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									80981 Thinking and Movement in Early Childhood Education

               Semester 2 2001               3 hours

Examination is in two sections:
Part A has 10 short content knowledge questions ( 2 marks per question)
Part B has 3 long practical applications questions ( 10 marks per question)
Answer all questions in both sections in either dot point or sentence format.

Part A Content Questions
Answer all questions                                         Two (2) marks each

   1) Outline four reasons young children should be offered daily movement education
      in an early childhood program

   2) Define “ perceptual-motor development”.

   3) Discuss three of the multiple intelligences which are most enhanced by a
      movement program.

   4) Offer four reasons early years (or junior primary school) children should not be
      asked to remain in extended seatwork doing worksheets.

   5) Suggest four accommodations an early educator could make to enhance
      participation in movement education by children with visual impairments

   6) Name the six elements of movement, and explain one of them.

   7) List vigorous movements suitable for outdoor education in a kindergarten.

   8) Name the areas of the Preschool Curriculum Guidelines and Years 1-10 HPE
      syllabus which are most relevant to a movement education program. Outline the
      basic content of these areas ( no detail required).

   9) Define variety, complexity and number of play places in relation to movement
      education opportunities outdoors.

   10) What are the advantages and disadvantages of indirect teaching strategies for
       guided discovery and exploration in movement education.
Part B Applications Questions                                      Ten (10) marks each.
Answer all questions

   11) You are about to work with a toddler group in a long day children’s centre, and
       are required to make preliminary plans for experiences indoors and outdoors
       including an informal small group musical experience. As you have not yet
       observed the children, you are making assumptions about average development
       of1 to 3 year olds. The centre has a creative child-centred philosophy is well
       established and offers an array of quality resource materials.

      On the room and grounds map overleaf, locate and name three focus areas indoors
      and three outdoors, including the musical experience. Under the room/grounds
      map, give brief reasons for the location of focus areas, the purpose for each area
      ( i.e.perceptual motor purpose), the suggested experience related to each
      purpose/area, and some materials you will use.

   12) During a writing task with an early years (junior primary) class, you have realised
       that one of the children is stabilising the A4 paper with his right forearm and is
       printing large untidy letter shapes using his left hand with his thumb extended
       around in front of his fingers on a short hard pencil. You then observe that the
       paper is sliding on the desk surface and that he is sitting in a hunched position
       leaning over the work, with his feet folded well back under his chair.

      Discuss the following issues related to this child’s pencil work
         - potential reasons for his approach to writing
         - practical changes you would make to his writing materials
         - practical changes you might try for improving his posture
         - non-writing experiences you could offer to improve his fine motor control.

   13) In planning an outdoor education period for your preschool group, you realise
       accommodations need to be made for the substantial amount of gross motor
       experience these rural children have already had at home. You have noted that
       most can climb very skilfully, many engage in a great deal of vigorous running
       despite the hot weather and catching/throwing/kicking development of several
       children is quite advanced. Your observations indicate that several have interests
       in construction, two are currently exploring textures of materials, one plays
       constantly with water but only pours/fills large containers and three of the
       children avoid fine motor tasks indoors.

      Plan and describe four ideas/experiences for these children, indicating the purpose
      of each related to perceptual motor development/learning. State which materials
      you would choose, and any organisational issues you would consider.
      Suggest some strategies which may help children to engage in a range of
      experiences and balance vigorous movement with relaxation or fine motor action.

      Please hand in this examination paper with the answer booklet.
   1) Develop motor skills, enhance self esteem, become fit, reduce health risk factors,
       cater for bodily-kinesthetic learning styles and stimulate perceptual-cognitive
       awareness. Motor development does not occur through maturation alone, but
       through developmental experiences.
   2) Integration of perceptual awareness and motor output;
       Integration of clues provided by senses with response of neuromuscular system
       Refinement of sensory and motor decisions through feedback
   3) Bodily kinaesthetic ( solve problems and create with bodies) , visual spatial
       ( visualise, sense of direction, orient self in space) musical rhythmic( awareness of
       patterns of sound)
   4) Become fatigued by extended seatwork, struggle to maintain posture in extended
       seatwork, increases bodily and emotional tensions; still very active physically,
       children are still learning through active discovery or process learning , learn in
       integrated ways not as separate subjects, worksheets lower order thinking/
       practice not higher order thinking/ new learning.
   5) Locate child close to staff; place with partner; use touch or other physical cues;
       verbal cues and clear action descriptions; textured equipment; brightly coloured
       equipment; careful location of climbing etc materials;
   6) Space, time, flow, force, shape, rhythm. ( explanations pages 93-98 of text).
   7) Run, jump, push,pull,ride, swing,dig,throw,catch,climb,balance, etc.
   8) PCG – FLA of Health and Physical Understanding ( key understandings and
       dispositions, teaching strategies, learning processes, outcomes); Syllabus –
       movement concepts and motor skills ( attitudes, concepts, fitness, physical skills).
   9) Variety – range of different actions ( verbs); complexity – potential for flexible
       variation (flexibility); play places – number of children who can use something at
       once or the mount offered at once.
   10) Process oriented, less obvious outcomes, take more time and patience by staff,
       require more individual awareness of children, challenge thinking, stimulate
       creativity, cater for success by all children.
   11) Pages 46, 38-40 of study guide.
   12) Individual variation in vision, motor control; unsuitability of desk/chair/paper
       size/pencil; reduced amount of experience with fine motor tasks, etc
       Thicker softer pencil; crayons; larger rougher paper; easel paper, etc
       Chair-desk size or ratio; push chair in further; suggest sitting upright; etc
       Clay; drawing; painting etc
   13) Preschool and lower primary ideas Pages 41-42. Page 46. Include water, balls,
       climbing, collage or similar art. Balance active-quiet.
       Organisation – location e.g. shade, numbers of children, time of day, etc ( NOT
       lining children up to do as told)
       Strategies – suggesting, dramatisation, modelling, contracts etc

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