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SUICIDE

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					    SUICIDE
Suicide second most common cause
  of death for young men in Uk
         FACTS
• 2 YOUNG PEOPLE END THEIR
  LIVES EVERY DAY
• 2 YOUNG PEOPLE SELF HARMING
  EVERY HOUR.
• Males “Complete” suicide
• Females are “attempters”
    BACKGROUND FACTS
•   UNTIL 1961 (UK) AND 1993 (Eire)
•   Suicide was a criminal offence
•   No Christian burial
•   Seen as a shame on the family
•   No help offered to bereaved families
           STIGMA
• Suicide & Self harm is distressing to
  adults.
• Young teenagers are vulnerable to
  these related stories of
  schoolfriends.
• Attention Seeking behaviours
     Attention Seeking
• Dispel the myths: Not true that
  people who talk about it don’t do it.
• Self cutting, overdosing, excess
  alcohol consumption, skin tearing,
  hair pulling all examples of self harm
• Suicidal feelings are a combination of
  factors
      ADOLESCENCE
• Hormonal glands are in turmoil
• Parent rejection, independent
  feelings,
• Exploration of identities: Who am I?
• Trying to make sense of emotional
  changes, physical changes body
  shape, sexual adjustment.
       ADOLESCENCE
• Conflicting attitudes peers &
  parents
• Teenage romances can be stressful
• Influence of media & internet videos
• Pressures to behave in certain ways
 Feelings of inadequacy
      ADOLESCENCE
• Importance of positive role models
• Youth have high expectations of
  adults which does not fit in with what
  they find.: parents in conflict,
  arguing,
• Negative role models.
      RESEARCH BASED
         EVIDENCE
•   TEENAGE MALE SUICIDES CAUSED BY:
•   IMPULSIVITY
•   LACK OF BELONGINGNESS
•   BURDENSOMENESS

• ( NOTE: alcohol is highly associated with
  all these suicides !)
     PSYCHOLOGICAL
        EFFECTS
• Family members sadness,
• Anger towards the young person
• Guilt & Self blame also Confusion
• Relatives need structured emotional
  support for many years
• Its complex, sensitive & needs highly
  skilled intervention techniques
   SIGNS OF SUICIDE
• Look to see if their problem is
  interfering with their lifestyle
• Look for changes in:
• Eating patterns & weight
• Covert internet activity
• Friendship patterns- radical changes
   SIGNS OF SUICIDE
• Helplessness & hopelessness
• Negative remarks about self
• Giving small personal objects to
  friends
• Suicidal remarks ( and often none)
• Drinking alcohol in own room
        MORE SIGNS
• A broken relationship (12 -16 yr olds)
• Intense jealously
• Sexual abuse ( don’t get involved!)
• Refer to professional ie psychologist
  psychiatrist, GP )
• Legal implications if you give advice
    VULNERABLE GROUPS

•   Alcoholics & drug abusers
•   Young men in rural areas ie farmers
•   Ethnic minority groups: migrants
•   Gay and lesbian young people
•   Disabled young people
     FACTORS IN HIGH
       RISK GROUPS
    Very low self esteem and low self worth
•   Powerless, feeling trapped
•   Poor coping skills, homelessness
•   Lack of knowledge/ life experiences
•   Isolation & loneliness
•    Not belonging to a group
Factors common to “at risk”
young people seen by peers
•   FEAR OF HUMILIATION
•   FEAR OF MADNESS
•   FEAR OF PUNISHMENT
•   FEAR OF NOT COPING
•   FEAR OF SHAME /DISGRACE
          Hopelessness
•   No end to hopeless feelings
•   I will never fit in again
•   No one will ever accept me
•   I will be lonely forever
•   No cure for my feelings
•    No one understands me
    DELIBERATE SELF
         HARM
• Inflicting pain that shows on the
  body seen or unseen by others
• Transformation of psychological
  torment into a manageable physical
  sensation
• Release from build up of stress
         SELF HARM
A purification of badness- blood letting
 A way of release to avoid unacceptable
truths/beliefs
Can be an addiction
A response to abuse, sexual or
psychological
    Why do people self
         harm?
•Family breakup or dislocation
•Abuse and changes of home
•Broken friendships ( usually sexual)
•Lack of parental emotional warmth
 and physical contact
Working in a medical setting ie nurses
 EFFECTS ON OTHERS
• It is anxiety provoking, frustrating
• People feel angry, confused and
  helpless
• Friends and family feel responsible
• Staff need to vent their feelings,
  talk through their reactions,
  revulsions, fears, frustrations.
    The cycle of self-harm
•   1. Self disgust and tension increases
•   2. A trigger event increases distress
•   3. Self harming takes place
•   4.Relief form tension is experienced
•   5.Guilt or shame at the self harm
  Strategies for helping
• Take a NONJUDGEMENTAL
  attitude to the PERSON not the
  ACT.
• Assume they cannot cope with the
  stress
• Don’t offer advice! ( legalities
  involved) Refer to psychologist etc
          STRATEGIES
•   Relaxation techniques
•   Ventilating emotions, talking therapy
•   Physical exercise / distractions
•   Physical contact
•   Reduce isolation
•   Set achievable targets ie a cleaning
    plan, finding information
        STRATEGIES
• Get them to make a relaxation CD
 (this helps them gain a sense of
  control over life)
Ventilate by writing it out, hammer it
  out, shout it all out, kick it all out (
  sand) talk it all out.
            Strategies
•   Encourage swimming
•   Regular routines
•   Praise positive events in their life.
•   Encourage dancing/ craft activities
•   Help them set up a contact circle
 What does therapy do?
• Examines the underlying thoughts
  and emotions of the young person and
  to give them a sense of control over
  the cutting.
• Looking closely at the pattern of
  cutting / overdosing
          Strategies
• Allow client to identify signs of
  perceived failure.
• “I am a failure because…”
• “I am worthless …”
• “I am not wanted / loved”
• “I am a bad person….”
           Therapy
• We link the emotions to the beliefs
  about the self
Explain that old beliefs are old and
  irrelevant to current self.
Help them to see the futility of
  habitual cutting & self denigrating
  thoughts- create positive moods
           Therapy

• Teach assertiveness skills
• Work with client how to explain
  scars to others, formula answer and
  stick to it.
            Finally
• LISTEN – DON’T ADVISE
• BE FULLY ALERT
• USE YOUR TRAINING SKILLS
• DON’T DISCUSS & GET INVOLVED
  OVER INTERNET
• LEGAL IMPLICATIONS
• Data protection / confidentiality

				
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