Modal Essay Formal Letter to Complain a Company

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Modal Essay Formal Letter to Complain a Company Powered By Docstoc
					Exploring English – Fasit, del A

A1   Å skrive tekster på engelsk

1    A adult readers whom the writer does not know but is trying to get interested (2)
     B a particular reader whom the writer does not know personally (4)
     C adult readers who are looking for specific information (5)
     D a specific reader whom the writer knows personally (3)
     E small children (1)

2    The purposes of the texts are as follows:
     A     entertain
     B     present facts
     C     express an opinion
     D     sell a product

3    A       Go back to your answers to question 1 and explain what features of each
     text made you decide which target group it was aimed at.
     TEXT 1 starts with once upon a time, which tells us that this is a story. The vocabulary
     is simple. The rabbits have names as if they were people. All this fits with what we
     expect of children‟s stories.
     TEXT 2 has an ironic twist, which one would not find in children‟s stories. Also the
     words are more difficult than in text 1. It is not aimed at anybody in particular.
     TEXT 3 starts with Dearest, showing that this is a personal letter, necessarily to
     somebody the writer knows and loves. You in this text is a specific recipient, in
     contrast to the you in text 2, which is everybody who might read the text.
     TEXT 4 has a formal vocabulary and a reference to earlier communication. This is
     typical of business letters, where the writer or the reader (or both) communicates on
     behalf of a company.
     TEXT 5 starts with a verb in the imperative. Many of the words refer to foodstuffs. This
     is clearly a recipe, which will be read by people who want to know how to make a
     particular dish.

     B       Go back to your answers to question 2 and explain what features of each
             text made you decide what purpose it had.
     TEXT A is a little story with an unexpected twist at the end – a so-called punch-line.
     We recognize the genre as a joke, whose purpose is to entertain.
     TEXT B contains place names and descriptions. The language is quite neutral in the
     sense that it does not reveal the writer‟s opinion.
     TEXT C contains the words no wonder, idiots and madness, which are clearly used to
     express opinions. (Taking a preview of chapter A7, we see that this text has the
     structure of Situation – Evaluation.)
     TEXT D contains positive descriptions of a product, the product name, and some very
     specific information about it (3G connectivity, 1GB memory, USB charging), which is
     typical of the style of advertisements.

4    A     The purpose is to present information about Edinburgh.
     B     The text is targeted at people who consider going to Edinburgh as tourists or
     who simply want to know more about the city.

     The answers to C, D and E will depend on your personal evaluation.

5    Your answers to this task will depend on the topic and the quality of your text as well
     as your personal evaluation.

A2   Formell og uformell stil

      she‟d (leave)   she would
      won‟t           will not
      she‟d (left)    she had
      can‟t           cannot
      he‟ll           he will
      gonna           going to
      dunno           do not know
      gotta           got to
      wanna           want to

2    a. I did the dishes. (washed)
     b. Please do my egg on both sides. (fry)
     c. I did a chocolate pudding. (made / cooked)
     d. Jane did a twenty-five page report. (wrote)
     e. On television last week, they did a programme about lions. (showed/made)
     f. He did a monster picture. (drew/painted)
     g. Next we did the kitchen and breakfast room. (cleaned/tidied)
     h. I did the lawn twice. (mowed/cut)
     i. She gets a lot of information. (receives)
     j. The bison is getting extinct. (becoming)
     k. The family got together. (came)
     l. They got here early. (came/arrived)

3    A      converted      translated
     B      prevalent      common
     C      purchase       buy
     D      somber         serious
     E      logical        reasonable
     F      abbreviated    shortened
     G      antiquated     old-fashioned
     H      ardent         enthusiastic
     I      entire         whole

4    Here is a suggestion. Other versions may be just as good.
     The Impressionists were established in Paris during the 1870's. They took their name
     from Claude Monet's painting 'Impression, Sunrise'. The Impressionists wanted to
     paint the world around them as they saw it. In doing this, they used bold brush strokes
     and contrasts of colour. The artists were first heavily criticised for what people
     thought of as a naïve and trivial approach to art.

5   Here is a version of the letter with all the informal features taken out or reformulated.
    The new expressions have been underlined.

    Dear Ms. Andrews,

    I am interested in the job of waitress advertised in The Daily News yesterday and I
    enclose a copy of my CV.

    I worked as a waitress in Norway for a long time before I came here and my former
    employer can provide you with a reference.

    I understand that you cater mainly for overseas tourists so I believe my language skills
    would be useful. In addition to speaking both Norwegian and English, I can also
    understand Danish, Swedish and Spanish.

    I hope you will consider my application carefully and I look forward to hearing from

    Yours sincerely,

    Mona Martinsen

    Job applications are expected to be formal. Thus, the informal words/expressions keen
    on, stuffed, for ages, do (as a general word), not bad eh have been replaced or taken
    out. Likewise the expression can tell you what a nice girl I am indicates a familiar and
    joking tone which is not suitable in a job application. The ending of the letter is too
    personal; a formal letter should end with Yours sincerely or Yours faithfully (see C3).
    The three exclamation marks after the last sentence and the two smileys are more
    suitable in sms language than in a formal letter and have been taken out.

6   I love this programme, it's like car crash tv :-D :-D
    “This programme is so horrible that I like it, because it makes me laugh.” (Informal
    features are the two smileys.)

    Oooo good someone else like it ;-)
    “I‟m glad someone else likes it.” (The sentence has a grammatical error: like  likes.
    There is also a smiley to show a bit of irony and humour.)

    I think we've got the last auditions showing here this Friday, there are some 'wonderfully'
    strange people. 
    “I enjoy watching the strange people who will certainly appear on the last audition
    next Friday.” (There is a contracted form – we’ve – and quotation marks have been
    used to show that wonderfully should be read ironically. Again a smiley has been

    That silly pillock who thought he was a panther  what was his name, ex-something or other -
    unbelievable, how on earth does he think he's any good
    Lookin forward to tomorrow's show now 

     “I look forward to seeing one of these pretentious, untalented people tomorrow.”
     (There is an offensive word – pillock – and imprecise expressions, contracted forms,
     informal spelling of lookin, and two emoticons to show first a negative and then a
     positive attitude.)

     Bit disappointed with last week’s show. Choice of songs were dire. There are sooooo many
     good ‘big’ songs to choose and, imho, these ones were limp.
     Sad to see Gina go, I quite liked her. Pleeeeeeeeeeeez get Sanjaya off the show soon.
     The writer was disappointed with last week‟s show because of the choice of songs and
     the fact that her favourite was voted out while somebody she didn‟t like was allowed
     to stay. (She uses unconventional spelling to mimic pronunciation, particularly the
     words sooooo and Pleeeeeeeeeeeez, but also imho which is probably supposed to
     mimic a cough. There are also incomplete sentences and quotation marks to show that
     the meaning of a word should not be read literally.)

A3   Å skrive setninger

1    The given information has been underlined.

     On the last week of January we went on holiday to Benidorm in Spain. We stayed at
     the hotel Regente. The holiday was great. We had never been to Spain and I had been
     worried about the bad things you sometimes hear about Spain and Spanish holidays in
     general, but we did not have any problems. I think perhaps it would be too hot for me
     there in the summer holidays though! The weather {given from “too hot”} was sunny
     almost all of the time and it was just about warm enough to swim in the beautiful sea.
     We did try the hotel Regente's pool, but that was freezing. Apart from the cold pool
     the Hotel Regente was great, and there was plenty to do in the area.

2    The sentences starting with given information have been written in italics.

     Ayers Rock, in Australia, is believed to be the largest rock in the world. The white
     man who discovered it named it after South Australian premier Sir Henry Ayers. / It
     was named after South Australian premier Sir Henry Ayers by the white man who
     discovered it. Until recently large numbers of tourists visited the rock and climbed it
     using a rope-and-pole path drilled into the side of the rock. As a result the rock was
     becoming eroded.
             However in 1985 the Australian government handed back the Ayers rock to the
     aboriginal inhabitants of the area - the Anangu. They were descendents of the people
     who found the rock nearly 10,000 years before the white man. / The people who found
     the rock nearly 10,000 year ago were their forefathers. The rock (now called by its
     traditional name, Uluru) has spiritual significance for the Anangu and they do not
     climb it. The Anangu now ask tourists to respect the rock by not climbing it. / Tourists
     are now asked by the Anangu to respect the rock by not climbing it.

3    A      Alternative I is better, because it starts with information that is given in the
            previous sentence and then says something new about it, in contrast to
            alternative II which ends with the given information.
     B      Alternative II is the one that starts with the most given information, even if this
            information is not exact repetition from the previous sentence. However,
            alternative I might work too, depending on how the text is meant to continue.

        C       Alternative I is clearly better, since Alternative II ends with given information.
        D       Alternative I is better because it picks up information from the previous
                sentence and says something new about it.
        E       Alternative II is better. The two sentences start in the same way, but they differ
                in the choice of subject. In II the subject is small kingdoms, which is also
                mentioned in the previous sentence, and the new information, Harald Fairhair,
                comes at the end of the sentence.
        F       Alternative I is better because it starts with given and ends with new
                information. Alternative II is particularly difficult to read because it starts with
                a long noun phrase with new information and has very little information at the

4       This is the order of sentences in the original text.
        There‟s this old children‟s book called “The Story of Ferdinand”.
    D   It‟s about a young bull in Spain who doesn‟t fit in with the other bulls.
    E   They spend all their time butting each other‟s heads, hoping one day to be picked for
        the bullfights in Madrid.
    B   But Ferdinand prefers to sit under a cork tree and smell the flowers.
    C   His mother tries nudging him to join in with the others, but Ferdinand demurs.
    F   Through a mix-up, he ends up in the bullfighting ring.
    A   But after refusing to fight the matador, he gets to go home to his cork tree.

        In sentence D, it’s about refers to the book in the first sentence. In E, they refers to the
        “other bulls” in D. But in B marks a contrast between Ferdinand and the other bulls
        from D and E. In C, his mother has not been mentioned before, but the sentence says
        something about how the contrast between Ferdinand and the others can be made less
        problematic. Sentence F starts on a new topic (so maybe some people placed F after
        B). However, A must follow F, since it is about what happened in the bullfighting
        ring. Note that the information in B is also needed before we get to F, so that we can
        identify his cork tree.

5       The underlined sentences have been numbered and rewritten, and commented on
        below the text.
    Lasting relationships can begin in an instant. For Butch Varno, that instant came in 1961,
    when he met a football player from Middlebury College named Roger Ralph. It was
    snowing, and (1) Butch and his grandmother had just been to a Middlebury football game.
    Butch, who has cerebral palsy, was snowplowing along in his wheelchair. (2) Roger
    offered them a lift. He then helped them into his car and drove them home. (3) This started
    a most remarkable friendship - between Butch and the Middlebury community.
        Students at the tiny liberal arts school have been driving Butch, who is now 60, to and
    from games ever since. During football season, (4) Butch is picked up by basketball
    players - typically 18-year-old freshmen. During basketball season, the freshmen football
    players take over. For 46 years, the students have made it a priority to get Butch to every
    home game. They call it, simply, "picking up Butch."
        In Rick Reilly, the back-page columnist for Sports Illustrated, told the story of Butch
    and the Middlebury tradition. (5) That same year, ESPN did a SportsCenter segment on
    Butch that won an Emmy. Suddenly, Butch was a celebrity. (6) And the Middlebury
    students were learning lessons that no college professor could ever teach them.
    (See the whole article as it appeared in the Boston Globe at

     Comment: (1) Butch has already been mentioned and is also the most important
     character of the story, so it is natural to start the sentence with him. (2) A lift is new
     information and fits better at the end of the sentence. (3) This refers to the previous
     sentence and fits better at the beginning than at the end of the sentence. (4) The
     rewritten sentence starts with Butch who is the most important character, while the
     sentence from the task had a subject that was new, and which also contrasted with
     football season. However, in this case the sentence from the task was what the
     journalist had originally written! (5) Here the time expression that same year has been
     moved to the beginning to link the sentence to the previous one. The rest of the
     rewriting might not have been necessary from the principle of given and new
     information since neither ESPN nor the Emmy award have been mentioned earlier –
     but the version given here is the one from the original text. (6) Middlebury students
     represent given information and thus make for a more natural subject than lessons that
     no college professor….

A4   Å bygge ut setningen

1    The chosen conjunction has been underlined. Material than can or should be
     taken out of the second sentence has been marked with overstrike.
     A      He was happy to be here, and his whole family was proud of him.
     B      Nobody seems to have explained this to her, but finally she understands.
     C      They want information about what the band is doing and/or they want to know
            where they can get T-shirts, sweatshirts, and concert tickets.
     D      Have you taken something off or have you put something on?
     E      He wants to go to university, but/and his father won‟t have it.
     F      Please send your gift in the envelope provided, or to get your gift to us even
            faster, please phone 01 - 200 0200 and quote your credit card number.

2    A      Because Bess was suddenly ill, I had to call an ambulance.
     B      I stayed with Bess until the ambulance took her away.
     C      If this Irishman can be a teacher, so can you.
     D      Although there'll be some cloud later, it will remain dry. (There‟ll be some
            cloud later, although it will remain dry.)
     E      Even if he had wanted to say something, he was unable to move his mouth. (He
            had wanted to say something even if he was unable to move his mouth.)
     F      I really wanted to study French since I was interested in languages.

3    The changes made have been marked with underlining. In addition some
     grammatical mistakes have been corrected in brackets after the wrong word.

     One day I got a letter. It was a very strange letter because the envelope was green,
     purple, red and yellow. It had stamps from Tokyo there and there was [were] a lot
     more stamps than you really need. And when I opened the letter and saw that the paper
     that it was written on was completely green with a purple handwriting. Here can you
     read what was written in the letter.

4    The changes made have been marked with underlining.

     Filmmaking is a high-pressure business. Indian director Kabir Khan knows this more
     than most. During the making of Kabul Express in Afghanistan in 2005, the cast and
     crew had to be escorted by 60 armed commandos supplied by the Afghan Government
     because they endured death threats.
              This was the first foreign production to be filmed there since the fall of the
     Taliban in 2001, so tensions were high on all sides. At one point, Khan stopped
     filming for five days and considered ending production. The minister for security
     came to see him, and said, “If you go back to Bombay, it will be a defeat for
              Yet Khan finished his film, thanks to government security back-up. Kabul
     Express is loosely based on his experience as a documentary filmmaker in
     Afghanistan. It is just one of many films which reflect the diversity of Indian cinema
     at this year‟s Indian Film Festival.
              The film brings together five very different people - two Indian journalists
     seeking an interview with the Taliban, a US reporter, a Pakistani Taliban member and
     an Afghan driver, in order to put forward the human stories behind a complex issue.
              “Not every individual belonging to an organisation is necessarily like that,” he
     says. “But every character in that film is affected by the war.”
     (Adapted from the Sydney Morning Herald)

A5   Å binde sammen setninger

1    Some of the words/phrases fit into more than one slot, but this is a solution where
     all of them make sense in the context.

     Food stylists and photographers use many tricks to make food look delicious for
     advertisements and cookbooks. (1) But don‟t be fooled! (2) For instance, milk on
     cereal might be replaced with white glue. (3) That way the cereal doesn‟t get soggy.
     (4) Or lemon juice might be added to a banana to keep it from turning brown. “Food is
     basically like cut flowers,” says food stylist Lisa Cherkasky. “It‟s amazing how fast it
     dries up and shrinks.” (5)In fact, food stylists know all sorts of tricks to make food
     look yummy.

2    The conjunctions and, but or or have been underlined. Where two conjunctions
     would be possible, an alternative is given in brackets.

     A       It is late April, and (but) a 450-pound polar bear and her cubs walk on a frozen
     B       Grown polar bears are big and strong, but they are born blind, toothless, tiny,
     and as feeble as kittens.
     C       A male polar bear is much larger than the female, and it grows to about 1.6
     metres tall at the shoulder and 2.2–2.5 metres in length.
     D       Young polar bears may die of starvation, or (and) they may be killed by adult
     males, and for this reason female polar bears are extremely defensive of their young
     when adult males are present.
     E       In the wild polar bears can live for 25 to 30 years, but in captivity several polar
     bears have lived to more than 35 years old.

3      Some of the linking adverbials fit into more than one slot, but this is a solution
       where all of them make sense in the context.

       Nonverbal communication is important in every society. (1) However, problems arise
       when two cultures meet, and the physical nonverbal signal means one thing in one
       culture and has quite another meaning in the other culture. In India, shaking the head
       from side to side is a visual way to communicate to the speaker that you understand
       what they are saying and (2) moreover, that you agree with them. (3)On the other
       hand, in the American culture this is how disagreement and a definite "no" is
       conveyed. (4) In any case I have finally come to the conclusion that the Indian culture
       does not have a nonverbal way to express "no" because they are so kind that they have
       no verbal way of saying "no".
       (5) For instance, if you ask someone for directions, whether they know the way or not,
       they do not want to disappoint you, (6) so they go ahead and give you directions (7)
       anyway. There is nothing in their demeanour or the way they respond to give you a
       clue that they have no idea where the place is that you want to go. (8) Still, as you
       progress along the way you realize that they were clueless in how to get you to where
       you wanted to go.

4      The chosen linking adverbial has been underlined, and the explanation given in
       brackets. In some cases other alternatives might be possible. Consult your

    A. In 1854, Oscar Wilde was born in Dublin. More precisely his name was Oscar Fingal
       O‟Flahertie Wills Wilde. (The sentence gives more precise information than the first.)
    B. After publishing his first volume of poetry in 1881, he continued to write. Besides, he
       went on a lecturing tour in America. (The second sentence indicates another thing that
       he did.)
    C. Oscar Wilde wrote poems, fairy stories and a novel. However his greatest talent was
       for writing plays. For example / for instance he produced a string of extremely popular
       comedies such as Lady Windemere's Fan, An Ideal Husband and The Importance of
       Being Earnest. (There is a contrast between the first and the second sentence, which is
       made more explicit with however. The third sentence gives examples of plays that OW
    D. He married Constance Lloyd in 1884 and had two sons by her. But he was
       nevertheless/still an active homosexual. (There is a contrast between the first and the
       second sentence.)
    E. Homosexual relationships were illegal in Victorian Britain. Consequently/so/therefore
       Oscar Wilde was arrested and later sent to Reading prison. (The first sentence
       expresses the cause of what happens in the second one.)
    F. Oscar Wilde was a controversial figure in his time. Thus / hence / therefore he inspired
       both admiration and argument. (The second sentence expresses a logical consequence
       of the fist one.)
    G. Incidentally / by the way there is a statue of Oscar Wilde in London opposite Charing
       Cross Station with his immortal line „We are all in the gutter, but some of us are
       looking at the stars‟. (If this sentence is read in the light of the previous one – in F – it
       expresses a digression from the biography of OW that we get in A-F.)

5    The linking adverbials and conjunctions in this text have been underlined, and an
     explanation of their meaning has been added in brackets in each case.

     In 1992 the UK Government signed the Convention on Climate Change at the Earth
     Summit. Thus (effect) the government committed Britain to reducing the country's
     total energy bill. And (addition) a number of different organisations were established
     to achieve this, including the Energy Saving Trust and the Energy Action Grants
     Agency. Incidentally (digression), the Energy Saving Trust points out that almost half
     of the UK's carbon dioxide emissions come from energy we use every day – at home
     and when we travel.
             The Government's main message is that as well as saving the ozone layer, you
     can help yourself by saving money. There are lots of different ways to save energy in
     your home and they will all lead to savings in your fuel bill. However (contrast), the
     problem is that you often have to spend money first as an investment.
             For example (example), low energy light bulbs seem expensive – they can cost
     up to £15 – which seems a lot to pay for a light bulb. But (contrast) one can last eight
     times longer than a normal one. Besides, they use about one fifth of the electricity of a
     normal one. So (result) if you do your sums you can work out that in the long run it
     will be cheaper. And (addition) in five years time, when you do need to buy a new
     one, the price of a new bulb will probably be lower!
             Moreover (addition), you may be able to claim a grant from your local council
     to help with the cost of insulating roofs, walls, pipes and draught proofing. But
     (contrast) before you arrange for the cavity wall insulation specialist to come, check
     that you qualify for help from the council. Otherwise (alternative) you may be left
     with an unexpected bill to pay!

     Note that e.g. as well as has not been underlined, since it introduces a dependent
     clause, and does not connect whole sentences.

A6   Avsnitt

1    The topic sentence has been underlined and the concluding sentence has been

     France has long assigned itself a “civilizing mission” to improve allies and colonies
     alike. In 2005, the government even ordered high schools in France to teach “the
     positive role” of French colonialism, i.e. uplifting the natives. Just like the United
     States, France is not shy about its values. As President Sarkozy recently observed: “In
     the United States and France, we think our ideas are destined to illuminate the world.”

2    Matching of first paragraphs and genres:
     A – factual text
     B – short story
     C – news report
     D – student essay
     E – travel advertisement

3    The topic sentence for each paragraph has been given with the number of the

     (1)    Sixty years after Piaggio first introduced its legendary Vespa – the iconic two-
            wheeler which managed the impossible by making city commuting chic – the
            Italian bike maker is again attempting the impossible.
     (2)    So why has Piaggio decided to join the triple horror bill with its MP-3?
     (3)    You certainly can‟t argue that the MP-3 is not a head-turner.

4    Here we give the paragraph division of the original text. Other divisions might be
     possible. Consult your teacher if you are in doubt.

     It‟s easy to see why. From the front, the MP-3 looks like a farmer‟s quad bike, from
     the rear it looks like a traditional scooter, the two parts cut-and-shunted to produce a
             § So if it ain‟t cool, why has Piaggio built it? In a word: safety. The double
     front wheels offer vastly improved stability, more effective braking (it requires up to
     24 per cent less stopping distance) and greater road adhesion, particularly when wet.
     The revolutionary design has created twin wheels with completely independent
     suspension and a tilt mechanism which means that the bike copes brilliantly with
     rough roads, pot holes, kerbs and treacherous corners.
             § The bike‟s suspension can be locked by pulling up a small lever, so that when
     stationary, the scooter will stand unaided. You don‟t need to put your feet down.
     Engage the lock at traffic lights and you look very clever sitting with your feet up, as if
     you have perfect balance.
             § The MP-3 comes with a host of scooter comforts: large seats, a boot big
     enough to take a small set of golf clubs (apparently) and certainly for a ration run to
     the supermarket and a spare helmet. The front shield provides weather protection for
     the less hardy rider, and the seat can be easily adapted for riders of any size, from the
     wasp-waisted to the hippo-bottomed.
             § In short, it‟s sensible but hardly sexy. Which is appropriate, really, because,
     as a middle-aged family man, it‟s what I‟ve come to accept as my place in life.

5    The misplaced sentences have been listed here, with a brief explanation of why
     they do not fit into the text.
      London is the capital of Great Britain, and not very far from Cambridge. This
        sentence is not relevant to the topic of the paragraph and takes the attention away
        from Quentin Blake, whom the text is about.
      His favourite dish is fish and chips. This is not relevant in a topic which is about
        Quentin Blake‟s education and career.
      Roald Dahl’s parents were both from Norway, which is why he had a Norwegian
        name. Even if it picks up on something from the previous sentence, this
        information is not relevant in this text. Besides, it does not lead into the next
        paragraph and thus makes the text less easy to read.
      Personally, I don’t like opera much, so I don’t know if I would enjoy the Angelo
        opera. The text is factual (a biography), and so personal evaluations and references
        to the writer (I) break the general style and the conventions of the genre.
      A poet laureate, on the other hand, is expected to compose poems for state
        occasions. This information, though correct, is not relevant in this context.

A7   Strukturering av innhold

1    The conclusion has been put in italics and the arguments have been underlined
     and numbered.
     I think that music should be taught in the school curriculum because (1) it gives
     children a wider knowledge of the music world. (2) It is a fun learning experience and
     should be taught to children until a certain age. (3) Should they like to take a particular
     instrument to play, this would be inspired by the music lessons at school. (4) Music is
     known to keep the other half of the brain working as well as the academic side.

2    The sentence stating the problem has been underlined. The sentences describing
     the solutions have been italicized.

     Your hair can suffer damage during a perm. This happens mostly in the rinsing
     process. A perm makes the hair more porous but it is the rinsing that causes the hair to
     swell, which is when the damage is likely to occur. This is why Schwarzkopf have
     developed new Natural Styling Osmotical Equaliser. This unique product is applied
     before the perm is rinsed off and looks set to change the face of perming.

     The sentences in the middle explain and elaborate on the problem, i.e. when and how
     damage happens. (Note that the solution comes in two parts: This is what WE have
     done + This is what YOU must do.)

3    The structures used in passages A-E:
     A conclusion – argument (konklusjon – argument)
     B false – true (galt – riktig)
     C problem – solution (problem – løsning)
     D situation – evaluation (situasjon – evaluering)
     E question – justification – answer (spørsmål – begrunnelse – svar)

4    Here is the text with the sentences in the original order.
     (1) Estate agents, tax officers, lawyers, even journalists ... almost universally, they are
     despised. (2) Yet for one among all loathed professions, we reserve a whole other
     order of anger and hate: the traffic warden. (3) While the police generally command at
     least some respect, firefighters are admired and nurses adored, the parking attendant
     can never be anything but a villain. (4) If we see a traffic warden in the street, we do
     not see a public servant going about his or her duty, but a malicious busybody who,
     given half the chance, will mug us with a ticket for at least £60.

A8   Sjanger

1    Expressions from “Lucy in the sky with diamonds” by Lennon and McCartney
     that belong more naturally in a poem than in a newspaper article.
      marmalade skies
      kaleidoscope eyes
      Lucy in the sky with diamonds
     All these expressions are metaphorical and refer to something that does not exist in the
     real world and therefore would not fit into a newspaper article, which is supposed to
     deal with facts. (“Lucy in the sky with diamonds” appears in the newspaper article too,
     but only as a quotation from the song.)

    Target group                Channel                    Purpose
    German teenagers, my        blog, small talk,          complain, entertain, inform,
    Grandmother, the            television, sms, public    create interest, teach, sell a
    teacher, dog-owners,        speech, podcast,           product, warn, argue, pass
    tourists                    postcard, tax form,        exam, order pizza, give
                                phone, sports pages        instructions, tell a story

3   Formality level of genres (our suggestions):
    application letter                                formal
    e-mail to friend                                  informal
    textbook article                                  neutral – formal
    personal blog                                     informal (or neutral)
    report to employer                                formal (neutral)
    newspaper article                                 neutral (or formal)
    letter to the editor                              formal
    literary text (e.g. poem)                         formal (or neutral or informal,
                                                      depending on subject-matter and style)
    text message to mum                               informal
    letter to a Ministry of State                     formal
    exam paper                                        formal or neutral
    chat forum comment                                informal
    broadcast news report                             formal

4   Questions about genre:

    TEXT A:
    TOPIC: “defending our planet” by supporting Greenpeace.
    TARGET GROUP: everyone who is concerned about the environment
    CHANNEL: Internet
    PURPOSE: collecting support (political and financial)
    LANGUAGE FEATURES: verbs in the imperative (join, add), direct reference to the
           reader (you), a coupling between our vision and your support.
    GENRE: advertisement

    TEXT B:
    TOPIC: travel
    TARGET GROUP: a general audience
    CHANNEL: this was taken from a book, but might have been stand-up comedy
    PURPOSE: entertain
    LANGUAGE FEATURES: A personal perspective with a lot of references to the writer (I,
           my). Short sentences (sometimes incomplete) and lists of things create a feeling
           of high speed.
    GENRE: comedy

    TEXT C:
    TOPIC: punks in China

       TARGET GROUP: readers of Time Magazine (i.e. a general, adult audience)
       CHANNEL: Time Magazine (US/international news magazine)
       PURPOSE: inform
       LANGUAGE FEATURES: Descriptive in the first paragraph, with many adjectives and
             -ing participles of verbs. There are also many verbs referring to movement
             (weave, fly, pull, arc, hop, pivot, ride). In the whole text there are many words
             referring to music, clothes and style, and in the second paragraph quite a lot of
             Chinese place names that may be intended to create a contrast with the
             American-inspired activities, music and style that are being described.
       GENRE: feature article (factual text)

       TEXT D:
       TOPIC: The Simpsons movie
       TARGET GROUP: a general audience; readers of the Daily Mail who are interested in
              film, the Simpsons, or both.
       CHANNEL: The Daily Mail (British newspaper)
       PURPOSE: express opinion
       LANGUAGE FEATURES: many adjectives, often used for evaluation (flabby, surreal,
              obscure, somewhat improbable, dissatisfied, mildly entertaining). Some
              negatively flavoured words and phrases emphasize the writer‟s view, such as
              stretched to feature length, sags, worries, suckers, too much of this. The text
              starts with a question – answer structure. There are some examples of
              alliteration (see A11): funny but flabby, custard-coloured characters, slightly
              surreal, verve and vitality, enthusiasm and energy.
       GENRE: film review

A9     Skriftlige sjangere

1      Texts and genres
       A – literary analysis
       B – argumentative essay
       C – news report
       D – advertisement
       E – personal story
       F – chat group discussion

Tasks 2-5 have too many individual solutions to make a „key‟ meaningful.

6      A more informal rendering of a letter to the editor; our suggestion.

       A princely solution for a royal problem
       The Duchess of Cornwall is turning 60. In this connection people have started
       discussing what her title should be when Prince Charles becomes King. It is a bit
       strange that the wife of a King is called Queen while the husband of a reigning Queen
       cannot be called King.
              Prince Philip did not play any part at the Queen's coronation in 1953, but in
       1937 the late Queen Mother was both "crowned and anointed" beside her husband
       George VI. My suggestion for how this could be put right is that only the monarch

      should have the title King or Queen and their husband or wife could be either Prince
      or Princess Consort.
      Margaret Ward, Redditch, Worcestershire

      Some of the sentences have been divided up, so that most of the sentences are shorter
      than in the original. Some of the most formal words have either been taken out or
      replaced with more informal ones. Some of the formal grammatical structures have
      also been changed, such as played no part in…  did not play any part in …We have
      also put in a personal reference to the writer in the concluding sentence (my

A10   Muntlige sjangere

1     Rewriting for written presentation and finding alternatives to and. Here is a
      suggestion. Other solutions may be just as good. The changes made have been

      I remember sitting in my office about a year and a half ago, when we were debating
      the McCain-Lieberman bill, which I have continually supported. One of my colleagues
      came to the floor in opposition and said, “We can't do this. It'll ruin our economy.
      We'll go backwards. It‟ll destroy the American standard of living.”
              I just couldn't believe what I was hearing. Consequently I got up, went to the
      floor and said, “Since when have Americans become so fatalistic that we go around
      saying 'We can't do it, we can't do it'?”

      (We have taken out you know, and just basically which belong to spoken style. The
      first and has been replaced by when, the second one simply removed, while the third
      one has been kept, but the two sentences on either side of it have been connected. The
      fourth and has also been removed and the fifth changed to consequently. The sixth and
      has been omitted together with the subject. In some cases where and has been kept, the
      subject of the sentence after and has been removed.)

Tasks 2-4 have too many individual solutions to make a „key‟ meaningful.

5     The sentences that do not fit the style of a conversation have been underlined,
      and an explanation inserted in brackets in each case.

      MEL: What are you so cheerful about this morning?
      LISA: Phil‟s going away for a few days tomorrow.
      MEL: Oh. Very romantic. Love is a doll dress'd up for idleness to cosset, nurse, and
            dandle. (The vocabulary is literary and formal, and this kind of metaphor fits
            better in for example a poem. Indeed the source is a poem by John Keats called
            “Modern Love”.)
      LISA: Well, he‟s going away tomorrow. So, we‟re having a special meal tonight. Let
            all our neighbours know that we shall join with them to oppose aggression or
            subversion. (The vocabulary is formal. The source is President John F.
            Kennedy‟s inaugural speech.)
      MEL: I see. Is he taking you somewhere nice?

    LISA: His place. He‟s cooking for me. First a roulade of foie gras with a spiced apple
          and fig compote; then a beautifully presented dish of roast monkfish tails with
          linguine, Parma ham and braised cabbage in a great creamy sauce that "brings
          together the different flavours and textures brilliantly. (The sentence is too long
          and complex for conversational style and the vocabulary and the description
          are too specific for this type of conversation. The source is a restaurant review
          from the Guardian.)
    MEL: (LAUGHS) Lovely. That‟ll be cosy. You, Phil, Jamie. And Grant in the
          background with a gypsy violin!
    LISA: No. It‟s all arranged. Just me and Phil. So let us begin anew – remembering on
          both sides that civility is not a sign of weakness. (This is another quote from
          J.F. Kennedy‟s inaugural speech. Again the style is too formal for conversation
          both in vocabulary – anew, civility – and grammar, particularly the non-finite
          clause starting with remembering.)

6   Go back to the debate on p. 81 and answer the five questions about genre.
    TOPIC: Drug misuse in Scotland (and to what extent it is linked to deprived areas).
    TARGET GROUP: Members of the Scottish Parliament (and possibly the general public,
    since parliamentary debates may be televised or made public in other ways).
    CHANNEL: Spoken language, parliamentary debate.
    PURPOSE: Express opinion and convince the other party.
    LANGUAGE: The linguistic features are dealt with at some length on p. 81-82.

7   Speech by former US President Lyndon B. Johnson; “We shall overcome”. Here
    are some notes on the texts. Much more could have been written, and you may
    have taken up other points that are just as relevant.
     The opinion(s) that President Johnson argues for: He argues for equal rights for
       all Americans, and specifically for extending Civil Rights (including the right to
       vote) to black Americans (note that the term „Negro‟ was in general use at that
       time, and was not considered offensive).
     Presentation of the arguments: He uses examples of recent violent actions as a
       backdrop, and also refers to events in American history to back up his main
       arguments. There are quotations from the Bible, e.g. "What is a man profited, if he
       shall gain the whole world, and lose his own soul?". Furthermore he quotes from
       the Constitution and the Bill of Rights. All of these quotations give authority and
       credibility to his opinions. The title of the speech We shall overcome is also the
       title of a Negro Spiritual, and thus creates identification between the President‟s
       views, the situation of black Americans and that of all other Americans. We may
       note that the President takes care to include examples of events from all over the
       country. At the end he refers to his personal experience and involvement with
       equal rights for all.
     Linguistic devices: The language is clearly carefully composed and contains some
       literary features, such as alliteration (dignity of man and the destiny of democracy),
       He sometimes uses repetition of structures to create emphasis, for example: There
       is no Negro problem. There is no Southern problem. There is no Northern
       problem. There is only an American problem. And towards the end of the speech
       the phrase I want to be is repeated several times.
       Contrast is often used, for example: There is no cause for self-satisfaction … But
       there is cause for hope and for faith in our democracy… Furthermore: I know how
       difficult it is to reshape the attitudes and the structure of our society. But a century

          has passed, more than a hundred years since the Negro was freed. And he is not
          fully free tonight. The contrasts are important ingredients in an argumentative text.
         Does the speaker address the audience directly? The speech starts with Dear ….
          Apart from that, the audience is included in the word we/us/our. This is probably
          part of the general thread of his argument: We = all of America need to stand
          together on this issue. Towards the end of the speech, the audience is addressed
          directly with you, when L.B. Johnson makes it clear that this is the US President
          addressing his people (I ask you to join me…, I tell you that I believe …, Your
          President makes that request of every American). There are also some direct
          requests for action in the form of imperatives (allow men and women to vote…,
          extend the rights …). We may note that the audience is double. The primary
          audience are those addressed by Dear…, while everybody in America is included
          in the first paragraph.

A11   Språklige virkemidler

1     Linguistic devices that connect the reader with the product.
      The most noticeable feature is the use of the personal pronoun you, which creates a
      personal tone. At the same time you is used as a grammatical subject in contexts of
      eating Milky Way or worrying about the calories it contains. In the sentences where
      you is subject the verbs are positive: dive in (with nothing to fear), be pleased, can
      enjoy (without worrying). You – the reader –will thus be identified as somebody who
      eats and enjoys the product.

2     Find and interpret the word plays in these headlines from The Sun.

      A      Beast friends: Gangster & cop. “Beast” resembles “best” and reflects the
             toughness and ruthlessness referred to in the first paragraph. “Gangster & cop”
             is a well-known children‟s game.
      B      Sunta has come early, folks! “Sunta” couples Sun – the name of the
             newspaper – and Santa, introducing a Christmas offer from the paper to its
      C      William is a real Prince of Wails: “Prince of Wails” sounds the same as
             “Prince of Wales” – the title of the British Crown Prince. The wailing refers to
             the crying of a little girl, whom Prince William apparently comforted,
             according to the article.

3     The metaphors have been underlined and numbered, and there are notes below
      the excerpt to explain why they are metaphors and what they mean.

      We all want to believe in impossible things, I suppose, to persuade ourselves that
      miracles can happen. Considering that I was the author of the only book ever written
      on Hector Mann, it probably made sense that someone would think I‟d (1) jump at the
      chance to believe he was still alive. But I wasn‟t in the mood to jump. Or at least I
      didn‟t think I was. (2) My book had been born out of a great sorrow, and now that (3)
      the book was behind me, the sorrow was still there. Writing about comedy had been
      no more than a pretext, (4) an odd form of medicine that I had swallowed every day
      for over a year on the off chance that it would dull the pain inside me. To some extent,
      it did.

    (1) jump at a chance is metaphorical in the sense that it does not mean that the author
        literally would jump, but that he would be happy and eager to have a go.
    (2) My book had been born is personification, since the book is not physically alive. It
        means that the book had been written, or had come into existence because the
        author had a great sorrow.
    (3) the book was behind me is metaphorical in the sense that it was not placed behind
        the author, but the writing was over. (This type of metaphor, using place
        expressions to say something about time, is conventional, and can be said to be a
        dead metaphor.) Furthermore, the book is a metonymical expression for the
        writing of the book.
    (4) an odd form of medicine… is used as a description of “writing about comedy”;
        something the author does to cure the pain he feels. The cure is then described as a
        medicine that can be swallowed.

4   Purpose and language use in the excerpt from Martin Luther King‟s speech “I
    Have a Dream”.
    The purpose is to get support for the Civil Rights Movement and to obtain equal rights
    for black people in the United States.
            The language is a mixture of literary and biblical, and has the style of a sermon
    rather than a political speech. One topic is the suffering of black people, and many
    words refer to this: trials and tribulations, narrow jail cells, battered by the storms of
    persecution, police brutality, creative suffering. The turning point is the line Let us not
    wallow in the valley of despair; after this we get a repetition of I have a dream. Each
    passage beginning in this way expresses MLK‟s hopes for the future.
            The use of biblical language and the sermon style is effective since it is typical
    of the black community in which religion played an important role. This style thus
    gives MLK authority. Examples of religious language are trials and tribulations, faith,
    redemptive, valley of despair (echoing the “valley of the shadow of death” in Psalm
    23), the table of brotherhood sounds like the communion table.
            The use of contrast goes through the whole speech: difficulties vs. dream;
    slaves and slave owners vs. the table of brotherhood; injustice and oppression vs.
    freedom and justice; color of skin vs. content of character; racists, interposition,
    nullification vs. join hands as sisters and brothers.
            There are also several examples of metaphors: battered by the storms of
    persecution are not real storms, but persecutions with the force and violence of a
    storm. Veterans of creative suffering pictures the black people as soldiers in a battle.
    Wallow in the valley of despair means to never get out of the misery (valley is thus a
    metaphor for something that is hard to get out of). The heat of oppression/injustice
    does not literally refer to high temperatures, but to great intensity.
    The use of repetition makes it easy to pay attention (especially if you listen to the
    speech) and also easier to remember the message.

5   How do the messages of the notices differ? How does the language differ between
    the two notices?
     The second notice seems to be used in a more serious situation than the first. The
        first announces a “voluntary ban” on using public paths, and the second says it is
        “unlawful” to use a certain path. The reason for both bans is an outbreak of foot
        and mouth disease.

         The first text is more polite and tentative. This is shown through the use of for
          instance please (help), may (involve some inconvenience). The second text starts
          with an imperative stop!, and is thus more abrupt. It does not contain any
          politeness phrases or modal auxiliaries.
         The second text is shorter. This may not be a coincidence – if something is
          forbidden, it is important to tell people quickly. In the first case those who put up
          the notice need to present some arguments why the readers should stop using the
          footpaths, while in the second case there is no need to argue, since the ban is
          complete and people can be fined up to £5000.

A12   Selvevaluering, mål og læringsstrategier

1     Here the mistakes have been corrected. The wrong words have been crossed out
      and the correct ones written next to them. Added material has been underlined.

      The state lies next to the mexicogolf Mexico Gulf. there is There are 20 million people
      in Teaxas Texas. Most of the country is prairie with a lot of cattle breeding. Texas has
      the biggest cattle breeding farms in the United States with almost 15 mill cattle. Texas
      The farming area of Texas is almos twise almost twice as big as the whole size of
               Texas is the next second largest state in the united states United States. The
      state is the leading producer of cotton. There are also big large mineral resources: oil,
      salt, sulfur sulphur and limstone limestone. 30% of all oil in the US are is produced
      here, and 40% of all naturegas natural gas is also produced here in Texas. The gas is
      share distributed through pipelines across almost all of the US, some parts of Canada
      and Mexico.
      Along the coast there are huge concentrations of oil refining refineries, som some of
      the biggest in The United States biggest in the as a matter of fact.
               Houston is a space-travel city and is among the largest sea ports in the United
               Texas is also known as "The lone star state" because it only had one star in
      their coat-of-arms, until it was independent in 1845.
               On November 22, 1963, President John F. Kennedy was assassinated during a
      motorcade through downtown in Dallas.

      In addition to the mistakes that have been marked, full stops have been used instead of
      commas after Gulf, breeding, and cattle in the first paragraph.

Tasks 2-5 have too many individual solutions to make a „key‟ meaningful.

A13   Samleoppgaver

1     Identification of linguistic features:

A     Three adjectives with positive meaning: lovely, beautiful, delicate, happy, rich (note:
      NOT sweetly, because that is an adverb)
B     Two adjectives with negative meaning: gruff, selfish
C     Three adjectives with neutral meaning: large, green, pink, Cornish, high

D     Two cases of co-ordination with and: (1) the sentence starting with Here and there; (2)
      the sentence starting with He had been to visit…
E     Two cases of subordination with a subjunction: (1) the sentence starting with After the
      seven years were over…; (2) the sentence starting with When he arrived…
F     One case of linking adverb: So (third line from bottom)
G     Three cases of alliteration: pink and pearl, sang so sweetly, how happy. (Giant’s
      garden is also a kind of alliteration, although the letter g is pronounced differently in
      the two words.)
H     An example of a simile: beautiful flowers like stars.

Tasks 2-3 have too many individual solutions to make a „key‟ meaningful.

4     Purposes of the texts
      The purposes of text 1 are to tell a personal story (about what happened to the narrator
      on Valentine‟s day) and express her feelings.
      The purpose of text 2 is to give information about the historical background of
      Valentine‟s day.

      Language differences between the texts
      Text 1 is rather informal in style. It has “oral style” vocabulary, such as ooh, goody,
      and a lot of dialogue. It also has incomplete sentences, such as Wonder if the post has
      come (instead of I wonder …) and Or a secret admirer. This gives an impression of
      quick, spontaneous writing. In the part with the dialogue the language (between the
      quotations) is more literary, for example said enviously (descriptive adverb); …I said
      coyly, glancing down at the card (descriptive adverb and non-finite ing-clause);
      …slumped into my seat muttering…like a humiliated teenager (contains a non-finite
      clause and a simile).
      Text 2 is more formal than text 1 (though perhaps neutral rather than very formal).
      There is formal vocabulary such as originated, devoted, and the reign of. There are
      also a lot of passive constructions, such as was martyred, had been devoted, was
      marked, is given, were introduced and are sent out. All the sentences are complete and
      grammatical, and there is none of the “oral style” spelling that can be found in Text 1.

5A    Five questions about genre
       The topic of the text: A trip to New York
       The target group of the text: Blog readers, probably people the same age as the
         writer (about 18-25).
       The channel of the text: Internet (blog)
       The purpose of the text: Tell the story about 4 days in New York with her sister,
         possibly also inform about things to do on a minibreak to New York.
       How does the language of the text reflect its topic, purpose, target group and
         channel? The headline echoes the text on lots of souvenirs from New York, thus
         reflecting the topic and purpose. The channel (blog) and the target group make the
         writer choose an informal style with features from spoken English (incomplete
         sentences, capital letters to show emphasis). There is also informal vocabulary,
         such as stuff, awsome, cabbed/subbed (= „took a cab / the subway‟), sunnies (=
         „sunglasses‟), Lady Liberty (instead of „The Statue of Liberty‟), hang around.
         Some features of SMS/chatgroup language are used to reflect the channel; <3 for
         „love‟, @ for „at‟ and lol for „laugh out loud‟.

Questions B-D must be answered individually – a key will not be very meaningful.

6     The original order of the paragraphs was as follows (only the first sentence of
      each has been given).

      1   It began when Peter Parker was attending a high-school demonstration of radiation
      2   In the original comic book, Peter's new talents inspired him to invent his trusty
      3   Peter Parker lives with his Aunt May…
      4   Spider-Man can stick to almost any surface.
      5   Others have millions of specially shaped, microscopic hairs on their legs that slip
          into all the nooks and crannies of a ceiling or window.
      6   Anyone who has ever walked into a spider‟s web knows that the silk is deceptively
          strong, despite its gossamer appearance.
      7   In an unlikely coupling, genetic engineers have now bred goats that have spider
          silk genes inside them.
      8   In adult female goats, the silk gene is activated only while the animal is producing


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