachea
               divides into the left and right primary bronchus.
 The Respiratory System:
The Anatomy of the Bronchi

                    Bronchi is divided into
                      two main bronchi; the
                    left and the right. It is the
                    air entrance to each lung.
                    Bronchioles are the
                       smaller airways that
                      sends air to the inside
                     walls of lungs where the
                             alveoli is.
        The Respiratory System:
       The Anatomy of the Lungs
    The lungs are divided into lobes;
     The left lung is composed of the
    upper lobe, the lower lobe and the
     lingula (a small remnant next to
      the apex of the heart), the right
      lung is composed of the upper,
     the middle and the lower lobes.
    Alveoli is located inside walls of
    the lungs; it allows the oxygen to
      be absorbed by the blood cells
       and oxygenates the blood for
      transfer throughout the human
       body. It is also the site of gas
      exchange in the lungs, must be
         moist for gases to diffuse.
   The Respiratory System:
The Anatomy of the Diagraphm
                       Diaphragm is a layer of
                     muscles that is located at the
                         bottom of the chest. It
                      functions to help pump the
                       CO2 out of the lungs and
                      pull the O2 into the lungs.
                          When the diaphragm
                     contracts, oxygen is pulled
                         into the lungs; when it
                       relaxes, carbon dioxide is
                        pumped out of the lungs
                Passage of Oxygen Gas

                     Sinus
                               Pharynx   Larynx
                                                  Trachea
nose




                                                  Bronc
                                         Bronc
       Circulatory           Alveoli              hi
                                         hioles
     The Respiratory System:
           Key Terms


   Nose is the organ of smell that enters air into the animal’s body;
    it functions to prevent any airborne particles proceeding into the
                                     lungs.
   Pharynx is known as the throat; it extends from the mouth to the
                                    larynx.
   Larynx is known as the “voice box”; it functions as an airway to
                                  the lungs.
   Trachea is the cartilage rings, strong but flexible. It is lined with
        ciliated cells that push mucus and foreign particles upward.
  Mechanics of Breathing



       Exhalation               Diaphragm
                                  relaxes
                                (moves up)




Inhalation                      Diaphragm contracts
                                   (moves down)


                    diaphragm                         Exhalation
  Inhalation
             Respiratory Issues:
                  Asthma

      Asthma is a chronic disease that affects 300 million people
                               worldwide.
   Symptoms include repeated attacks of loss of breath and wheezing.
                      Asthma can be caused by:
                               Genetics
                        Environment (pollution)
              Allergens (cat hair, dander, pollen, mold)
                                Smoke
                  Asthma can have various triggers:
                               Cold air
                          Some medications
                           Emotional stress
              Respiratory Issues:
                 Bronchitis

   Bronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchial tubes, which carry air
                                 to the lungs.
      As a result, excess mucus is produced, inducing coughing fits.
     Acute Bronchitis is a short-lived affliction with a quick onset and
             recovery, with only about 2-3 weeks of symptoms.
      Chronic Bronchitis is a long-term affliction that mostly plagues
                                   smokers.
    Chronic Bronchitis is characterized by a period of at least 3 months
                  of symptoms for a minimum of two years.
              Respiratory Issues:
                 Pneumonia

      Pneumonia is an infection of the lungs that causes
           coughs, fever, and breathing difficulties.
     It can be caused by viruses, bacteria, or parasites.

    Symptoms include: coughing, fever, chest pain, chills,
                          and fatigue.
    Chronic diseases such as asthma, cancer, diabetes, and
               heart problems increase your risk.
             Diagnosed by an X-ray or blood test.
     What Is Next?

 Between the lungs, the heart fits
  snugly in the middle of the chest
leading us to the circulatory system.
The Circulatory System

       The circulatory system is
     made up of the vessels and the
     muscles that help and control
      the flow of the blood around
        the body. This process is
      called circulation. The main
       parts of the system are the
     heart, arteries, capillaries and
                  veins.
 The Circulatory System:
The Anatomy of the Heart

                     The center of the circulatory
                    system is the heart, which is the
                     main pumping mechanism (for
                    blood). The shape of the heart is
                       described as a cone, with a
                     pointed bottom and round top.
                   Apparently, the hollowness of the
                    heart is for has the ability to be
                     filled with blood. The heart is
                   made of a muscular wall called a
                     septum - solid enough for the
                   blood to have the inability to flow
                    back and forth between the left
                      and right halves of the heart.
               The Heart is in Half?
   The heart is broken into four chambers - each top chamber is called an atrium, "the holding
    chamber" while the bottom chambers are called ventricles, "the pumping chamber". Hence,
    each side of the heart has its own system - a right heart and a left heart. Each side consist of
    an atrium and a ventricle while blood can flow from the top chamber to bottom chamber but
    never between both sides. Because the blood can flow from the atria down to the ventricles,
      there are openings, called valves, in the walls to separate them. Valves have the ability to
     open in one direction to let blood pass through, however; when they close blood can't flow
    backwards to the atria. There are valves (at the bottom of the large arteries) that carry blood
     away from the heart, they are called the aorta and pulmonary artery. These valves keep the
    blood from flowing backward into the heart (once its pumped inside the heart it can't leave).
             Wait, more valves?
      In the right atrium, the deoxygenated
       blood from the body enters using the
          tricuspid valve, made up of three
     tissues, to flow the blood into the right
       ventricle. Contraction of the ventricle
         then closes the tricuspid valve and
    forces open the pulmonary valve. Blood
     flows into the pulmonary artery, which
        carries the blood to the right and left
         lungs. ( The blood gives up carbon
     dioxide and takes on a fresh supply of
          oxygen.) The capillary beds of the
      lungs are drained by venules that are
      the tributaries of the pulmonary veins.
        Four pulmonary veins, two draining
      each lung, carry oxygenated blood to
     the left atrium of the heart. For the left
      atrium, blood flows through the mitral
     valve into the left ventricle. Contraction
      of the ventricle closes the mitral valve
          and opens the aortic valve at the
                entrance to the aorta.
Does blood spill all over the place
    when it leaves the heart?

     Nope, the blood flows smoothly in tubes called blood vessels. The
    blood flows into tubes called arteries which branches to form smaller
     blood vessels called veins, the second smallest blood vessel. Veins
       are made up of capillaries which forms a network of tiny vessels
       throughout the body. Capillaries are extremely thin so blood can
     come into close contact with our body's tissues. Blood vessels carry
       the blood in a circular motion: moving away from the heart into
        arteries, traveling to various parts of the body in capillaries and
                           going back to heart in veins.
      2) Vein
 Any blood vessels
    that carries
deoxygenated blood
 towards the heart
 Superior Vena Cava is a
type of veins that returns
 the deoxygenated blood
  from the upper part of
       human body.




    Inferior Vena Cava is a   Aorta is a main arterial
        type of veins that     trunk and the largest
           returns the           blood vessel that
      deoxygenated blood        carries oxygenated
     from the lower part of       blood from left
            the body.             ventricles to the
                               branches of arteries.
 Pulmonary arteries is one of the arteries that carry blood from the right
ventricle to both left/right lungs. There the blood is oxygenated and sent
                        to the left atrium in the heart.
Pulmonary veins carry the oxygenated blood from both lungs to the left
                              atrium in the heart.
  Septum is a dividing partition between the right and left sides of the
                                      heart;
                 Intertribal septum separates the atriums
              Interventrial septum separates the ventricles.
Tricuspid valve is located between the right atrium and right ventricle; it
    functions to close the ventricle when it pumps the blood into the
                               pulmonary artery.
 Mitral valve/ bicuspid valve is located on the right side of the heart; it
         functions to keep the blood flow in one direction only.
The Circulatory System:
     Blood Flow
The Circulatory System:
 Blood Flow Continues
                Circulatory Issues:
                  Heart Disease

        Heart disease and coronary artery disease are the two
                major leading causes of death in the U.S.
       Heart attacks occur when the flow of blood through the
                    coronary arteries are obstructed.
       The obstructions are most often caused by the buildup of
            plaque (lipids and cholesterol) on the inner wall.
          Circulatory System:
            Blood Pressure

   Hypertension – high blood pressure – is caused by a
                variety of factors, including:
                         Stress

                          Diet

                       Genetics

                       Smoking

   Hypertension can be treated easily with an altered diet
             increased exercise, and medicine.
            Circulatory System:
                HIV/AIDS
         HIV/AIDS impairs the immune system, letting opportunistic
                              infections kill the host.
         It is spread through bodily fluids, such as sexual contact and
                                  sharing needles.
         The virus affects nearly 40 million people worldwide and 22
                                 million have died.
        The HIV virus infects the CD4 T-cell (a white blood cell) and
                                 replicates inside.
       When a person’s CD4 T-cell count drops below 200, they have
                                       AIDS.
                    The virus was first documented in 1981.
       It is believed to have evolved as a variant of SIV, which infects
                       simian primates like the Chimpanzee.
Lets Play Games!:
Circulatory System
            Lets Play Games!:
            Respiratory System
    One day, Jennifer just ran the freshman mile and begins
     to have shortness of breathe. Her best friend gives her a
        pump. What is her disease, and how did affect her?
    Allison is a freshman at college. She begins hanging out
    with Jeff a lot in her dorm room. Allison and Jeff begin a
      relationship, but aren’t always careful. Ten years have
    passed, Jennifer begins to throw up and feel really weak.
      Now, her immune system has been infected and must
    take daily pills. What is her disease, and how did it affect
                                 her?
Lets Play Games!:
Respiratory System
                                   Across
3. lowest part of the brain that control homeostatic functions such as
                breathing, heart and blood vessel activity.
                 5. the pressure air exerts on all objects.
                   6. site of gas exchange in the lungs.
      8. a vessel that carries blood away from the heart to organs
                            throughout the body.
   9. cartilage rings; lined with ciliated cells that pushes mucus and
                         foreign particles upward.
                  10. the 2 lower chambers in the heart.
                                   Down
1. one cell thick blood vessel where substances are absorbed into and
                          out of the blood stream.
     2. strength of the heart's contractions against the artery walls.
                4. a vessel that returns blood to the heart.
                   6. the 2 upper chambers in the heart.
  7. an invaginated respiratory surface of terrestrial vertebrates that
              connects to the atmosphere by narrow tubes.
                           References:
   “Blood Flow Through the Heart” Online image. 2010. Bay Area Medical Information.
    11 Apr. 1020 http://www.bami.us/CardiacAnatomy.html
   “Nose” Online image. 2010. SMART. 11Apr. 2010
<mypages.iit.edu/~smart/essijea/lesson2.htm>

    http://www.americanheart.org/presenter.jhtml?identifier=11069
    http://web.buddyproject.org/web019/web019/heart.html
    Physiology of the Nose
     http://health.ucsd.edu/specialties/surgery/otolaryngology/nasal/physiology.htm