Ozone Hole, Greenhouse & Global Warming Worksheet Name:__________________ Per.____ Atmospheric Chemistry Troposphere 1) List the gases in the troposphere. Air Pollution in the Troposphere 2) What does “car exhaust contain”? What can it “lead to”? 3) Describe the difference in greenhouse effects between Earth, Mars and Venus. 4) What “catalyzes the formation of ozone” in the troposphere? Why is ozone in the troposphere bad? 5) How is acid rain produced in Los Angeles and back East? Stratosphere 6) Why is it important to have ozone in the stratosphere? 7) Why is “plankton” important? Ozone Holes in the Polar Regions 8) What is the “polar vortex”? 9) What two types of clouds can cause ozone loss? At what temperatures can they form? 10) What conditions must be present “for the ozone to be broken down”? 11) What 3 reasons account for “the ozone hole being much larger in the Antarctic than in the Arctic”? 12) When was the largest ozone hole on record? (see miscellaneous page on website for updates) Greenhouse & Global Warming 13) How much in Celsius, does the greenhouse effect warm earth? Why is this important? 14) “Carbon dioxide (CO2), water vapor (H2O), chlorofluorocarbons, methane (CH4), and other greenhouse gases are nearly ________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________form a warm blanket around the Earth.” 15) “Due to this greenhouse heat trapping effect of the ___________, the atmosphere can _______ large amounts of ________________________________ back down to Earth’s surface.” 16) “This greenhouse effect warms Earth a total of ______of the solar output. This is nearly double the _______ it receives directly from the sun.” 17) What is it that traps and absorbs the heat around the earth and thus causes the greenhouse effect? 18) How much have “global temperatures” risen in the 105 years from 1880-1985? Which period of that time was the warmest decade? 19) “If present emission trends for greenhouse gases continue”, how much will global temperatures rise over the next century? 20) What temperature increase would be “unprecedented in the era of human civilization”? 21) How much colder was Earth during the most recent ice age (“last glaciation”)? How much colder was Earth during the Little Ice Age? 22) “Accurate prediction of greenhouse warming involves understanding interactions among the inconstant ____ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ice. For example, changes in just one system, such as ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ which may cause cooling. These are known as positive and negative feedbacks—_________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ it. ” 23) What is “the most important feedback system”? 24) Explain the “Keeling Curve.” What is its significance? 25) Look at the end of the graph on Diagram 6. 26) Look at the end of the graph on Diagram 8. Carbon Dioxide (CO2) 27) Where does “the bulk of extra carbon dioxide” come from? 28) How does “deforestation add carbon dioxide to the atmosphere in two ways”? Other Greenhouse Gases 29) Methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), tropospheric ozone (O3), and the halocarbons (CFCs) absorb radiation from ____ to ___μm. Water vapor absorbs radiation below ____μm. Carbon Dioxide absorbs radiation above ____μm. Methane (CH4) 30) Each molecule of methane is ________________________ more effective than a carbon dioxide molecule in absorbing heat as a greenhouse gas. 31) Where does methane come from? 32) How is methane naturally “removed from the troposphere”? Nitrous Oxide (N2O) 33) In which two ways does nitrous oxide affect the atmosphere? 34) Where does nitrous oxide come from? Ozone (O3) 35) Where does tropospheric ozone come from? 36) In what two ways does deforestation add to the “ozone problem”? Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC’s) 37) What two problems can be solved by controlling CFC emissions? Model Predictions 38) How is Earth’s surface and atmosphere divided in 3 dimensional models? (_______ rectangles & ____ layers) 39) What laws are used in climate models? 40) Is “the spatial resolution in the global climate models” adequate? Unknown Greenhouse Players 41) What factors are not accounted for or described crudely in models? Oceans: Deep Circulation 42) What are “vertical movements” and why are they important? 43) What has “deep circulation been responsible for”? 44) Which water normally evaporates, water containing light 16O or water containing heavy 18O? 45) What percent has the carbon dioxide content varied “from warm to cold periods in geologic history”? 46) Which water (light or heavy) evaporates more in a hot world? 47) “Each of the last five glacial cycles ended ________. As Earth was coming __________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ followed once again by warming. The typical leap involves __________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________ pushed beyond some threshold. 48) What was the “engine for those leaps”? 49) Explain the above ocean circulation. 50) How can glacier melt affect the ocean circulation (ex. Laurentide Ice Sheet)? Oceans: Heat Storage 51) What is “another aspect of ocean-atmosphere interactions”? Clouds 52) Can clouds both warm and cool the Earth? Explain. Plankton’s Possible Effect on Clouds 53) How can plankton affect global warming? Methane (CH4) 54) From where can methane be released? 55) What are “frozen clathrates”? 56) Would warming cause more methane to be released, thus causing more global warming, once it is in the atmosphere? Explain. Biochemical Carbon Cycle 57) Describe the first “short-term process” of the carbon cycle involving animals ingesting plants. 58) Describe the second longer carbon cycle involving coal and petroleum. 59) Describe the process of the carbon cycle that takes tens of millions of years. Additional Uncertainties 60) Name the additional uncertainties. Sun’s Effect 61) How many periods of major and minor glaciation episodes has Earth had in the last million years? 62) What three orbital elements have controlled these glaciation episodes? Feedbacks 63) What feedbacks “act together with orbital changes to enhance global warming”? 64) Is Earth’s natural cycle in a warming phase or a cooling phase right now? 65) If Earth is in a natural cooling phase, then what is causing Earth to be warming right now? 66) Can sunspots affect temperature? Effects of Warming Sea Level Rise 67) How much is sea level expected to rise in the next 50-150 years? What will cause the rise? 68) Which part of the Antarctica Ice Sheet could possibly melt? 69) “A 91 centimeter increase in sea-level could turn at least _____ million people into refugees”. 70) Explain about Ice Streams, Ice Shelfs and Ice Sheets. What affects the speed of ice streams and ice sheets? 71) Explain why Antarctica is considered a desert. 72) Are the Greenland glaciers melting more quickly or more slowly? 73) What damages will higher sea levels cause? Wetlands 74) How will sea level rise affect wetlands? Forests 75) How will warming affect tree species and “understory” plants? Agriculture 76) How will warming affect agriculture? 77) Will the shift of crop growing regions north be good or bad overall. Explain. Diseases 78) Explain how diseases are affected by warming. Water Supplies 79) Explain how California’s water supplies will be affected by warming. Strategies to Combat Global Warming 80) What “strategies can be used to reduce greenhouse emissions”? 81) Will China and India want to cut emissions? Why?
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