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					                                       Engineering Design
Introduction to Engineering Design




                                                    GE121

                                     Introduction to Engineering
                                               Design:
                                     Roles, Players and Terminology
                                                  Lecture 1B
                                               GE 121 Engineering Design--2011

                                                                                 1
                                                         Design
                                     People have been designing objects for
Introduction to Engineering Design




                                      as far back as we have archaeological
                                      evidence
                                       Flint knives, Basic Tools etc.

                                     Other forms of Design exist
                                       Interior Design (carpet, decorating)…

                                     What is Engineering Design? How does
                                      it fit into the bigger picture of design?
                                       Develop context and vocabulary

                                                    GE 121 Engineering Design--2011   2
                                     Where / When do Engineers Design?
                                     Food Processing and Distribution Industry
Introduction to Engineering Design



                                       New container for a juice product
                                     Design and Construction Industry
                                       Part of a bridge on a larger highway project
                                     Automobile Manufacturer
                                       Heads-up instrumentation cluster
                                     School System
                                       Specialized facilities to accommodate
                                        students with disabilities
                                     Can go on and on with examples
                                                    GE 121 Engineering Design--2011    3
                                     Where / When do Engineers Design?
Introduction to Engineering Design



                                     Are there common elements in these
                                      diverse situations and task?
                                     YES!

                                     Commonalities make it possible to:
                                       Describe design process generically
                                       Describe the context in which it occurs



                                                    GE 121 Engineering Design--2011   4
                                        Roles / Players in the Design Process
Introduction to Engineering Design


                                     3 Roles must be considered
                                     Designer
                                       That’s us!
                                                                                         Fig 1.1 p2 (text)
                                     Client (motivator for the design)
                                       Group / company that wants design conceived
                                       Internal (within company) or External (outside)
                                       Presents a Problem or Project Statement
                                          Begins the design process
                                          Project Statement may be verbal and vague
                                          Designer must clarify and turn into useful form
                                                       GE 121 Engineering Design--2011                       5
                                                 Roles / Players (cont’d)
                                     User
Introduction to Engineering Design



                                      Person or group of people
                                      Will use the artifact (object, device, system)
                                         Consumers who buy new juice
                                         Drivers on the new highway
                                         Drivers of new car
                                         Disabled students and teachers
                                         The Public – may raise ethical issues
                                      Important to consult users! – Design won’t be
                                       successful if it doesn’t meet user needs!


                                                      GE 121 Engineering Design--2011   6
                                               Roles / Players (cont’d)
                                     Designer must understand the client and
Introduction to Engineering Design




                                      user needs
                                     Client should understand user needs and
                                      communicate them to designer, if not
                                      designer may have to identify the user
                                      needs
                                     Ideally designers and clients must both
                                      understand user needs


                                                   GE 121 Engineering Design--2011   7
                                           Variations in Design Environments
Introduction to Engineering Design


                                     Large or small organizations
                                       Large manufacturers or small start-up ventures
                                       Government agencies
                                       Engineering Service Firms / Consultants
                                     Project may be large or small
                                       May involve large number of colleagues / data
                                       You may only work on small, detailed / confined portion
                                        of a large design (detailed design)
                                       User needs are taken into account at project start-up
                                        for large projects (conceptual design)


                                                        GE 121 Engineering Design--2011      8
                                      Solution Variations – User/Client Dependent
Introduction to Engineering Design


                                     Variations in artifacts due to different
                                      interpretations of project statements and
                                      user needs
                                       Air Planes - Wheel Chairs




                                                      Fig. 1.2 p2
                                                      2nd ed                           Fig. 1.3 p4
                                                     GE 121 Engineering Design--2011                 9
                                     Solution Variations – User/Client Dependent
                                     Sky Scrapers
Introduction to Engineering Design




                                                     GE 121 Engineering Design--2011   10
                                      Diverging Interests & Conflicting Obligations
Introduction to Engineering Design



                                     Interests of Designers, Clients and Users
                                      could diverge
                                       Thin metal juice can may be most inexpensive
                                       May be easily recyclable
                                       Sharp edges when crushed – safety hazard
                                       Thickness affects sharp edges of crushed
                                        cans, but also cost
                                     They are always multiple criteria to
                                      consider to identify the final design
                                       Often many feasible and successful designs

                                                     GE 121 Engineering Design--2011   11
                                      Diverging Interests & Conflicting Obligations
Introduction to Engineering Design



                                     Regulated profession – Engineering Act
                                     Obligations to Profession and the Public
                                       Engineering Society code of ethics
                                       Public safety




                                                     GE 121 Engineering Design--2011   12
                                       Design Teams & Interdisciplinary Design
Introduction to Engineering Design


                                     Design Teams very common in engineering
                                     Many engineering problems are inherently
                                      multidisciplinary
                                       Examples - machines (electrical / mechanical)
                                                   - medical instrumentation
                                       Understand clients/users/technologies in very
                                        different environments
                                       Requires assembling teams with necessary
                                        expertise
                                     Use of teams necessitates discussion of
                                      management of design projects
                                                     GE 121 Engineering Design--2011   13
                                        Engineering Design Vocabulary
Introduction to Engineering Design



                                     A Definition of Engineering Design
                                       Could fill many books with different definitions
                                        and models of engineering design
                                       We will examine a formal definition used by the
                                        text
                                     “Engineering Design is the systematic,
                                      intelligent generation and evaluation of
                                      specifications for artifacts whose form and
                                      function achieve stated objectives and
                                      satisfy constraints.” p6 of text
                                                     GE 121 Engineering Design--2011   14
                                                      Defining Terms
                                     Artifacts – human-made objects (things or
Introduction to Engineering Design



                                      devices that we are designing)
                                       Most often physical (planes, wheelchairs, etc.)
                                       Sometimes also ‘paper’ products – drawings,
                                        plans, computer software, articles, books
                                       Increasingly ‘soft’ – electronic files that become
                                        ‘real’ when displayed on a computer screen
                                     Form – shape or geometry of an artifact or
                                      the layout of a user interface
                                     Function – those things that an artifact is
                                      supposed to do
                                                      GE 121 Engineering Design--2011   15
                                                 Defining Terms (cont’d)
Introduction to Engineering Design



                                     Specifications – precise descriptions of
                                      the properties of the object being designed
                                       Typically numerical values of performance
                                        parameters (indicators of artifact’s behavior)
                                        OR attributes (properties or characteristics of
                                        the artifact)
                                       Example: Ladder design – unextended length
                                        of 1.5 metres is a geometric attribute, and the
                                        ability to access 3 metre heights is a
                                        performance specification

                                                      GE 121 Engineering Design--2011   16
                                                Defining Terms (cont’d)
Introduction to Engineering Design



                                     Design Specifications
                                       The set of values that articulates what a
                                        design is supposed to do
                                       Basis for evaluating proposed designs
                                        (targets against which the success of a
                                        design can be measured)
                                       Acceptance tests are usually written into the
                                        document.
                                       Design Specifications are found through
                                        systematic, thoughtful generation

                                                    GE 121 Engineering Design--2011   17
                                       Design Techniques / Tools / Processes
Introduction to Engineering Design



                                     Systematic and Intelligent, yet still must
                                      support Creativity
                                       Help us think clearly
                                       Make better decisions
                                       Ways of asking questions and presenting
                                        and viewing the answers to those questions
                                       Managing and organizing resources needed
                                        to complete a design project on time and
                                        within budget
                                       Communication &documentation are key to
                                        successful design
                                                   GE 121 Engineering Design--2011   18
                                              Design Languages
Introduction to Engineering Design



                                     Mathematics
                                     Science: physics, chemistry, biology, etc.
                                     Sketching
                                     Speech
                                     Writing




                                                   GE 121 Engineering Design--2011   19
                                                        Activity
Introduction to Engineering Design



                                     List at least 3 questions you would ask if
                                      you were, respectively, a user who is about
                                      purchase: a client who is about to
                                      manufacture: or a designer who was about
                                      to design a travel alarm clock

                                     Read pp 7-17 of the text.



                                                   GE 121 Engineering Design--2011   20

				
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