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									               Voucher Program
            North and West Sumatra




      Final report June 2002- Oct. 2004
     Impact Study Nov. 2005 – Jan. 2006

Medan, Sept. 25, 2006            Dr. Thomas Meier
                                         Foreword
Implementing a subsidy program is probably little fun for any Project Manager in the world.
Designed to stimulate demand for something particular, access to subsidies is restricted
through a web of rules for those who qualify. Subsidies, however, also attract many who do
not qualify and also some with highly criminal intentions. The scope of illegal attempts to
access subsidies may be correlated with certain socio-political indicators in a particular
country. E.g. implementing a voucher program for BDS market stimulation in a country with a
low score of Transparency International’s Corruption Perceptions Index means that you
spend a lot of time and resources on policing those who found access and tightening the web
of rules while learning that whatever clever rules you invent there will always be people
finding loopholes.

The level of remaining frustration prevented me a long time from writing this report until these
days. When analyzing data and writing parts of the report, I still felt a considerable portion of
disgust and did not expect any positive conclusion to be made from what I perceived a
disappointing program. But then, all of a sudden, while calculating some averages on a
spreadsheet, there appeared positive results. I did not believe my eyes and checked and
recalculated – same result. I continued with other calculations – even better results! The
feeling of disgust turned into delight and finally I am proud to present the final report and
impact study of the Voucher Program Sumatra. My pain was not in vain – the impact of the
program is positive and by far exceeds expectations!



Medan September 25, 2006

Thomas Meier




                                                i
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Voucher Program North and West Sumatra
Final Report_______________________________________________________________



EXECUTIVE SUMMARY


   The voucher program in Sumatra had clear, measurable and highly positive impacts on
   enterprises and business start-ups. An impact assessment conducted one year after
   the program shows that the program directly contributed to the creation of 4700 new
   paid jobs in existing companies and business start-ups. Most successful business
   serivce providers are those who have an interest in a continuing business business
   relationship with their clients in other fields than training or consultancy. The service
   products of these providers are also most efective in terms of income and job creation.



Background and Objectives of the Voucher Program
Under the Swiss Program for Small and Medium Enterprise Support in Indonesia (SPESI),
Swisscontact, supported by the Swiss State Secretariat for Economic Affairs (SECO)
implemented two voucher programs in West Sumatra and North Sumatra from 2002 to 2004.
Voucher programs were designed to stimulate the demand for commercial business services
by improving access to services, raising the awareness of the benefits of business services
and increasing market transparancy. Short-term subsidies in the form of vouchers and
promotion activities were the key inputs from Swisscontact to address these objectives.
Indicators to measure the achievment of objectives were defined:

      Approx. 20 providers participate in the Program in each of the two selected regions;
      50% of participating SMEs use commercial services for the first time;
      A minimum of 70% of available vouchers are used (4000 per region);
      Average of 2-3 new services per participating provider.



Overview of Results achieved
                                              West Sumatra               North Sumatra

    Used Vouchers                                     4368                    4460
    Selected Providers                                 36                      30
    Active Providers                                   25                      20
    Number of Different Services used                 101                      77
    Main Fields of Services used
      -General and Finance Management                 27%                     25%
      -Manufacturing and Handicraft                   30%                     11%
      -Information Technology                         24%                     4%
      -Food Processing                                18%                     21%
    Subsidies paid                              Rp. 599 mln               Rp. 562 mln
                                                    U$ 66.000              U$ 62.000




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    Average subsidies paid per Voucher         Rp. 129.000                Rp. 126.000
                                                   U$ 14                     U$ 14
    Voucher users
       -Entrepreneurs                              18%                       32%
       -Employees                                  23%                       27%
       -Start up                                   58%                       41%
    Female Voucher users                           77%                       63%


Impacts of the Program on the Demand Side of Services
The voucher program in Sumatra had clear, measurable and highly positive impacts on
enterprises and business start-ups. From the impact study it can be concluded that the
program directly contributed to the creation of 4700 new paid jobs in the existing companies
of entrepreneur voucher users (2200) together with the new companies realized by start-up
voucher users (2500).
These results confirm the assumption that the use of business services is beneficial for small
and medium enterprises irrespective whether the service users are entrepreneurs or their
employees. Enterprises using commercial business services show much higher growth rates
as compared to the Indonesian national average and are thus more competitive. In that
regard, the Voucher Program has contributed to the overall goal of the SPESI project, i.e.
increasing the competitiveness of SMEs in Sumatra.
The study also shows that those start-up trainings which focus on easy to be replicated
business ideas and providing a continued business relationship with the training provider are
very effective in terms of income and job creation.
The results of the study also verify that the Voucher Program achieved its objective of
stimulating the demand for commercial business services. Many people used the occasion of
the Voucher Program to try commercial BDS and a significant portion of first time users have
continued to use commercial BDS after the program even without subsidies.


Impacts of the Program on the Supply Side of Services
In contrast to the demand side it is not possible to identify clear impacts of the voucher
program on the supply side of services. Unlike their SME customers, most service providers
show poor business performance data with decreasing sales and stagnating number of staff.
Product ranges were adapted to market trends but did not change much as compared to the
situation before the voucher program. It can only be concluded that relying on the market
mechanism alone does not lead to quick improvements at the level of service providers.
Still there were three very successful service providers in the portfolio of the program. These
three service providers were also responsible, among others, for most of the realized start-up
companies under the voucher program. The common characteristic of these providers is that
they have a direct interest in the products produced by their clients; either because they are
also suppliers of input materials or because they are marketing their end-products. Thus, in
can be concluded that successful business service providers have an interest in a continuing
business relationship with their clients in other fields than training.




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Voucher Program North and West Sumatra
Final Report_______________________________________________________________




                                                               Contents


Foreword          ........................................................................................................................... i

Executive Summary............................................................................................ iii

Contents         v
Table of Figures ................................................................................................................. vii
List of Tables ..................................................................................................................... vii
List of Abbreviations .......................................................................................................... vii


1       INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................1
        1.1      BACKGROUND ...................................................................................................................1
        1.2      OBJECTIVES AND EXPECTATIONS .......................................................................................2
        1.3      UNDERSTANDING OF VOUCHERS ........................................................................................2


2       SUPPLY SIDE............................................................................................................5
        2.1      SELECTION OF SERVICE PROVIDERS AND SERVICES ...........................................................5
        2.2      SELECTED BDS PROVIDERS ..............................................................................................5
                 2.2.1   Number of Selected BDS Providers per Period ..............................................5
                 2.2.2   Selected vs. Active BDS Providers .................................................................6
                 2.2.3   Active BDS Providers and their Share in Total Vouchers Used......................7
        2.3      SELECTED BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT SERVICES .................................................................9


3       DEMAND SIDE ........................................................................................................11
        3.1      USED SERVICES..............................................................................................................11
                 3.1.1   Fields of Used Services.................................................................................11
                 3.1.2   Prices of Services Used ................................................................................12
                 3.1.3   Duration of Services Used.............................................................................12
        3.2      VOUCHER USERS ............................................................................................................13
                 3.2.1   Entrepreneurs, Employees and Start-up Voucher Users..............................13
                 3.2.2   Gender, Age, Education and Source of Information about the Program ......14


4       PROMOTION OF THE VOUCHER PROGRAM.......................................................15


5       IMPACT ASSESSMENT ONE YEAR AFTER VOUCHER PROGRAM...................17
        5.1      OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY .............................................................................................17
        5.2      DEMAND SIDE – IMPACTS ON THE LEVEL OF VOUCHER USERS ............................................17
                 5.2.1   Main study questions – demand side of services..........................................17




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            5.2.2    Study Sample and Data Collection on the Demand side ..............................18
            5.2.3    Impacts on BDS market stimulation ..............................................................20
            5.2.4    Entrepreneurs – Impacts on their enterprises ...............................................21
            5.2.5    Employees – Impacts on their employment situation....................................24
            5.2.6    Start-ups – Realization of Business Ideas ....................................................25
            5.2.7    Overall conclusion – Demand Side ...............................................................27
      5.3   SUPPLY SIDE – IMPACTS ON THE LEVEL OF SERVICE SUPPLIERS .........................................28
            5.3.1    Main study questions – supply side of services ............................................28
            5.3.2    Impacts on service providers.........................................................................29
            5.3.3    Conclusions - Supply Side ...........................................................................32
      5.4   FINANCIAL ASPECTS OF THE VOUCHER PROGRAM ............................................................32
Annex A     Experiences with the Selection process of Service Providers.........................33
Annex B     Active Service Providers and their Current Status ..........................................35
Annex C     Questionnaires Impact Study - Demand Side .................................................37




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                                                    Table of Figures
FIGURE 1    SELECTED BDS PROVIDERS PER PERIOD ........................................................................................6
FIGURE 2    SELECTED – ACTIVE BDS PROVIDERS WEST SUMATRA .................................................................7
FIGURE 3    SELECTED – ACTIVE BDS PROVIDERS NORTH SUMATRA ...............................................................7
FIGURE 4    SHARE OF ACTIVE BDS PROVIDERS IN TOTAL VOUCHERS USED WEST SUMATRA ........................8
FIGURE 5    SHARE OF ACTIVE BDS PROVIDERS IN TOTAL VOUCHERS USED NORTH SUMATRA ......................8
FIGURE 6    SELECTED SERVICES WEST SUMATRA AND NORTH SUMATRA .....................................................10
FIGURE 7    FIELDS OF USED SERVICES .............................................................................................................11
FIGURE 8    PRICES OF SERVICES USED .............................................................................................................12
FIGURE 9    DURATION OF SERVICES USED ........................................................................................................13
FIGURE 10    TYPES OF VOUCHER USERS ..........................................................................................................13
FIGURE 11    SERVICES USED BY RESPONDENTS OF THE IMPACT STUDY ..........................................................21
FIGURE 12    SELF-ASSESSMENT OF IMPACTS BY ENTREPRENEURS .................................................................23
FIGURE 13    CHANGES IN WORKING POSITION OF EMPLOYEES .........................................................................24
FIGURE 14    SELF-ASSESSMENT OF IMPACTS BY EMPLOYEES ..........................................................................25
FIGURE 15    RANGE OF ANNUAL TURNOVERS OF SERVICE PROVIDERS ............................................................30




                                                       List of Tables
TABLE 1     AVERAGE NUMBER OF JOBS AT SMES BEFORE AND AFTER THE VOUCHER PROGRAM ...............22
TABLE 2     INCREASE IN AVERAGE MONTHLY TURNOVER PER SMES (IN RP. 000, ADJUSTED TO 2002
            CONSUMER PRICES).........................................................................................................................23
TABLE 3     INDICATORS OF REALIZED START-UPS ............................................................................................26
TABLE 4     INDICATORS OF REALIZED START-UPS, MONTHLY TURNOVER >RP. 1 MLN ....................................26


                                               List of Abbreviations
BDS                                                    Business Development Services
NGO                                                    Non-Governmental Organizations
PT                                                     Perseroan Terbatas
                                                       Public Limited Company
SECO                                                   State Secretariat for Economic Affairs
SMEP                                                   Small and Medium Enterprise Promotion
SMEs                                                   Small and Medium Enterprises
Wartel                                                 Warung Telpon
                                                       Public Telecommunication Shop




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Final Report_______________________________________________________________



1 Introduction



1.1       Background


Swisscontact Voucher Programs were implemented within the framework of market
development programs for Business Development Services1 (BDS) for Small and Medium
Enterprises (SMEs). BDS markets in Indonesia have been found to be highly distrorted
through government and donor interventions which were mainly concentrating on the supply
side. Subsidies are provided to Business Development Services Providers (BDS Providers),
resulting in a supply-driven approach with BDS offered for free. This has led to a situation
where service quality and impact dropped drastically, because supply did not match demand.
Under its Small and Medium Enterprises Promotion (SMEP) Program in Indonesia,
Swisscontact has developed a variety of different approaches to address both supply-side
and demand-side constraints of BDS markets.2 Voucher Programs have been designed to
mainly address constraints on the demand-side of services. Vouchers are discount cards
intended to stimulate demand for commercial BDS by providing short-term subidies to SMEs.
Swisscontact started its first Voucher Program in Asia in the Indonesian province of East
Java in August 1999. Based on the experiences gained during that pilot project, new Voucher
Programs have been implemented in the greater Jakarta area (Jabotabek) and East Java in
the period April 2001 to December 2002.
Under the Swiss Program for Small and Medium Enterprise Support in Indonesia (SPESI),
Swisscontact, supported by the Swiss State Secretariat for Economic Affairs (SECO), has
expanded its activities to Sumatra. In the year 2002, two new Voucher Programs were
launched in West Sumatra (June 2002) and North Sumatra (November 2002).
The first part of this report (Chapter 1 to 4) presents the final results achieved in the Voucher
Programs in West and North Sumatra in the period June 2002 until October 2004. Both
programs run for consecutive 24 months. The program in West Sumatra ended in May 2004
and in North Sumatra in October 2004.
The second part (Chapter 5) presents the results from an impact study conducted one year
after both program have come to an end.




1
    For background information on BDS market development refer to:

SDC (2000): Developing Markets for Business Development Services: Designing and Implementing More Effective
Interventions, SED Issue Paper no 5, June 2000, published by SDC, Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation.

Field, M.; Hitchins, R; Bear, M. (2000): Designing BDS Interventions as if Markets Mattered, MBP Discussion Paper.
2
    For an overview of Swisscontact approaches refer to www.swisscontact.or.id.




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Voucher Program North and West Sumatra
Final Report_______________________________________________________________




1.2       Objectives and Expectations


General

Swisscontact Voucher Programs are part of comprehensive BDS market development
programs. Functioning BDS markets, in turn, are considered an important part of a
conductive business environment for SMEs. It is assumed that SMEs which use professional
BDS perform better that others who do not. Voucher Programs are therefore expected to
contribute to the overall goal of BDS market development programs which is to improve the
competitiveness of SMEs in selected regions of Indonesia.

Specific

Voucher programs have been designed to stimulate the demand for commercial BDS by
improving access to BDS, raising the awareness of the benefits fo BDS and increasing BDS
market transparancy. Short-term subsidies in the form of vouchers and promotion activities
are the key inputs from Swisscontact to address these objectives.
As a result of these key inputs, voucher programs are also expected to have some impact on
the supply side (although not directly address with specific activities): i.e. to enhance sound
competition among existing BDS Providers and, thus, to improve the quality of business
development services (Services) for SMEs.
Specific quantitative indicators to measure the achievment of objectives in West and North
Sumatra were defined:

          Approx. 20 providers participate in the Program in each of the two selected regions;
          50% of participating SMEs use commercial services for the first time;
          A minimum of 70% of available vouchers are used (4000 per region);
          Average of 2-3 new services per participating provider;



1.3       Understanding of Vouchers

Voucher - a discount card - entitled the user to a 50% and maximum IDR 150,0003 discount
on various short trainings and counseling services of accredited BDS Providers (i.e. IDR
150,000 – with the voucher – IDR 75,000; IDR 500,000 – with the voucher IDR 350,000). The
subsidy in form of the voucher want help overcome the reluctance of buyers and suppliers of
services.




3
    US$ 1 = IDR 9,100




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Voucher Program North and West Sumatra
Final Report_______________________________________________________________


Mechanisms of the Voucher Program


                          Swisscontact
                  -    System Development
                  -    Selection of BDS Providers                                                        BDS Providers
                                                                 Usage of Vouchers / Information
                  -    Control and Monitoring                    on BDS market
                  -    Promotion




                                                                                                        Voucher

                                             Information of SME needs




              Selected                              Voucher
          Voucher Distributor                                                        SMEs




       1. BDS Provider and Services Selection

       See page 5.

       2. Voucher Distribution

       The Voucher themselves were printed and distributed to the Voucher outlets where they
       can be picked up easily.4 BDS Providers were not allowed to supply Vouchers by
       themselves as this would comprise SMEs’ right to make a free choice and also
       dramatically raise the risk of fraud.

       3. Voucher Purchase

       SMEs purchased vouchers in one of the distribution outlets. Most of these distribution
       points were public telecommunication shops (wartels), small stores, Internet shops
       (warnet), radio stations and education centers. In order to provide the Voucher
       distribution outlets with a financial incentive for distribution the vouchers were sold for an
       administrative fee of IDR 2,500. The administration fee was paid by the Voucher user
       directly to the distribution outlet.

       4. Service Selection

       SMEs selected one of the services according to their needs and contacted the service
       provider in order to got information on the schedule and for registration.




4
    Voucher distribution outlets were defined as locations where SMEs could purchase a voucher for an administration fee.




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Voucher Program North and West Sumatra
Final Report_______________________________________________________________


   5. User Registration

   SMEs had to fill in a registration form which was handed over to the BDS providers. The
   users paid the service fee minus the discount provided by the Voucher.


   6. Service Evaluation

   After using a service, the user filled in and signed a standardized evaluation form, which
   was handed over to the provider.

   7. Monitoring

   BDS Providers had to submit the used vouchers including the evaluation forms to
   Swisscontact to claim reimbursement of discounts given. Reimbursement was subject to
   verification of the validity of the voucher by Swisscontact.




                                                                      A Voucher consisted
                                                                      of a small folder
                                                                      which contained a
                                                                      booklet with
                                                                      descriptions of
                                                                      services, service
                                                                      providers and prices




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Voucher Program North and West Sumatra
Final Report_______________________________________________________________



2 Supply Side


2.1       Selection of Service Providers and Services

The selection of Business Development Service (BDS) Providers followed a step by step
selection process. Public tenders were announced in local newspapers which invited
interested BDS providers5 to participate in information workshops where they were informed
about details of the selection process and the required documentation to be submitted to
Swisscontact. Annex A informs about experiences made with that tender approach and
modifications made.
There are only few institutions in the project areas which have SMEs as their main target
group. We can find a lot of NGOs which are working on project basis for the Indonesian
Government and/or foreign donor agencies. They are difficult to convince that they should
recover their cost from fees paid by SMEs. The market for donor funds is by far more
attractive to them. Therefore, only few of them have passed the selection process.
On the other hand, there are many commercially oriented service providers which focus on
university students or jobseekers. Lack of appropriate infrastructure at universities forces
many students to get necessary experience at private service providers. This is particularly
the case for various computer applications both in the technical and management field. Such
services, however, can also be used by SMEs and were found to be suitable for the voucher
program.
Different fields are skill upgrading courses, also mainly provided by private companies. Their
main target groups are jobseekers willing to upgrade or acquire new technical skills which
increase their chances to find employment or may even allow them to start their own small
businesses. Sewing and embroidery courses, as well as pastry and bread making training
were most popular in North and West Sumatra. The number of SME employers sending staff
to such training is rather small. SME employers more often make such training a precondition
if job applications are to be considered. However, employees of SMEs often subscribe to skill
upgrading courses on their own account to improve or acquire new skills which they require
to keep their positions or to climb up the career ladder at their current company. Skill
upgrading courses are therefore located in the boarder area between vocational training and
BDS.


2.2       Selected BDS Providers


2.2.1       Number of Selected BDS Providers per Period


Figure 1 shows the numbers of selected BDS providers over the program period. In West
Sumatra a total of 36 providers were ever selected throughout the project period and in North
Sumatra 30 providers. As some non-active providers were dropped and new providers
selected there were in max. 32 providers simultaneously in the West Sumatra program.
Towards the end of the program, the cooperation with several providers was phased out

5
    BDS Providers were defined as associations, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), universities and private organizations.




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Final Report_______________________________________________________________


mainly because these providers remained inactive. The program objective of approximately
20 participating BDS Providers has been achieved in both locations.


                               Figure 1            Selected BDS Providers per period

          35

          30

          25

          20

                                                                `
          15

          10

           5

           0
               1   2   3   4    5   6    7   8    9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
                                                 West Sumatra            North Sumatra




2.2.2       Selected vs. Active BDS Providers
Figure 2 and Figure 3 show the distribution of the total ever selected and active6 BDS
Providers, grouped into different types of institutions (private companies, associations,
universities, and non-governmental organizations). In both areas, the majority of selected
BDS Providers are private companies, 18 each.
It is important to distinguish between the number of selected and the number of active
providers. Reasons why providers remained inactive were mainly that their customers did not
qualify for using voucher, being either from large companies or costs were subsidized by the
government of other donor agencies. Active BDS Providers in West Sumatra totaled 25 and
in North Sumatra 20. Annex B provides a list of active service providers.




6
    A BDS Provider is said to be active if a Voucher has ever been claimed to Swisscontact.




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                Figure 2        Selected – Active BDS Providers West Sumatra

           20
                    18
           18                                                              Selected
           16                                                              Active
           14              13
                                                        12
           12
           10                                                9
            8
            6                            5
            4                                3
            2                                                          1
                                                                               0
            0
                     Private         Association         NGO          University




                Figure 3        Selected – Active BDS Providers North Sumatra

           20
                    18
           18
                                                                      Selected
           16                                                         Active
           14
                           12
           12
           10
            8
            6                                           5    5         5

            4
                                         2   2
            2                                                                  1
            0
                     Private         Cooperatives        NGO          University




2.2.3   Active BDS Providers and their Share in Total Vouchers Used
The two charts below show the active service providers and their share in total vouchers
used in the two program regions. Only service providers with more than 70 used vouchers
are displayed. The remaining are summarized in the category ‘others’.
There number of regular active service providers was higher in West Sumatra as compared
to North Sumatra. This fact is reflected in a more evenly distribution of single BDS providers
in total vouchers used in West Sumatra as compared to North Sumatra.




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      Figure 4      Share of Active BDS Providers in total Vouchers used West Sumatra

                                        others, 10%
                                                                           Bogasari Baking Center
                                   LP3T, 2%                                    Padang, 17%
                  Cendana Costum, 2%
                   Madona Group, 3%

          LPK Palapa Komputer, 3%
                 Widyaloka Solok, 3%

                                                                                        P2T Pro Data, 12%
                  Modeste Dolly, 4%


              Widyaloka Padang, 4%


               Dekopinwil Sumbar, 5%                                                 Sulaman Bordir Muslimah
                                                                                          Group, 10%
                       Modeste Eka Putri, 6%

                                               LPPMB, 9%               LPM BAT, 10%




      Figure 5      Share of Active BDS Providers in total Vouchers used North Sumatra

                           PJK USU, 2%
           Lembaga Pendidikan Bisnis           Others, 7%
            manajemen Komputer, 2%
           LP3M-Traning Center, 2%

             CV. Bayu Perkasa, 4%                                                 Lembaga Teknik Dan
                                                                               Manajemen Industri (LeTMI ),
                    GEPSU, 4%                                                            36%




                    Elviati, 5%



            Yayasan Srikandi, 8%




              Management Business and
                                                            Bogasari Baking Center
                   Consultant, 9%
                                                                Medan, 21%


West Sumatra
In West Sumatra, four BDS Providers were responsible for around half of the total 4,638
Vouchers used throughout the program period.
Most successful was PT Bogasari Baking Center with 17%. Bogasari provides trainings in the
field of pastry and break making. Approx. half of participants claimed to intend to start their
own business. More than one third were existing entrepreneurs. Second most successful was
P2T Pro Data (Pusat Pendidikan Teknologi ProDATA) with 12% of the total used vouchers.




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Final Report_______________________________________________________________


ProData offers trainings in the field of information technology to students, SMEs and
governmental employees.
Sulaman Bordir Muslimah Group had a share of 10% of total used vouchers. Their main
products are sewing and embroidery trainings. West Sumatra is well known beyond
Indonesia for its fine embroidery works mainly used for traditional Islamic dresses for women.
Many of the participants were housewives and jobseekers looking for employment and
business start up opportunities.
LPM BAT also achieved 10% of total used vouchers. The company offers various trainings in
the field of IT. The best performing training in the voucher program was a training for
computer technicians, with many participants who planned to become individual IT
administrators.


North Sumatra
In North Sumatra a single BDS Provider was responsible for 36% of the total 4,460 vouchers
used. LeTMI (Lembaga Teknik dan Manajemen Industri) conducted mainly seminars which
were attended by large groups of people. Swisscontact phased out services which were
provided in the form of seminars as they too quickly consumed available subsidies and
because there were signs of substandard service quality.
Second most successful was Bogasari Baking Center with 21% of used vouchers and a
similar range of services offered as in West Sumatra.
Third most successful BDS providers was Management Business and Consultant (MBC) with
9% of used vouchers. MBC offered training in the field of accounting, entrepreneurship and
database management.
Worth to mention is also Yaysasan Srikandi with 8% of used vouchers. Yayasan Srikandi
offered sewing and embroidery trainings mainly for women who later started their own home
enterprise.
(More about used services on page 11.)



2.3   Selected Business Development Services

The initial selection process and subsequent reselection processes during all phases of the
program resulted in a total number of 250 selected services in West Sumatra and 247 in
North Sumatra. The range and kind of services selected has been quite dynamic as many
BDS providers tend to introduce new services, modify and rename existing services or
splitting trainings in several training packages. The indicator for measuring the achievement
of project objectives (see 1.2) of an 'average of 2-3 new services per participating provider' is
therefore difficult to assess quantitatively. Qualitatively, it can be said that participating
providers act more quickly adapting their services portfolio than anticipated. This may reflect
the high number of private companies selected which by default have to be capable to adapt
services to demand in order to survive. The voucher program itself contributed mainly to
adapt training modules to the needs of SMEs in terms of duration and time of delivery.




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Voucher Program North and West Sumatra
Final Report_______________________________________________________________


Selected services have been grouped into 9 categories for further analysis:
      1. General Management, e.g.: training in the field of business administration, retailer
         trainings, agribusiness management, management of cooperatives, entrepreneurship
      2. Financial Management, e.g.: training of preparing financial reports, financial
         management, tax reports;
      3. Quality Management, e.g. ISO 9000, 14000 and 17025 trainings;
      4. Business Planning and Access to Finance, e.g. training of preparing business
         plans, preparing business analyses, intermediary services to financial institutions;
      5. Marketing, e.g.: training of product marketing, market access;
      6. Information Technology, e.g. system administration services, various computer
         trainings (trainings for accounting programs under Financial Management);
      7. Manufacturing and Handicraft, e.g. embroidery and tailoring, souvenir production,
         trainings in the automotive and sector, maintenance of electronic devices;
      8. Food processing, e.g. pastry and bread making, catering and bakery start-up
         trainings;
      9. Agriculture, e.g. trainings of fish and chicken farming, horticulture cultivation
         techniques;

                      Figure 6 Selected Services West Sumatra and North Sumatra
 90
                                                                                81
 80                                                                                                                                                      West Sumatra
                                                                                                                                                         North Sumatra
 70
                                                                                                   59
 60
              50
 50
                                                                                                            38
 40
         33             32                                                                                                                                                        32
 30                                26                                                 26
                                                        23
                                                                         18                                                      18
 20                                                                                                                    15
                                                                   10                                                                     11
                                                                                                                                                    8                   8
 10                                            5                                                                                                         4
                                                                                                                                                                              0
  0
                                                                    Marketing




                                                                                                                                                         Quality Management
                                                                                                   Manufacturing and
         Management




                         FinanceManagement




                                                                                                                                           Agriculture
                                                                                Technology
                                                                                Information




                                                                                                                        Food Processing
                                             Business Planning &




                                                                                                                                                                              Others
                                              Access to Finance
          General




                                                                                                      Handicraft




The most selected services in West Sumatra at the end of the program were 81 (32%)
information technology services, followed by 59 (24%) manufacturing and handicraft
services, whereas for North Sumatra the most selected services were: 50 (20%) general
management services, followed by 38 (17%) manufacturing and handicraft services. The
category others includes mainly services which were provided in the form of seminars such
as motivation trainings, and other trend topics more related to personality development. Such
seminars were phased out at the end of 2003.
Only 178 (36%) of the 497 services shown above have been used at the end of the program.
The following chapter provides details about these used services.




                                                                                              10
Voucher Program North and West Sumatra
Final Report_______________________________________________________________



3 Demand Side


During the whole program period June 2002 to October 2004, a total of 9,098 Vouchers were
used (4,638 in West Sumatra, 4,460 in North Sumatra).7 According to the indicator to
measure the achievement of project objectives (see 1.2), a minimum of 70% of available
4000 vouchers per region should be used. Thus, that objective was over-achieved.


3.1     Used Services

Among the 250 services selected in West Sumatra as shown in Figure 6, 101 (40%) were
actually used at least once during the program. The ratio was lower in North Sumatra with
247 selected against 77 (31%) used services. Huge differences were found regarding the
numbers of vouchers used for each of these services. There were services which were used
only once against others which were used several hundred times.

3.1.1    Fields of Used Services
Figure 7 shows the percentage of total used vouchers in different fields.


                      Figure 7 Fields of used services
 35%

                                                                                                                           30%                                                     West Sumatra
 30%
                                                                                                                                                                                   North Sumatra

                                                                                                            24%
 25%

                                                                                                                                                        21%
 20%
                                                                                                                                                18%


             14%        15%                                                                                                                                                                           14%
 15%                                                                         14%
        12%
                                                                                                                                    11%
 10%                                   9%
                                                            7%
                                                                                                  6%
                                                                                                                   4%
  5%
                                                                                                                                                                    1% 1%
                                              0%                    0%                    0%                                                                                                   0%
  0%
                                               Quality Management




                                                                                                             Technology
                                                                                           Marketing




                                                                                                                            Manufacturing and




                                                                                                                                                                     Agriculture
         Management




                          FinanceManagement




                                                                                                                                                                                                   Others
                                                                                                             Information




                                                                                                                                                  Food Processing
                                                                    Business Planning &
                                                                     Access to Finance
           General




                                                                                                                               Handicraft




In West Sumatra most vouchers were used for services in manufacturing and handicraft
(30%) and information technology (24%). Food processing was a similar hit in both program
regions. In North Sumatra, business management related services were more often used
than in West Sumatra. The category others includes mainly seminars related to personality
development, which were phased out at the end of 2003.




7 The number of total vouchers submitted to Swisscontact in West Sumatra amounts to 3,212. After verification Swisscontact
Padang declared 149 (5%) of these vouchers as invalid.




                                                                                                       11
Voucher Program North and West Sumatra
Final Report_______________________________________________________________


3.1.2   Prices of Services Used
Service or training prices respectively were subject to changes over time. Several providers
have split expensive trainings into several separate trainings of lower price an duration. A
shorter and cheaper training may be more adapted to the needs of SMEs. It serves also to
focus training on separate core contents. However, the subsidies provided in a voucher
program are also an incentive for providers to adapt their services prices to make optimal use
of the program. It is therefore not surprising that the majority of services are in the price
category between IDR 200'000 to 400'000. A service price of IDR 300'000 results in the
maximum subsidy of IDR 150'000.
Services which have been selected but not used show virtually the same price distribution as
shown below. Thus, prices may not have be the main reason why services have not been
used.


              Figure 8 Prices of services used

 80%
                                         72%
 70%         West Sumatra
             North Sumatra
 60%
                                               49%
 50%

 40%
                     31%
 30%
                                                                      19%
 20%           15%                                              13%
 10%

  0%
              IDR < 200,000         IDR 200,000 - 400,000      IDR > 400,000




3.1.3   Duration of Services Used
Service duration is less influenced by the voucher program. However, BDS providers tend to
split trainings into smaller packages to optimize prices to subsidies paid which results also in
shorter trainings. Figure 9 shows that services used were longer in West Sumatra than in
North Sumatra. An important reason for this fact is that there are many long-term tailoring
and embroidery courses in West Sumatra. The picture in North Sumatra is strongly
influenced by the many one-day seminars provided during the first year of the voucher
program.




                                                 12
Voucher Program North and West Sumatra
Final Report_______________________________________________________________


                Figure 9 Duration of services used

  80%
                West Sumatra                                         67%
  70%
                North Sumatra
  60%
                                             51%
  50%

  40%                                                                      34%
  30%
                                       22%
  20%                  14%
                 10%
  10%

      0%
                  < 8 jam              8 - 16 jam                    > 16 jam


Services which have been selected but not used show virtually the same duration distribution
as shown above. Thus, duration may not have be the main reason why services have not
been used.


3.2        Voucher Users


3.2.1       Entrepreneurs, Employees and Start-up Voucher Users
Entrepreneurs and employees from existing small enterprises were entitled to use vouchers.
Additionally, people willing to start their own business could also use vouchers. Most of the
4,638 Vouchers in West Sumatra were used by Start-ups (58%), followed by employees with
24% and entrepreneurs with 18%. The distribution in North Sumatra is more even. Of the
4460 vouchers, 41% were used by Start-ups, followed by employees (27%) and
entrepreneurs with 32%.


                Figure 10 Types of Voucher Users

   100%
                                      Start-Ups
      80%                             Employees                41%
                             58%      Entrepreneurs
      60%

                                                               27%
      40%
                             24%
      20%
                                                               32%
                             18%
        0%
                       West Sumatra                        North Sumatra




                                                      13
Voucher Program North and West Sumatra
Final Report_______________________________________________________________


As mentioned earlier the start-up category also included ordinary people and jobseekers
looking for employment and business start up opportunities. The criteria for using the start-up
category had been tightened. Starting in 2004 only specified services could have been used
by start-ups. Those providing start up services had to complete their products with additional
features required for establishing new businesses.

3.2.2   Gender, Age, Education and Source of Information about the Program
The database of voucher users also contains information regarding their age, gender, source
of information and last completed education. Unfortunately, a high percentage of data was
found to be not valid as many questionnaires were not filled in by service users but service
providers according to their ‘feelings’. More reliable data and differentiated analyses of
different user groups will be provided in the impact study in chapter 5.2.2. Here the main
findings from that chapter:
        There were clearly more women using vouchers (70%) than man which (30%) reflects
        the fact that many trainings were offered in fields of activities still considered to be the
        preserve of women (baking training, sewing, embroidery).
        More than 70% of respondents were between 20 and 40 years old.
        The voucher program was almost exclusively used by people with at least high school
        education.
        Friends, Business Partners and Service Providers were the most important sources of
        information about the voucher program. In other words: mouth to mouth propaganda.




                                                 14
Voucher Program North and West Sumatra
Final Report_______________________________________________________________



4 Promotion of the Voucher Program

Promotion activities are crucial for the success an impact of a voucher program. Such
activities have been planned according to a schedule which considered more intensive
activities at the beginning of the Program as well as when new services were added to the
Program. The Voucher Team experimented with a broad range of media.
Newspaper: The Voucher Program is regularly announced in Newspapers.
Radio: Radio spots were broadcasted between three and six times daily in several radio
stations in West and North Sumatra. Additionally, a radio quiz has been launched in Padang
in which easy questions about the Voucher Program are asked. Callers could win
Swisscontact T-shirts or Swisscontact caps.
Posters: Though having only a short lifespan, posters containing information about Vouchers
and Voucher outlets are regularly distributed.
Banners: Different Banners have been printed and distributed to Providers and Distributors.
Additional Banners have been installed at some strategic spots in Padang and Medan.
Homepage: A simple homepage informed about services available and how to join the
program (www.voucher.or.id).
Trade Fairs: Swisscontact together with BDS Providers participated in several trade fairs in
West and North Sumatra.
Newsletter: The program was regularly promoted in BDS news, the SPESI Newsletter.

During stagnation phase’s, esp. during the first quarter 2003 in West Sumatra, Swisscontact
launched a special promotion campaign. Active providers were offered several promotion
packages including designing and printing brochures, participating in radio talk shows,
newspaper advertisements and banner promotion. Providers could choose the package most
suitable for their enterprises and could benefit from a cost contribution by Swisscontact of
maximal IDR 2 million per provider. Additionally, Swisscontact operated exhibition stands
together with BDS providers at several occasions in the entrance of shopping malls and at
local trade fairs.

The promotion of the voucher program very much supported the dissemination of the BDS
idea. Swisscontact receive positive feedback on the above promotion campaigns. It can be
concluded that the voucher program has contributed to improved market transparency for
commercially offered BDS.




                                              15
Voucher Program North and West Sumatra
Final Report_______________________________________________________________




                                         16
Voucher Program North and West Sumatra
Impact Study_____________________________________________________________



5 Impact Assessment one Year after Voucher Program
The Voucher Programs in West and North Sumatra were both operated during a full two-
years period. The program in West Sumatra was phased out in May 2004 and in North
Sumatra in Oct. 2004, respectively. Impact studies were conducted for both programs from
Nov. 2005 to January 2006. Data were collected more than one year after the programs
came to an end to allow market distortion effects by Swisscontact subsidies to level out.


5.1     Objectives of the Study

Voucher programs were designed to stimulate the demand for commercial BDS by improving
access to BDS, raising the awareness of the benefits of BDS and increasing BDS market
transparency. On the demand side of services, the impact study was designed to assess the
extent to which the Voucher Programs have contributed to said goals and also to possibly
reveal other not anticipated impacts.
Voucher programs were also expected to have some impact on the supply side of services
(although not directly addressed with specific activities): i.e. to enhance sound competition
among existing BDS Providers and, thus, to improve the quality of BDS for SMEs. Such
aspects were addressed in a separate impact study and will be discussed in the second part
of this report.



5.2     Demand side – Impacts on the level of voucher users

The study distinguishes three different categories of eligible voucher users: 1. Entrepreneurs
of SMEs, 2. Employees of SMEs and 3. People willing to start-up SMEs. It can be assumed
that people from different categories have different reasons why they used services and use
different criteria how to assess the impact:

Entrepreneurs
in terms of improvement of business processes, financial situation, product development;
Employees
in terms of their career within an enterprise, better job options, contribution to improve
business processes;
Start-ups
in terms of realizing their business ideas, job creation and other objectives.


5.2.1    Main study questions – demand side of services
Two main study questions and related sub-questions were defined:

1. To what extent did the program stimulate demand for commercial BDS?

   Indicators/assumptions according to project document were:
      -at least 50% first time users
      -20% of users continue to use BDS even without subsidy after program




                                                17
Voucher Program North and West Sumatra
Impact Study_____________________________________________________________


   Thus, specific sub-questions were
          How many used BDS for the first time?
          How many of total users have continued to use (commercial) BDS after program?
          How many first time users have continued to use BDS after program?
                  .
2. How did the situation of voucher users change after the program?

   Entrepreneurs (owners, managers)
          Changes in turnover,
          Changes in number of employees,
          Personal assessment of impacts,
          Are there indications that BDS contributed to the competitiveness of their
          enterprises?

   Employees (employees, family workers)
         Changes in position in Enterprise,
         Changes in salary,
         Changes to new employers,
         Personal assessment of impacts.

   Start-ups
          How many have realized a start up (and what kinds)?
          How many jobs have been created in these start ups?
          Annual turnover achieved in new start ups?
          Personal assessment of impacts


5.2.2   Study Sample and Data Collection on the Demand side
For each category a separate semi-standardized questionnaire was compiled (Annex C). In
the categories entrepreneurs and employees interviews were conducted by phone only. In
the category start-up, 35 phone interviews and 15 personnel interviews were conducted in
each project region as around 45% of voucher users in this category did not provide phone
numbers.
Interviews were conducted by project staff and external interviewers.

The study sample on the demand side of services

Randoms samples were generated from the existing databases of the two programs grouped
by project region and user category. The sample size was 300 which is large enough to be
interpreted as a representative sample of the whole Voucher Program.
Below an overview of sub-sample sizes and the sample structure.




                                              18
Voucher Program North and West Sumatra
Impact Study_____________________________________________________________


 Sample size per category and region
                                          North                 West
                         Total           Sumatra               Sumatra           Remarks/Explanations
 Entrepreneurs           100               50                    50         A total of 300 interviews were
 Employees               100               50                    50         conducted, split into similar sub-
 Start-ups               100               50                    50         sample sizes per region and
                                                                            user categories.
 Total                    300                 150                 150

 Gender
 Male                     30%                 23%                 37%There were clearly more women
                                                                     using vouchers than man which
 Female              70%              77%                 63%
                                                                     reflects the fact that many
 trainings were offered in fields of activities still considered to be the preserve of women (baking
 training, sewing, embroidery).

 Age

60%                                                                         More than 70% of respondents
                                                                            were between 20 and 40 years
                                                                            old. The voucher program in
50%                                                      North Sumatra
                                                                            West Sumatra attracted a
                                                         West Sumatra
                                                                            slightly younger audience as
40%                                                                         compared to North Sumatra.

30%


20%


10%


 0%
         < 20 years    20 - 30      31 - 40         41 - 50   > 50 years


 Last completed education

 50%                                                                        The voucher program was
                                                                            almost exclusively used by
 45%
                                                                            people with at least high school
 40%                                                                        education.
 35%         North Sumatra
 30%         West Sumatra

 25%

 20%

 15%
 10%

  5%
  0%
          Primary        Junior      Senior       Higher       University
          school      highschool   highschool   education      Graduates




                                                                19
Voucher Program North and West Sumatra
Impact Study_____________________________________________________________



 Source of information

 70%
                                                                                                Friends, Business Partners and
                                                                                                Service Providers were the most
 60%                                                                                            important sources of information
                                                                         North Sumatra          about the voucher program. In
 50%                                                                     West Sumatra           other words: mouth to mouth
                                                                                                propaganda.
 40%

 30%

 20%

 10%

  0%
          Service provider




                                               Cooperative




                                                             Newspaper




                                                                                  Other media
                             Friend/Business
                                  Partner




5.2.3   Impacts on BDS market stimulation


1. To what extent did the program stimulate demand for commercial BDS?

60% of respondents mentioned that they had ever used training or consultancy services
before the Voucher Program. This would mean that there would only be 40% first time users.
However, the question whether they had paid for services or not revealed that only 49% of
respondents have ever used commercial BDS. In other words, the project objective of
attracting at least 50% first time users of commercial BDS was achieved.

The project document does not mention a specific time frame for measuring the objective of
continued BDS usage after the program. The results of the study reflect only the period one
year after the program. During that period, a considerable 44% of total respondents have at
least once again used BDS. When it comes to the commercial nature of services, there were
still 38% of total respondents which paid for services used.

An interesting aspect is also the percentage of first time users of commercial BDS who
continued to use BDS after the program. Also here satisfactory results were achieved with
34% of total first time users who continued to use BDS and 24% who continued to use
commercial BDS, respectively. Thus, the project objective of at least 20% has been over-
achieved. However, considerable differences were found between the two project regions. In
West Sumatra, the retention of commercial BDS proudly reached 38% whereas in North
Sumatra the same figure totaled a meager 9%. There is no data available which might
explain these differences.




                                                                                20
Voucher Program North and West Sumatra
Impact Study_____________________________________________________________



Conclusion:
Based on the above figures, it can be concluded that the Voucher Program in Sumatra had a
stimulating effect on the demand for commercial BDS. Many people used the occasion of the
Voucher Program to try commercial BDS and a significant portion of first time users have
continued to use commercial BDS after the program even without subsidies.

2. How did the situation of voucher users change after the program?

It is clear that there are many factors influencing the development of enterprises and the
situation of individuals. The Voucher Program has been one influencing factor which
contributed to the changes below. However, it is not possible to purely relate all changes to
the Voucher Program. Such facts have to be kept in mind when interpreting the data shown
below.

Figure 11 shows the services used by respondents grouped into respondent and service
categories. Entrepreneurs, Employees and Start-ups clearly show different patterns of
service usage, underlining the justification for a separate analysis of these categories.


                  Figure 11 Services used by respondents of the impact study
       70


       60
                                                                Entrepreneuers
       50                                                       Employees
                                                                Start-ups
       40
 (%)
       30


       20


       10


        0
              Bakery,      Embroidery,   Computer,     Management    Finance &     Work
             Patisseries    Tailoring    Information                 Accounting   Aptitude,
                                         Technology                               Motivation




5.2.4       Entrepreneurs – Impacts on their enterprises
A total of 2265 entrepreneurs have participated in the Voucher Program. Among these
entrepreneurs, 44% were running one-man businesses. Some of them joined trainings which
had nothing to do with their current business sector as they hoped or planned to move into a
new business sector with better return prospects.




                                                           21
Voucher Program North and West Sumatra
Impact Study_____________________________________________________________


Services used by entrepreneur respondents mainly belong to the category bakery/patisserie
trainings (60%) followed by general management training (19%) and embroidery/tailoring
training (8%). Bakery and embroidery trainings are hands-on practical trainings easy to be
replicated by participants.

Changes in number of employees
Table 1 shows changes in average number of jobs provided at the companies of
respondents. The numbers include the entrepreneurs themselves. In average, there was one
additional job created per participating enterprise in the period after the program. Thus, the
number of total entrepreneurs participating in the Voucher Program, totaling 2265, also
stands for a similar number of jobs created until one year after the program. That trend is
also reflected in the fact that the percentage of one-man businesses had dropped from 44%
to 27%.


     Table 1     Average Number of Jobs at SMEs before and after the Voucher Program
                                           North          West             One-man
                              Total       Sumatra        Sumatra          businesses
       Before program          2.6          1.8             3.8              44%
       After program           3.6          2.8             4.7              27%

       Increase per SME        1.0          1.0             0.9
       Sample size             84            38             46




Changes in turnover
Consumer prices have increased considerably since the start of the programs in 2002 and
the time of this study at the end of 2005. The consumer price index rose in that period from
100 to 136.38 (Economist, 2006:6). The data related to the situation after the program was
therefore adjusted to 2002 price levels to allow comparison.
Table 1 shows that average monthly turnover achieved in the companies of entrepreneur
respondents increased by 40% in the period before to after the Voucher Program. Assuming
a three years period between the turnovers of the before-situation and the time of this study
would mean that the companies of the participating entrepreneurs grew at an annual rate of
12%. This is more than double the Indonesian real GDP growth in the same period of
annually 5% (Economist 2006:5).




8
 Economist (2006): Country Report Indonesia, February 2006, The Economist Intelligence Unit,
London.




                                                  22
Voucher Program North and West Sumatra
Impact Study_____________________________________________________________


    Table 2 Increase in Average Monthly Turnover per SMEs (in Rp. 000, adjusted to
            2002 consumer prices)
                                                  North       West
                                   Total         Sumatra     Sumatra
       Before program              4,738          3,180       7,060
       After program               6,633          4,860       9,051

       Increase in Rp.             1,894          1,680       1,991

       Increase in %               40%            53%         28%


Entrepreneurs personal assessment of impacts
At the end of the interviews the entrepreneurs were asked about their personal assessment
of the impact of the trainings they used during the voucher program on their company (Figure
12). 42% reported improved product design or improved product quality. This result is mainly
related to the technical trainings in which participants learn about new products and how to
produce them. Another 25% reported increases of financial returns as a result of either
efficiency increases or related to the aforementioned improvements of product design and
quality. 10% reported improvements in the field of marketing and better customer service.

              Figure 12 Self-assessment of impacts by entrepreneurs9
                          No impact so far,
                               12%
                Improved business
                   network, 5%
               More competitive,
                                                              Improved product
                     5%
                                                             design/quality, 42%
                    Better
              marketing/customer
                service, 10%




                              Efficiency/sales
                              increases, cost
                                savings, 25%


Conclusion:
The changes at the level of enterprises are highly satisfactory, both for the entrepreneurs
individually and the Indonesian national economy in general. Even it cannot be said that the
increases in turnover and jobs are solely related to the Voucher Program, it can clearly be
concluded that entrepreneurs consuming commercial BDS show higher than average growth
rates and are thus more competitive. In that regard, the Voucher Program has contributed to
the overall goal of the SPESI project, i.e. increasing the competitiveness of SMEs in
Sumatra.


9
  The sample size was 59 after filtering out non-valid answers which mentioned impacts not related to
the voucher program, such as increasing fuel costs. No multiple answers were recorded.




                                                        23
Voucher Program North and West Sumatra
Impact Study_____________________________________________________________


5.2.5   Employees – Impacts on their employment situation


A total of 2312 employees of SMEs have participated in the Voucher Program.
Services used by employee respondents mainly belong to the category computer/information
technology (39%) followed by services related to work aptitude and motivation trainings
(37%). ‘Work Aptitude’ is related to one service provider in North Sumatra who sold hundreds
of psychological assessments which employers sometimes request from job applicants. A
similar service was not available in West Sumatra. If these services were excluded from the
analysis then IT related training would account for 56% of services used by employees.
There is no data available answering the question, whether employees were sent to training
and paid for by their employers or whether they did so independently.


Changes in working position and salary of employees
77% of employee respondents are still working for the same employer as they did before the
Voucher Program. 86% of them (of 77%) neither reported a change in position. The 14%
reporting a change in position in general moved to higher and better paid positions. Figure 13
shows that slight shift to higher positions.
23% of employee respondents were no longer working for the same employer. About half of
them moved to other companies or opened their own business and the other half has lost
their jobs.

                Figure 13 Changes in working position of employees

          80%

          70%
                                                           Before VP
          60%                                              After VP

          50%

          40%

          30%

          20%

          10%

           0%
                 Management   Supervisor   Skilled        Unskilled    Others
                                           Workers        Workers

Most respondents still working for the same employer mentioned that there was no
correlation between salary or position changes and the Voucher Program. Thus the trend
shown in Figure 11 may be related to the natural increase in working experience over time.
However, about 60% of those who moved to other companies or opened their own business
mentioned that the move was directly related to the Voucher Program.

Employees personal assessment of impacts
Employees were asked to self-assess the impact of services used on their professional
situation. The vast majority (87%) stressed to positive impact of services on the company




                                                     24
Voucher Program North and West Sumatra
Impact Study_____________________________________________________________


they are currently working for. 52% emphasized that they could improve the quality of their
work; 26% said that they could contribute to increase the efficiency of working processes at
their company; and 9% said that due to the training they could now provide a better customer
service. Only 6% reported personal benefits such as increase in general knowledge but not
any respondent provided an answer related to his/her personal career or better job options.


                Figure 14 Self-assessment of impacts by employees10

                              No Impact so far,
                                    7%
                         Mainly personal
                          benefit, 6%

                  Better Customer
                    Service, 9%

                                                             Better quality of
                                                               work , 52%


                       Contribution to
                       work efficiency,
                            26%



Conclusion
For the viewpoint of employees, the Voucher Program was considered a skills development
program. Employees joined trainings to increase their knowledge which was related to issues
at work. There was hardly any change in position or salary but respondents stressed the
benefits of the improved knowledge which helped them better handle day to day problems at
work. Whether sent by their employers or on their own motivation, trainings used by
employees usually are directly related to their current position and not - as often feared by
employers - to later move to another company or ask for higher pay.


5.2.6     Start-ups – Realization of Business Ideas


The largest part of voucher users (50%) belonged to the category start-up totaling 4,521
people. Favorite services in this category were bakery/patisserie trainings (50%), trainings in
the field of information technology (33%) and embroidery/tailoring services (8%). Bakery and
embroidery trainings are directly related with the business ideas of participants whereas
computer trainings are more related to supporting the administration of new businesses and
to a lesser extent computer businesses.

Realization of business start ups after training
36% of respondents reported to have realized a business start up after they joined training
during the Voucher Program. 26% of them emphasized that the training was decisive for the

10
     The sample size was 82. No multiple answers were recorded.




                                                   25
Voucher Program North and West Sumatra
Impact Study_____________________________________________________________


realization. The kind of start-ups mainly belong to the field of bakery/patisserie (64%) and
embroidery/tailoring (14%). The remaining 22% belong to a wide spectrum ranging from quail
egg farming to food stalls. In contrast to the high percentage of IT-training usage of 33%,
there was only one person who started an IT-related company (computer maintenance
services).
Table 3 shows that there were in average 2.3 jobs created in each business start-up
including the business owner. Monthly turnovers achieved in these companies average Rp.
2.8 mln. Half of the realized businesses reported monthly turnovers of less than Rp. 750,000
(median). That figure is very small (even for microenterprises in Indoneisa) and suggests that
many of the realized start-ups may be side businesses which contribute to slight increases of
monthly incomes. It was also found that during field visits that many participants in the
voucher program were from desperately poor neighborhoods where monthly incomes
achieved are still below regionally defined minimum wages.


                          Table 3 Indicators of realized start-ups
                                   Total       North Sumatra     West Sumatra
       Average staff                2.3             2.3                  2.4
       Average monthly
       turnover                Rp. 2.8 mln      Rp. 3.3 mln          Rp. 1.0 mln

Comparisons regarding job creation can only be made, if the revenue situation of companies
also allows paying reasonable salaries. Therefore, a filter value was applied on the monthly
turnover. Table 4 shows the indicators of realized start-ups with a monthly turnover of Rp. 1
mln and more. (The sample size is 16 which is too small to be divided again into North and
West Sumatra.)


          Table 4 Indicators of realized start-ups, monthly turnover >Rp. 1 mln
                                                    Total
                          Average staff             3.6
                          Average monthly
                          turnover              Rp. 5.5 mln

16% of respondents realized a business start-up which achieves a monthly turnover of Rp. 1
mln and more. In average they provide employment for 3.6 people and achieve a monthly
turn over of Rp. 5.5 mln. The revenue situation still suggests that a number of these
businesses may be side-businesses but the revenue is on a level which allows a company to
pay salaries. Extrapolating these figures on the parent population would mean that
participants in start-up trainings of the voucher program have set up around 700 businesses
with a monthly turn over of more than Rp. 1 mln providing paid jobs for approx. 2500 people
(including owners).



Non-realized start-ups
Those respondents in the category start-up who did not realize a business start-up (64%)
were asked for the motivation why they had participated in the training. Most of them have




                                               26
Voucher Program North and West Sumatra
Impact Study_____________________________________________________________


participated because they were interested in the topic and to increase their general
knowledge (50%), or to increase their chances of finding employment (9%) or to consolidate
a university course (8%). Still 16% claimed that their intention was to start a company but
could not realize their business ideas due to a lack of capital and lack of time.

‘Start-ups’ personal assessment of impacts
Respondents in the start up category were also asked for a self-assessment of the impact of
services used. Those who realized a start-up emphasized that the trainings were of benefit
for product development in the new company (52%). 26% were less specific and mentioned
only an increase in general knowledge. 16% drew a direct relation to income increases or
cost saving. Respondents who did not realize a start up mainly pointed out an increase in
general knowledge.

Conclusion
Business start-up trainings are highly efficient in terms of realization of business ideas as well
as job creation. Even if the start-up category provided loopholes for users with a different
motivation than to start a business, the number of paid jobs created in realized start-ups of
approx. 2500 more than justifies that access to this category was not kept too tight.

Success factors for business start-up trainings are:
        Easy to be replicated business idea;
        Low start-up capital required;
        Possibility to be set-up at home (woman with children, no need for location rent);
        Possibility to run as a side-business;
        Continued link/business relationship between training provider and new businesses
        after start-up.

The last success factor is of utmost importance to encourage people to start their own
company. E.g. Bogasari training centers not only provide bakery trainings but also sell
ingredients required for certain products which are not readily available in local markets.
Bogasari can also provide production equipment.
Tailoring and embroidery training providers often also receive orders for finished products.
Orders are subcontracted to former trainees who have started their own home-enterprise,
thus providing them market access.



5.2.7   Overall conclusion – Demand Side
The voucher program in Sumatra had clear, measurable and highly positive impacts on
enterprises and business start-ups. From the impact study it can be concluded that the
program directly contributed to the creation of 4700 new paid jobs in the existing companies
of entrepreneur voucher users (2200) together with the new companies realized by start-up
voucher users (2500).

These results confirm the assumption that the use of business services is beneficial for small
and medium enterprises irrespective whether the service users are entrepreneurs or their
employees. Enterprises using commercial business services show much higher growth rates




                                                27
Voucher Program North and West Sumatra
Impact Study_____________________________________________________________


as compared to the Indonesian national average and are thus more competitive. In that
regard, the Voucher Program has contributed to the overall goal of the SPESI project, i.e.
increasing the competitiveness of SMEs in Sumatra.
The study also shows that those start-up trainings which focus on easy to be replicated
business ideas and providing a continued business relationship with the training provider are
very effective in terms of income and job creation.
The results of the study also verify that the Voucher Program achieved its objective of
stimulating the demand for commercial business services. Many people used the occasion of
the Voucher Program to try commercial BDS and a significant portion of first time users have
continued to use commercial BDS after the program even without subsidies.




5.3     Supply side – Impacts on the level of service suppliers

The voucher program was not specifically intended to increase the income of service
providers or their number of employees. However, if the program had a stimulating effect on
service demand, then an income and employee increase could have been expected. As the
program intended to simulate BDS demand from SME (entrepreneurs, employees)
customers, it was expected that kind of services offered and the percentage of SME
customers in total sales would increase.


5.3.1    Main study questions – supply side of services


1. How did the general situation of service providers change from before to one year after the
voucher program?
          Changes in business orientation

2. What influence had the voucher program business indicators of service providers?
          Changes in total sales
          Changes in number of employees
          Changes in percentage of income directly form SMEs
          Changes in number and kind of services offered
          Changes in price structure and service duration


3. How do participating service providers assess the impact of the voucher program?

Data Collection on the supply side
The data collection focused on active service providers, i.e. those who have ever submitted
used vouchers to Swisscontact. All of these service providers were interviewed directly by
Swisscontact staff according to the study questions above.




                                               28
Voucher Program North and West Sumatra
Impact Study_____________________________________________________________


5.3.2   Impacts on service providers


1. How did the general situation of service providers change from before to one year after the
voucher program?
Changes in business orientation
Of the 20 active service providers in North Sumatra, 5 have stopped operating entirely for
reasons of internal conflicts in the organization, as well as bad management resulting in
bankruptcy. 3 others have abandoned activities in the field of BDS provision and moved to
other non-BDS fields with better income prospects.
A similar picture was found in West Sumatra: 25 providers which ever submitted used
vouchers to Swisscontact there are still 15 actively providing training. 5 organizations were
dissolved and 5 reoriented their organization on other non-BDS fields for the same reasons
as mentioned above.
Annex B provides information on the current status of active service providers.

2. What influence had the voucher program business indicators of service providers?

Changes in total sales
Complete income data were provided by 19 service providers, 14 of them from West
Sumatra. To allow comparison, figures or the year 2005 were adjusted to 2002 price levels.
The average annual turnover before the voucher program was Rp. 63 mln11. The corrected
average of the year 2005 shows an increase to Rp. 87 mln. However, that increase is only
due to one service provider, Yayasan Srikandi (embroidery training), who reported a
remarkable growth of 2000%! If we exclude Srikandi from the analysis, there is a reduction of
average annual turnover to Rp. 46 mln.
The downturn of turnovers of incomes requires a closer look at the data. Figure 15 shows the
numbers of service providers grouped into different income groups as before and after the
program. The figure shows an increase of providers in lower income groups and a slight
increase in the maximum income group.
Among the 19 service providers analyzed, 15 reported a reduction in annual turnover. Those
reporting an income increase were Yayasan Srikandi (embroidery trainings), the two
Bogasari Baking Centers, and Webmedia. The success of Yayasan Srikandi is that the
company found access to projects by large states-owned companies which are contracting
Srikandi to conduct embroidery start-up trainings. At the same time Srikandi is trading the
products of its former trainees. The success of Bogasari is a result of market-oriented
products in combination with additional after-sales services. Bogasari is the major wheat
supplier in Indonesia and the motivation to conduct bakery training and to provide business
start up support is clearly linked with their aspiration to increase wheat sales. The fourth
provider was Webmedia in Medan, which claimed only a handful of vouchers though. The
success of Webmedia is more based on the fact that they later joined the BDC program and
found access to new customers from medium-sized companies.



11
 During the voucher program, that average turnover was Rp. 100 mln, an increase which is related to
market distortion effects of the program.




                                                29
Voucher Program North and West Sumatra
Impact Study_____________________________________________________________


              Figure 15 Range of annual turnovers of service providers

                          8
                          7
                          6
                          5
              Frequency




                                                                           before VP
                          4
                                                                           after VP
                          3
                          2
                          1
                          0
                              <10   10-25      25-50      50-100    >100
                                    million Rp. (year 2002 index)



The other service providers reporting income reduction are mainly training institutes who are
more focused on university students than on SMEs. Demand for their services is indirectly
proportional to increases of education quality at university level. The negative picture may
also be explained with the fact that these service providers are mostly ordinary businesses
which in several cases also experienced a downturn due to deteriorating training equipment
and bad management practices.

Changes in number of employees of service providers
23 service providers submitted detailed data of their employees. The average number of
employees increased from 5 in 2002 to 11 in 2005. Again, this figure is largely distorted by
the success of Srikandi which had an increase in staff from 20 in 2002 to 120 in 2005 (all of
them women!). If we exclude Srikandi from the analysis, there are no significant changes in
the number of employees before, during and after the program.

Changes in income generated from SMEs
17 respondents estimated the percentage of their sales that originates directly from SMEs
customers. The percentages vary widely from less than 10% to 100%. The average figures
show an increase from 40 to 46%.
40% of respondents reported an increase in sales from SMEs, 15% a decrease and the
remaining 35% reported no change.
Both of the Bogasari Baking Centers reported increasing sales to SMEs from 20% as before
the voucher program to 40% at the end of 2005. That change is most probably related to the
voucher program because Bogasari was pushed by Swisscontact to add specific business
start-up modules to their trainings.




                                                    30
Voucher Program North and West Sumatra
Impact Study_____________________________________________________________


Changes in number and kind of services offered
The comparison of the number of services offered as before, during and after the voucher
program shows an increase of services during the voucher program and a decrease of
services after the program to a pre-program level.
The increase in services during the program is mainly a result of splitting training packages
with a longer duration into shorter and cheaper packages. This was obviously done to
maximize the possible contributions from the voucher program. The value of a voucher was
in maximum IDR 150,000 or 50% of the service price. Understandably, service provider
packaged their services preferably into modules which cost IDR 300,000. After the voucher
program most of these changes were undone again.
Most service providers also regularly modified the range of services offered during the
program. Services with low usage were dropped and new kinds of services added. A
comparison with the range of services offered one year after the program indicated that this
trend continues and may not have been triggered by the voucher program. As most service
providers are profit-oriented private sector enterprises they continually evaluate the
profitability of their products and quickly react if they see market opportunities for new
services.
The information received about services offered one year after the program is too general
and does not allow to conclude that the voucher program had a significant impact on the kind
of services offered. However, some services supplier emphasized that the program made
them aware of SMEs as a potential customer segment and they had modified their marketing
activities accordingly.

Changes in price structure and service duration
As mentioned above, there was a tendency to split services packages into shorter and
cheaper modules during the voucher program to maximize the benefits of the voucher
program. These changes were mostly undone again after the voucher program.
The average price of a training hour was IDR 9,500 during the voucher program and IDR
11,500 after the program. Price increases are mainly related to the influence of inflation. The
range of price increases also underlines that the voucher program did not lead to an
overpricing of services.

3. How do participating service providers assess the impact of the voucher program?
Most respondents stressed the positive impact of the voucher program on the promotion of
their organization and services. They stressed that they have now a larger and more
diversified customer base. The voucher program was considered a good tool as it only
provided subsidies and did not send false signals as other programs which promote free
service delivery.

Main findings – Supply side of services

       One service provider reported an increase in annual sales of 2000%. The other
       providers experienced an average sales decrease of 25%.
       One service provider reported a staff increase from 20 to 120. The other providers
       showed no significant changes.
       The average percentage of sales generated directly from SMEs increased slightly
       from 40% to 46%




                                              31
Voucher Program North and West Sumatra
Impact Study_____________________________________________________________


         The voucher program did not have a long-term impact in the number and kind of
         services offered and neither on average service prices and duration.
         Promotion activities by the voucher program led to a larger and more diversified
         customer base of service providers.



5.3.3    Conclusions - Supply Side


In contrast to the demand side it is not possible to identify clear impacts of the voucher
program on the supply side of services. Unlike their SME customers, most service providers
show poor business performance data with decreasing sales and stagnating number of staff.
Product ranges were adapted to market trends but did not change much as compared to the
situation before the voucher program. It can only be concluded that relying on the market
mechanism alone does not lead to quick improvements at the level of service providers. If a
voucher program would like to achieve significant impact on the supply side of services, it
had to deliver actual product development support.

Still there were three very successful service providers in the portfolio of the program. These
three service providers were also responsible, among others, for most of the realized start-up
companies under the voucher program. The common characteristic of these providers is that
they have a direct interest in the products produced by their clients; either because they are
also suppliers of input materials or because they are marketing their end-products. Thus, in
can be concluded that successful providers of start-up and entrepreneur trainings have an
interest in a continuing business relationship with their clients in other fields than training.




5.4     Financial Aspects of the Voucher Program

Direct subsidy payment for the 4,638 Voucher used in West Sumatra totaled IDR 599 mln
(U$ 66,000). Thus, the average subsidy per voucher amounts to IDR 129,000 (U$ 14). The
respective subsidies paid in North Sumatra totaled IDR 562 mln (U$ 62,000) and IDR
126,000 (U$14) per voucher used.
These figures do not include promotion activities, selection process, monitoring, webpage,
local administration, and overheads. All these various costs and the above subsidies together
totaled IDR 9.7 bln (U$ 1.07 mln) over the whole project duration. Thus, each of the 9098
Vouchers used was in fact subsidized with IDR 1.05 mln (U$ 116).
That figure may seem rather high, however, program costs are justified if we consider that
the voucher program contributed to 4700 paid jobs or IDR 2.06 mln (U$ 227) for each job –
which can be considered pretty low.




                                               32
Annex



         Annex A             Experiences with the Selection process of Service
                                          Providers
The selection of Business Development Service (BDS) Providers followed a step by step
selection process. Public tenders were announced in local newspapers which invited
interested BDS providers12 to participate in information workshops where they were informed
about details of the selection process and the required documentation to be submitted to
Swisscontact. Upon receiving these documentations, the most potential BDS Providers were
invited to present their institutional profile and the proposed services. In the last selection
steps potential providers were visited to verify they had appropriate infrastructure in place
required for providing the proposed services.

Selection of Service Providers in West Sumatra
The Voucher Program in West Sumatra started with an information seminar at the
Pangeran’s Beach Hotel on January 9, 2002 in Padang. Although 70 people participated in
the information seminar, as per deadline, only two BDS providers had submitted a proposal
to join the voucher program. To find answers to this phenomenon, all potential providers have
been either visited or contacted by phone. Many of them seemed to be suspicious about
Swisscontact and / or did not see a benefit in joining the voucher program.
However, the campaign was not without success and resulted in an increase to 9 submitted
proposals containing over 60 services. Many of these services lacked focus on SMEs and
therefore hardly matched the Swisscontact criteria. The problem was discussed during a
Steering Committee meeting in March 2002. It was decided to continue the Voucher Program
in West Sumatra even with a small number of providers. It was expected that additional
providers could then more easily be convinced when the benefits of the Voucher Program
become obvious. Additionally, the entry criteria in the West Sumatra Voucher Program were
adjusted (see below). Especially the criteria that a service had to be offered and sold for two
years before applying to join a program turned out to be inappropriate for the local situation.
Applicants were also directly supported by the Voucher team to develop products which
focus more on SMEs. At the End of April 2002, 7 out of the 9 applicants were selected to join
the first phase of the voucher program in West Sumatra.

Selection of Service Providers in North Sumatra
The Voucher Program in North Sumatra started with an information seminar on August 29,
2002 in Medan which was attended by around 100 people from 51 institutions. The selection
process in North Sumatra did not see similar difficulties as experienced in West Sumatra. An
important difference to West Sumatra was that the above-mentioned revised entry criteria
were applied right from the beginning. 24 institutions submitted proposals to join the selection
process of which 20 institutions have finally been selected to join the first phase of the
voucher program in North Sumatra.

Conclusions form the Selection Process and Revised Selection Criteria
Experience from the selection processes showed that BDS markets in North and West
Sumatra are less developed as compared to Java for example. Thus, selection criteria
needed to be revised as shown in the table below:


12
     BDS Providers were defined as associations, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), universities and private organizations.




                                                                33
Annex



            Initial selection criteria                    Revised selection criteria

                   Institution
        1. Target group SMEs (≥ 50%)                    SMEs included in target group
        2. Experience with SMEs                         dropped
        3. Has a clear institutional objective
           for business
        4. Commercial orientation

        5. List of Customers.

                    Services
        1. Clear specification of the business
           development service
        2. Target group SMEs                            SMEs included in target group
        3. The service has been offered for             dropped, new services also allowed
           two years
        4. Capability and        experience   of
           instructors
        5. Availability     of      appropriate         criteria tightened by applying quality
           infrastructure                               standards
        6. Realistic price and duration of the
           service
        7. Documentation     of    the   service
           (hand out)
        8. Feedback from former customers.              only applied in case of uncertainties




                                                   34
Annex



    Annex B             Active Service Providers and their Current Status

                                                             West Sumatra
              Type of
            Organization              Name of                  1st
                                                                         Situation as of Jan. 2006
                                    Organization            Selection
        Management                 Dekopinwil Sumbar            Jun-02
                                                                         Focusing on Government
                                                 LPPMB         Feb-03    projects
                                       SHS Consulting           Jul-03   No more services for SMEs
        Computer Services          Glovis International
                                                   2000        Jun-02    Dissolved
                                               LPMBAT          Jun-02
                                     Brilliant Komputer        Sep-02
                                 LPK Palapa Komputer           Sep-02
                                  Widyaloka Bukittinggi        Sep-02
                                    Widyaloka Padang           Sep-02    Dissolved
                                              Widyaloka
                                           Payakumbuh          Sep-02
                                      Widyaloka Solok          Sep-02
                                          P2T ProDATA          Jun-02    Dissolved
                                                   LP3T        Feb-03    Dissolved
                                          IPK Pariaman         Feb-03
          Food Processing             Bogasari Baking
                                                  Center       Sep-02
                                    KKW Flower Cake            Sep-02
                                      LP Tata Busana
                                               Cendana         Sep-02
        Embroidery / Tailoring          Madona Group
                                                Padang          Jul-03   Reorientation on Production
                                    Modeste Eka Putri          Sep-02
                                      Muslimah Group           Sep-02    Dissolved
                                          Modeste Dolly         Jul-03
                                        Madona Group           Sep-02
                                       LPKW Monalita           Feb-03
                                    Kopinkra / Tri Agra         Jul-03   No more services for SMEs
        Agriculture                  Daya Guna Alam            Feb-03    Reorientation on Production




                                                       35
Annex




                                                             North Sumatra
              Type of
            Organization              Name of                  1st
                                                                         Situation as of Jan. 2006
                                    Organization            Selection
        Management                                 MBC         Apr-03
                                        Politeknik MBP         Oct-02
                                   Multi Bisnis Aplikasi        Jul-04
                                                    JKM        Oct-02
                                  Yayasan Humaniora            Oct-02
                                              PJK-USU          Sep-03
                                          BK3D Sumut           Sep-03
                                                  LP3M         Oct-02    Refocus on formal education
                                              Mitra Plus       Oct-02    Refocus on microcredit
                                        REI Consulting         Apr-03    Dissolved
                                                  LeTMI        Oct.-02   Dissolved
        Computer Services                       LPBMK          Apr-03
                                   Webmedia Training
                                                 Center        Sep-03
        Food Processing               Bogasari Baking
                                                 Center        Sep-03
        Embroidery / Tailoring       Yayasan Srikandi          Oct-02
        Skill upgrading/others       Konsultasi Elviati
                                               Achmad          Jun-02
                                 Prima Medistra (P4M)          Oct-02    Reorientation on non-BDS field
                                    CV. Bayu Perkasa           Feb-03    Dissolved
                                   Refleksi Pendidikan         Apr-03    Dissolved
        Agriculture                       LSM-GEPSU            Oct-02    Dissolved




                                                       36
Annex



        Annex C Questionnaires Impact Study - Demand Side


Sequence No.:

Voucher No.:

Personalia

1. Nama:
2. Jenis Kelamin:             laki2       perempuan
3. Usia (tahun) :             <20         20-30         31-40    41-50      >50

4. Pendidikan:                SD          SLTP          SLTA     D1-D3
                              S1          S2

Jasa/Pelatihan yang digunakan

5. Nama Jasa/Pelatihan:

6. Nama Penyedia Jasa:


Study question: To what extent did the program stimulate demand for commercial BDS?

7. Apakah Bapak/Ibu ingat berapa harus membayar waktu ikuti Jasa/Pelatihan itu?
Rp.

8. Darimama anda medapat informasi tentang adanya Program Voucher Swisscontact

        Lembaga         Teman/Mitra Bisnis        Koperasi       Koran

        Media lain:

9. Sebelum adanya program Voucher Swisscontact: Apakah anda pernah mengikuti
   pelatihan/konsultasi yang lain?
          Ya
          Tidak

10. Kalau ya, apakah jasa tersebut gratis atau tidak?   Gratis   Tidak

11. Setelah adanya program Voucher Swisscontact: Apakah anda pernah mengikuti
    pelatihan/konsultasi yang lain?
          Ya
          Tidak

12. Kalau ya, apakah jasa tersebut gratis atau tidak?   Gratis   Tidak



                                           37
Annex




QUESTIONNAIRE DEMAND SIDE                  –      SPESIFIK PENGUSAHA


13. Menurut data kami, status Babak/Ibu adalah pengusaha waktu mengikuti
    pelatihan/konsultasi yang disubsidi oleh Program Voucher Swisscontact.
    Jenis usaha apa yang anda menjalankan waktu itu?

14. Apaka anda pemilik dari usaha tersebut?            Ya          Tidak


15. Indikator bisnis sebelum anda ikuti Program Voucher dan situatsi sekarang

                                                         sebelum VP         Situasi
                                                                           sekarang
     Jumlah karyawan?
     Berapa omzet rata-rata per bulan (Rp.)
     Nilai asset

16. Apakah anda mencoba masuk ke bidang usaha baru sejak mengikuti Program
    Voucher?
        Ya                  Tidak
    Bidang apa?


Personal assessment of Impacts

17. Menurut Babak/Ibu sejauh mana ada manfaat dari pelatihan/konsultasi yang anda
    ikuti therhadap perubahan bisnis yang anda menyebut tadi.




18. Menurut Babak/Ibu apakah ada manfaat yang lain dari pelatihan/konsultasi yang
    anda ikuti terhadap situasi bisnis anda sekarang?




                                          38
Annex

QUESTIONNAIRE DEMAND SIDE                   –      SPESIFIK KARYAWAN

19. Menurut data kami, status Babak/Ibu adalah karyawan waktu mengikuti pelatihan
    yang disubsidi oleh Program Voucher Swisscontact. Apa jabatan anda pada waktu itu:
                              Manajemen operasional
                              Supervisor
                              Pekerja terampil
                              Pekerja tidak terampil / Pembantu



20. Apakah anda masih bekerja di usaha yang sama?

         Ya                  Tidak


21. Kalau ya, apakah ada perubahan jabatan sejak anda ikuti Program Voucher?
        Ya: -->               Manajemen operasional
                              Supervisor
                              Pekerja terampil
                              Pekerja tidak terampil / Pembantu


        Tidak




22. Kalau tidak (no. 20), apakah anda sekarang kerja di usaha lain atau berhenti kerja?
        pindah usaha         berhenti
23. Kalau pindah usaha, apakah ada hubungan dengan pelatihan yang anda ikuti?
        Ya                   Tidak

24. Jabatan anda sebagai apa di usaha sekarang?
                              Manajemen operasional
                              Supervisor
                              Pekerja terampil
                              Pekerja tidak terampil / Pembantu




25. Apakah anda dapat kenaikan gaji sesudah ikuti pelatihan?      Ya      Tidak


26. Menurut Babak/Ibu apakah ada manfaat lain dari pelatihan yang anda ikuti terhadap
    situasi professional anda sekarang?




                                           39
Annex

QUESTIONNAIRE DEMAND SIDE                       –     SPESIFIK START UP

27. Waktu Babak/Ibu mengikuti pelatihan dulu anda menyebut bahwa anda ingin
    memulai usaha sendiri (start up) Apakah anda telah membuka usaha seniri?


         Ya                      Tidak (ke no. 32)


28. Kalau ya, jenis usaha apa yang didirikan:


29. Indikator bisnis :
              Jumlah pekerja full time (termasuk keluarga):
              Omzet rata2 per bulan:
              Nilai investasi:
30. Apa kendala yang dihadapi dalam menjalankan usaha sekarang ?


31. Apakah anda juga tetap mendirikan usaha walaupun tidak mengikuti pelatihan?
         Ya                      Tidak




32. Kalau tidak (no. 27), dalam rangka apa anda mengikuti pelatihan tersebut?

                            a)           Mebuka usaha sendiri
                            b)           Mencari kerjaan
                            c)           Memperdalam mata kuliah
                            d)           Memperluas pengetahuan secara umum

                            e)

33. Kalau 32. a): Apa hambatan yang dirasakan terhadap realisasi usaha sendiri
    tersebut?




34. Menurut Babak/Ibu apakah ada manfaat yang lain dari dari pelatihan yang telah
    anda ikuti terhadap situasi professional atau usaha anda sekarang?




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