Understanding scarce skills in the Public Service - PSCBC - Public

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					 Understanding ‘scarce skills’ in
the Public Service with reference
   to the Education and Health
             sectors
     Draft presentation for the PSCBC Conference
                     February 2005


               Dr Andrew Paterson
                     HSRC
      Skills gaps and shortages
   Skills gap: present incumbents do not
    possess the required skills (specific and
    or generic)
   Skills shortage: vacant posts cannot be
    filled (Hard to fill vacancies)
     • Working conditions (remuneration &
       environment)
     • Supply of qualified personnel does not
       meet demand
How skills requirements may be
            defined
   Public policy issue
   Definition is a specification assumed to
    create the conditions for the delivery of
    a service of particular quality
     • X practitioners per Y population
     • Teacher-Learner ratio of 1:40(P) & 1:35(S)
   Educational & health equality
   Budget related issue
   Changed spec. can create a ‘shortage’
Defining skills needs & scarce
            skills
   Identification in terms of unfilled posts
    based on current post structure? How
    recent is Post provisioning model?
   Scarce skills defined in terms of a value
    chain leading to provision of:
     • a service or
     • a product
Flows of human resources:
         overview
                     GLOBAL LABOUR MARKET(S)



                                                             FOREIGN
SOUTH AFRICAN LABOUR            NATIONAL                     PUBLIC
                                DEPTS                        SERVICE
       MARKET
                                                             LABOUR
                                                PROVINCIAL   MARKET(S)
                                                DEPTS
 PRIVATE SECTOR LABOUR
         MARKET
 SECTOR                                                      FOREIGN
                                                             NATIONAL
                                                             LABOUR
 SECTOR                                                      MARKET(S)

                                 LOCAL
 SECTOR                          GOVT
                                                    SOEs




                                      PUBLIC SERVICE
                                      LABOUR MARKET
  Flows of human resources:
     departmental view
        SOUTH AFRICAN
        LABOUR MARKET                  GOVERNMENT DEPT

                                           INSTITUTIONAL
  OTHER
                                           Absolute growth
  GOVERNMENT
                                           Restructuring
  DEPARTMENTS
                                           Quality
                         CompetItIon       Technology
                                           Strategy/ mission (line
  PRIVATE
                                             function role)
  PRACTICE




                                                                       CompetItIon
                                        RESIGNATION                                  GLOBAL
  PRIVATE
  ENTERPRISE                                                                         LABOUR
                                        MIGRATION
                                                                                     MARKET
                                        WITHDRAWAL
NOT PRACTISING
 Works outside field                  RETIREMENT
   of qualification
                                        DEATH

  INACTIVE
   Unemployed
         Supply of skills: key issues
   Graduate output (FET, intermediate, ET)
     • Participation rate (% of population)
     • Rate of growth
     • Equity in participation
   Education institutions
     •   Quality
     •   Change/modernise the curriculum
     •   Throughput (dropouts and repeaters)
     •   Bridging courses
   Cohorts of Matriculants flowing into
    intermediate or higher education
   Supply not all new entrants - incumbents
    upgrading qualifications. Education – 50%
              What we must do
   Define ‘scarce skills’
   Identify and measure needs (& scarce skills)
   Understand:
     • magnitude and flows of skills,
     • market rates for skills etc.
   Implement strategy
   Monitor outcomes

   Foresight in order to avert crisis level in skills
    needs?
                Complexity
   Individual autonomy
   Competition (no of employers)
   Time-bounded (or continuous)
   Location specific (intensity)
   Restricted control (global flows)
   Equity requirements
    (race/gender/disability)
             Strategy elements
   Demand
     • Work conditions & remuneration
     • Recruitment
   Supply
     • FET & HET
     • Learnerships
     • Internships
   Information (Marketing)
   Co-ordination of elements
   Timing of interventions

   Creation of new posts/functions (auxiliaries)
         Educator – scarce skills
   Sub-specification of ‘scarcity’
     •   Subject specialists Math & Sci
     •   Managers
     •   Senior teachers (age and experience)
     •   Province, rural – urban distribution
   Characteristics of supply
     • Declining numbers
     • Demographics of current enrolment
        Influences on entrants to
             educator ranks
   Demand
    •   1990s redeployment/rationalisation
    •   (Resolution 3 of 1996 ELRC)
    •   Visibility of posts/conditions (marketing)
    •   Unemployed educators
   Supply
    • Consolidation (100-27) Colleges in 1990s
    • Mergers of Colleges with Higher Education

    • Emigration
    • Epidemiological – HIV/AIDS
Educators: entry & exit




             Source: RD Review, 2003, p.489
Educators: entry & exit by
         REQV




                Source: RD Review, 2003, p.488
    Educators: work conditions
   Educator X non-educator (Crouch and Perry,
    484)
     • Educators more unionised
     • Educators working fewer hours per week
     • Educators earning a higher income than other
       employed people
   Educators enjoyed a pay advantage over non-
    educators
     • taking education levels into account
     • Not taking fewer hours into account
   Advantage ranges (>R700 at REVQ12) at age
    25-35
      Composition of workforce
   Racial composition of the educator workforce
    (1995-1999):
     • White educator participation increased 18.1% to
       20.9%
     • Labour force altogether: 22.8% to 18.6%
     • Africans in teaching force either decreased or
       stayed constant
     • Opportunities for Africans in private sector labour
       market opening up (whites relative waning)
     • Move into SGB posts?
     • Effects?
    Educator turn-over & scarce
               skills
   Highest turnover in WC/NC/Ga –
    wealthiest & best equipped school
    systems
   Were is the turnover? Localised
   Churn rate (REVQ and age)
   Churn rate effects?
         Scarce skills measures in
           education and health
   Size and focus
     •   Educators [2000]: 336 026+29 939 [SGB]
     •   Nurses [2001: 190 449
     •   Doctors [2001]: 29 655
     •   IT Personnel

   Control over strategy & market
    influence
   Interpretation of eligibility for:
     • Scarce skills allowance
     • Rural allowance
Thank you

				
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