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WHITE PAPER _ DEFENCE REVIEW

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					WHITE PAPER & DEFENCE
       REVIEW

  “Defence Update 2004”


   Portfolio Committee on Defence

          12 October 2004
                                    1
Portfolio Committee
          on
      Defence


 17 August 2004
                      2
• The Portfolio Committee on Defence (PCD) was briefed on 17
  August 2004, and ameliorated the DOD’s initial approach.

   – The PCD felt that the existing WP&DR should not be redrafted, as
     they are robust and are adequate baseline documents for defence
     policy.

   – Nevertheless, there is a need for an update of some aspects of the
     WP&DR, as well as ensuring some alignment matters are dealt
     with.

• The PCD required the DOD to produce one clear, concise,
  consolidated, report of about 30 to 35 pages covering the
  challenges facing Defence and the strategies that should be
  pursued to meet these challenges.

• At the present moment, this work lies on the programme of the
  PCD, but may shift to the programme of the Joint Standing
  Committee on Defence (JSCD) after its establishment.
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• Some of the topics/ challenges that should be addressed
  include:

   – The strategic and political environment (changing issues,
     developments, and responses to those changes).
   – Unilateral approaches to pursuing peace and security, the unilateral
     use of economic force, and the corresponding threat to
     multilateralism;
   – The illegitimate use of force by states and non-state forces;
   – An understanding of Human Security appropriate for South Africa’s
     defence;
   – The expanding nature of secondary roles and functions; especially
     peacekeeping and external deployments related to promoting
     peace and security.
   – Must examine the Defence MTEF framework and address
     unfunded mandates arising from (inter alia) our international
     commitments.



                                                                        4
   Drafting of the
Defence Update 2004


   Design Architecture




                         5
• TITLE:         DEFENCE 2014

• FOREWORD                (By the Minister of Defence)

• INTRODUCTION
   – The Introduction of the Defence Update 2004 will firstly articulate
     briefly the need for an update to the existing White Paper 1996
     (WP).
   – Accordingly, it will speak to the timing for the update (i.e. tens years
     after) and highlight the changes outside, as well as inside, South
     Africa that necessitates an update (such as the establishment of
     the African Union (AU) and the rise of new security threats).
   – Secondly, the Introduction sketches the structure of the Defence
     Update 2004 i.e. the thematic areas of focus and contents
     contained within the various chapters.
   – Thirdly, the Introduction must highlight very briefly the challenges,
     implications and recommendations that are underscored in the
     constituent chapters.
   – Finally the introduction must outline the methodology employed in
     the update process.
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• CHAPTER ONE:        CHANGED STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENT
  (Draft No 4 Completed)

• One of the primary reasons for the Defence Update 2004 is the
  changing nature of the external environment. Since the 1996
  WP, the international strategic and security environment has
  shifted quite dramatically. A range of non-traditional security
  threats, new actors, and non-conventional methods of
  destabilisation and destruction confront our contemporary world.
  Subsequently, some of the previous policy positions and
  approaches about national defence and security require
  updating. This part of the update will also be based on
  Government’s security and foreign policy objectives.

• Accordingly, this chapter will be structured having the following
  sections.


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– The Global Context: This section speaks to the changes in the international
  environment that has implications for world peace and security, such as the
  rise of international terrorism. It further identifies trends that inform the
  strategic environment.

– The Continental Context: This section of the chapter is a new input (as
  compared to the 1996 WP) that reflects changes in our continent, especially
  from an institutional perspective in the search for peace, stability and
  development. Accordingly, the inauguration of the AU and its concomitant
  structures such as the Peace and Security Council (PSC), the African
  Standby Force (ASF); and the implications for the DOD, needs to be
  discussed in this section.

– The Regional Context: This section discusses developments in the past ten
  years regarding regional defence and security co-operation, the required
  institutions and mechanisms, and their implications for our defence policy
  and department. These institutions and mechanisms include the SADC-
  OPDSC and the SADC Mutual Defence Pact, among others.

– The Domestic Context: This section looks inward to review changes from a
  national perspective and its implications for the DOD and its policies. In
  other words, it provides an examination of the posture and orientation of
  Government policy, the national security policy, and the role of the DOD in
  fulfilment thereof.

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•   CHAPTER TWO:           COLLECTIVE SECURITY
    (Draft No 6 Completed)

•   This chapter firstly contextualises the contents within the concept of
    security, its broadened conceptualisation (which places emphasis on a
    human security approach), and the governmental approach to security
    as envisaged by Cabinet, the IRPS and JCPS Clusters, the Ten
    Review and the Final Report of the UN Human Security Commission.

•   Secondly, the chapter will exemplify South Africa’s foreign security
    policy of pursuing multilateral approaches to peace and security and
    conflict resolution, be it at an international, continental or regional level.
    Accordingly, South Africa’s (and by implication the DOD’s) role and
    involvement in security mechanisms at these different levels, need to
    be analysed. As such the role South Africa has played in the last ten
    years (and will continue playing) within mechanisms such as the
    SADC-OPDSC, the AU-PSC and ASF, and the UN Standby
    arrangements, will be explored in this chapter.

•   Finally, this chapter outlines the fundamental features of South Africa’s
    defence diplomacy. Of equal significance are international conventions
    relating to arms control and non-proliferation matters, international
    humanitarian law, terrorism and other matters, that have been acceded   9
    to and ratified by South Africa.
•   CHAPTER THREE:         ROLE AND FUNCTIONS
    (Draft No 4 Completed)

•   The purpose of this chapter is to explain the expanding roles and
    functions of the DOD / SANDF as shaped by its external defence policy
    and commitments. Furthermore this chapter will articulate the changing
    dynamics of the role and functions of the DOD / SANDF as influenced
    by the strategic environment, such as peacekeeping and contribution to
    the SADC Brigade of the ASF.

•   As such it would speak to the Military Strategic Objectives and the
    Mission Based Approach thereof (which categorises homogonous
    groupings of tasks into missions). It will provide alternative approach to
    the rigid “primary & secondary” concepts in the 1998 Defence Review.

•   This chapter would also provide an understanding of the challenges
    and implications in performing these expanding and changing roles and
    functions. In addition chapter three examines the Force Design and
    Structure of the SANDF, and the costed and affordable design aligned
    with budgetary realties, and the organisational structure.

•   This chapter accordingly provides a determination of capabilities
                                                                   10
    required to fulfil new Roles and Functions.
• CHAPTER FOUR: DEFENCE GOVERNANCE
  (Draft No 7 Completed)

• A chapter on Defence Governance would basically entail
  moving beyond chapter two on Civil-Military Relations in the
  1996 WP. This chapter will firstly reflect the challenges of the
  DOD structure (in terms of the distinction between the functions
  of the Defence Secretariat and the Chief SANDF), that have
  arisen since the inception of these structures.

• Secondly it will articulate the management and policy decision
  making processes that are regulated by the practices of
  Integrated Governance and the Cluster System; the Defence
  finance and budgetary considerations that are informed by the
  Regulatory Framework of the PFMA; the Defence Act of 2002;
  and the Public Service Act.


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• CHAPTER FIVE:        DEFENCE RESOURCES

• This Chapter will address the resource requirements of the
  defence intent contained in Chapters 1 to 3. The 1996-98
  WP&DR where developed at the same time as the budget
  reforms of the MTEF where being developed. The envisaged
  changes to the White Paper & Defence Review must ensure
  reasonable alignment of strategy with resources and funding
  and achieve a consensus on the related risks.

• Required tangible resources such as the land, buildings,
  equipment, inventories, personnel, information and other
  resources exist through prior investment or through deliberate
  investment through the Defence Vote.

• The Chapter will accordingly speak to the challenges that
  emanates from these issues.. This chapter further looks at the
  departmental policies regarding human resources (such as
  Human Resource 2010), ICT Strategy of the DOD, and policy
  and challenges concerning Reserves and Veterans.
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• The Chapter will propose a funding model in which risk-based
  capabilities are funded and readiness levels are determined by
  levels of funding.

• Finally the chapter comments on Defence Matèriel Resources to
  indicate challenges in capacity to fulfil expanded and new
  responsibilities.




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• CHAPTER SIX:          CHALLENGES,             RISKS          AND
  IMPLICATIONS

• Flowing from the above chapters significant challenges, risks
  and implications for the DOD’s capabilities can be identified. For
  example, after exploring the expansion of secondary functions,
  the Defence Update 2004 will articulate capacity challenges and
  future requirements to fulfil this role.




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