An Eye on Recruitment Who Are Adoptive Families by Ohio

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									An Eye on Recruitment:
Who are Ohio’s Adoptive Families?

September 2005

                 Developed for:
                 Adoption Services Section
                 Office for Children and Families
                 Ohio Department of Job and Family Services

                 By:
                 Hornby Zeller Associates, Inc.
Purpose
   To assist ODJFS and PCSAs to identify where they
    may need to focus their recruitment and retention
    efforts for prospective adoptive parents.

   Two ways analysis of families can assist:

    1. identify the characteristics of those who actually adopt as
       a guide to identifying families who are likely to adopt in
       the future, and

    2. identify characteristics of families who are
       underrepresented in the pool of prospective parents and
       may therefore represent an untapped resource.
    Exploratory Questions
   What are the characteristics of the families who adopted children in FFY
    2004?

   Do the foster families who adopt differ from non-foster families who adopt?

   Do the families adopting through the larger PCSAs differ from those in the
    rest of the state?

   How do the families actually adopting differ from those waiting for children?

   What are the characteristics of the children adopted in 2004?

   What are the characteristics of the children waiting at the end of the year?

   Are there differences between the characteristics of the children adopted by
    foster parents and those adopted by non-foster parents?
Outline

   Ohio’s Prospective and Adoptive Families

   Ohio’s Children and Who Adopts Them

   Conclusions and Recommendations
Ohio’s Prospective &
 Adoptive Families
    Adoptive Families: Age
   Adopting parents come largely from a 30-year age range (30-60)
   Comparing adoptive and prospective parents:
     – There are substantially more parents waiting to adopt who are in their 30s
       compared to those who adopted.
   Within the adopting parents:
     – The group who provided foster care to the child prior to adopting is slightly
       older on average compared with the non-fostering adoptive parents.
                      Age of Adoptive (foster and non-foster) and
                           Prospective Parents in FFY 2004

              100%        8%              8%              5%
                                                         14%
              80%        23%             17%                          60 +
                                                         36%          50-59
              60%                        37%
                         38%                                          40-49
              40%
                                                                      30-39
                                         31%             39%
              20%        28%                                          20-29

               0%                3%            8%              7%
                        Foster        Non-foster      Prospective
    Adoptive Families: Race

   More than 2/3 of adoptive and waiting parents are white.
   As with age, waiting parents look more like non-foster adoptive
    parents than those parents who fostered the child prior to
    adopting.

                     Race of Adoptive (foster and non-foster) and
                          Prospective Parents in FFY 2004

              100%              0%            1%            1%
               90%                                    25%
                        32%            30%
               80%
               70%
               60%                                               Other
               50%                                               African American
               40%                                    74%        White
                        68%             69%
               30%
               20%
               10%
                0%
                       Foster        Non-foster    Prospective
 Adoptive Families: Race
       While the previous slide shows that more than 2/3 of adoptive
        parents are white, the racial breakdowns between the largest
        8 PCSAs and the smaller 80 are quite different.
         – Nearly all resource families in the smaller PCSAs are white.
         – In the large PCSAs, white families still comprise the greatest
           proportions, but African American families make up around 45%
           of all resources.

                   Adoptive and Prospective Parents by Race in FFY 2004

                   Foster Adoptive Parents   Non-foster Adoptive Parents   Prospective Parents

                                   Smaller                     Smaller     Large       Smaller
                   Large PCSAs     PCSAs     Large PCSAs       PCSAs       PCSAs       PCSAs

White                 59%           96%          52%            95%         57%         94%

African American      41%            4%          46%             4%         43%          6%

Other                  0%            0%           1%             0%         0%           0%
    Adoptive Families: Family
    Structure
   Married couples are by far the largest family structure group
    (nearly 3 of every 4 adoptive families)
   Statewide, 1 in 5 non-foster parents are single females, while more
    than 1 in 4 foster adoptive families are headed by single females.
        – Waiting single female parents look more like foster adoptive parents
          than non-foster (at least in the large PCSAs), indicating that more
          single females are recruited as adoptive parents than are moving to
          become adoptive parents.

                 Adoptive and Prospective Parents by Family Structure in FFY 2004
                      Foster Adoptive Parents    Non-foster Adoptive Parents   Prospective Parents

                                       Smaller                     Smaller     Large       Smaller
                     Large PCSAs       PCSAs     Large PCSAs       PCSAs       PCSAs       PCSAs

Married Couple           64%            92%          65%            87%         59%         85%

Single Female            33%             7%          29%             8%         35%          11%

Other                     3%             1%           6%             6%         6%           4%
Adoptive Families: Family
Structure cont…
   When family structure and race are
    correlated,
    – A large majority of single female resource
      families are African American.
    – There are more African American single
      females than African American married
      couples among the pool of families.
Adopting Families:
Education
   Between half and two-thirds of the resource
    family records in FACSIS have no
    educational information about the primary
    caregiver.
   Summary of what information does exist:
    – Most adoptive parents’ highest level of
      educational attainment is high school.
    – Non-foster adoptive parents are slightly more
      likely to have a college degree.
    – Waiting parents are more likely than either
      group of adoptive parents to have a college
      degree.
Ohio’s Children and Who
      Adopts Them
Ohio’s Children and Who
Adopts Them
   This section of the analysis used
    FACSIS data to:
    – compare characteristics (age, race &
      special needs) of adopted children with
      those of children still waiting
      and
    – determine which types of parents adopt
      which children with certain demographic
      characteristics.
Types of Families
   Foster – provided foster care to the child prior to
    adoption and are not related to the child
   Kinship – adoptive parents who are related to the
    child and who did not provide foster care prior to
    adoption
   Foster/Kinship – adoptive parents who are related
    to the child and who provided foster care prior to
    adoption
   Unrelated – parents unknown to the child, that is,
    parents who were not foster care providers and are
    not related (“stranger adoptions”)
 Age of Children
 Age of Children Adopted in FFY 2004

                                                                       Adoptions:
       9%          15%                                                  – ½ occur among
18%                              0-1                                      children age 5 or
                                 2-5
                                 6-9
                                                                          under
                                 10-13                                  – ¾ are under age 10
                         37%     14-17
 21%

                     Age of Children Waiting at End of FFY 2004
                                                                       Waiting:
                          23%
                                         8%                             – Fewer than 1/3 are
                                                            0-1           5 or under
                                                22%
                                                                        – ½ are 10+ yrs old
                                                            2-5
                                                            6-9
                                                            10-13
                                                            14-17
                         27%
                                              20%
    Who Tends to Adopt Children
    in Different Age Groups?
   Foster parents are the:
    – Most likely to adopt very young children (<5)
    – Least likely to adopt older children (10+)

   Implications
    – Foster parents account for ½ of all adoptions in FFY
      2004.
          Yet, only 23% of those adoptions were of children age 10+.
             – Keep in mind that 50% of the waiting children are age 10+.
          Around 32% of adoptions by relatives (including
           foster/kinship) and strangers are older children.
Race of Children

   Adopted:
    – 54% white
    – 44% African American


   Waiting:
    – 48% white
    – 51% African American
    Who Tends to Adopt Children in
    Different Racial Groups?
   Relatives are more likely to adopt African American children.
   Foster and “stranger” parents are more likely to adopt white
    children.
     – This has implications for African American children because foster and
       “stranger” parents make up 88% of all parents who adopt.

                             Race of Children Adopted by Type of Family

             100%
              80%
                                                                       White
              60%
                                                                       African American
              40%
                                                                       Other
              20%
               0%
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Older, African American
Children
   As we know, children over age 10 are less
    likely to be adopted, as are African
    American children.
    – Over ½ of the waiting children are African
      American.
          Over ½ of the African American children waiting
           are age 10 or older.
Older, African American
Children
   Among the 4 types of families who adopt:
    – Foster parents, who make the largest proportion of adoptions
      (½), are the least likely to adopt older children and fall far short
      of relatives in terms of adopting African American children.
    – Unrelated adoptive parents are the least likely to adopt African
      American children and are just as likely as relatives to adopt
      older children.
    – Relatives are more likely to adopt African American children, but
      are no more likely to adopt older children than “stranger”
      adoptive parents.
           This group also represents the smallest number of adoptive parents
            overall (264 vs 1059 foster parents who adopted and 826 non-
            relatives).

   Implications:
    – The older, African American child may not meet any group’s
      preferences.
Special Needs
   Adopted children:
    – 80% showed 1 or more special needs in FACSIS.
   Waiting children:
    – FACSIS shows special needs for only 20% of
      waiting children.
          Many PCSAs do not record special needs until the child
           is adopted, resulting in a substantial understatement of
           special needs.
          Assuming special needs are equally under-reported,
           the most frequent needs are:
             –   Age
             –   Minority status
             –   Siblings
             –   Medical needs
Who Tends to Adopt Children
with Special Needs?
   Non-foster parents are more likely than
    foster parents to adopt children with two
    special needs:
    – Age
    – Siblings

   Foster parents are more likely to adopt
    children who:
    – Are minority
    – Have medical needs
 Conclusions &
Recommendations
Conclusions

   There is a diverse pool of families
    being approved to become adoptive
    parents.

   However, many of these families do
    not adopt the children who are
    available.
Recommendations
   Focus recruitment efforts on those types of parents who
    more frequently adopt those children who are over-
    represented in the pool of waiting children.

    – For African American children, who comprise the majority of the
      waiting children, this will mean more effective efforts at recruiting
      African American adoptive parents and, most particularly, the relatives
      of the waiting African American children. This is obviously not
      accomplished through broad recruiting efforts but rather through child
      specific recruitment.

    – Broad recruitment efforts for non-foster adoptive parents appear more
      likely to lead to success for older children.
           Child specific recruitment of relatives may be in order for older , African
            American children.
           For white, older children the better odds appear to be with unrelated
            non-foster parents.
Recommendations cont.
   Increase efforts to match existing prospective
    parents to the children who are actually waiting.
    – Emphasis should be placed on providing additional supports to
      encourage younger, white families to adopt children who are
      available.
           If efforts are unsuccessful these parents should be “counseled
            out” of the pool of waiting families.
    – Part of the matching effort with existing families should also
      focus on the parents who do adopt but who tend to adopt
      children who are more likely to be adopted in any event.
To View the Full Report



     http://jfs.ohio.gov/ocf/

								
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