Energy Conservation

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					Energy Conservation
 For Consumers, and Large
  Electric Power Systems
   What is Energy Conservation-EM?
   Energy Conservation at the consumer side
   Energy Conservation by solving power
    system Planning & Operational problems
    using artificial intelligence techniques
   Demand Side Management -DSM
          Energy Conservation &
            Energy Efficiency
   Reduce energy demand to reasonable minimum
   Recover and re-use heat where possible
   Use energy efficient equipment to supply
    remaining energy demand
   Integrate energy systems where possible
   Provide a means to manage use of energy
   intelligent computer driven systems in the area
    of energy conservation of electric networks
        How can energy efficiency be
        achieved or improved at the
              consumer side?
 ‘Good Housekeeping’ in facility operations
(for example the laundry machines with single
  phase motors which can be used as 3 phase and
  save a lot of energy)
 Location, Design & Construction of energy
  saving devices.
 Application of Technology
       Designed-in for new-Building/Commercial/Residential
        Industrial Facilities
       Retro- / Refitting & refurbishment at Min-added cost
Energy efficiency technology at the
          consumer side
   Controls                 Insulation
   Lighting                 Pool Covers
    Technology               Dehumidification
   Ventilation Systems      Building energy
   Heating Systems           Management
   Heat Recovery             Systems (BEMS)
                       Controls             Payback
                                            < 1 yr

   Occupancy sensors
   Time switches & Optimizers
       Timed control of heat demand & plant
       Optimizer controls running time in relation to
        internal and external temperature
   Thermostatic heating controls
       Heating plant and radiator valves
   Humidistat
       Pool hall ventilation efficiency
Savings                                    Payback
8-50%                 Lighting             1-6 yrs

   Appropriate use of:
       Tungsten filament lights – low-use areas
       compact fluorescents – general areas
       Tungsten halogen spotlights – display areas
       Narrow diameter tubular fluorescents –
        corridors, staff areas
       High pressure sodium floodlights – pool &
        sports halls (nb colour appearance)
       Electronic starters
       Reflectors
Savings               Ventilation                   Payback
Up to 20%                                           3-5 yrs
                      & Heating
   Medium to high investment required
   Variable ventilation
       in relation to acceptable humidity levels (<65%)
   100% fresh air or Partial recirculation
       The pros & cons?
       Heat recovery applications
       Variable speed fans (supply / extract)
   High efficiency & condensing boilers
   Modular boilers
   Combined Heat & Power (CHP)
    20-40%       Heat Recovery              3-5 yrs

   Run Around Coils
       Versatile & suits retro-fit
       Recovers up to 60% heat energy
   Cross Flow Heat Exchangers
       Ventilation or water applications
       Up to 75% heat recovery
   Thermal Wheels
       Ventilation applications
       Recovers up to 75% of heat
     Building Fabric & Insulation
   Roof space reduction
   Choice and position of glazing to minimise
    solar gain
   Double glazing of windows to reduce
    heat loss
   Thermal insulation of roof and wall spaces
   Thermal insulation of pipe work & ducting
               Pool Covers
   Medium level of investment costs
   Reduce convective and evaporative heat
   Allow ventilation to be reduced
   Combined with humidistat to enhance

                     Savings     Payback
                     10-30%      1.5 – 3 yrs
Savings                                     Payback
Up to 40%      Dehumidification             3 – 5 yrs

   (electric) Heat pumps
       Collects sensible & latent heat as water
        first evaporates and then condenses, using
        reduced pressure and temperature
       Transfers heat to incoming air
   (gas-powered) Desiccant wheel
       Absorbs moisture on ‘honeycomb matrix’,later
        evaporated & discharged to atmosphere
       Reduces need to ventilate
        Building Energy Management
   High investment costs
   Central processor linked to sensors and controls
    around the building
       Flow sensors
       Temperature sensors
   Operator-programmed & interactive
   Seasonal and other ‘strategies’ for energy
   Reports aid monitoring and control
   Requires training and technical support
   Energy Conservation-EM: has become an
    important problem during the last years,
    in most of the countries.
   The general belief is that it is economically
    better to reduce energy loss and waste
    than increasing costs in generation and
    transmission systems.
               AI Techniques
   Energy conservation is at the same time a
    technical and a conscience problem.
   At the technical side, a number of problems
    can be successfully approached through
    intelligent systems for the purposes of energy
    management and conservation. Intelligent
    Techniques are having a growing impact on
    the electricity sector.
     Intelligent System Applications in the
     electricity sector for electrical energy
        management and conservation
  A new generation of intelligent computing techniques is
   entering the electricity sector.
  These techniques include neural networks, genetic
   algorithms, fuzzy logic and expert systems.
  In the electricity sector, intelligent techniques are being
   applied to :
1. load forecasting,
2. optimal capacitor placement,
3. economic load dispatch… etc,
and in many cases are outperforming traditional methods.
The areas of electricity sector for electrical
 energy management and conservation
Intelligent Techniques and their properties
   Energy conservation should be a priority for everyone
   For large organizations, electrical energy savings are
    even more relevant because their bills are bigger and
    their usage is greater.
   Finding ways to deal smartly with facilities and
    household equipments will have a great impact in
    Houses and buildings.
    The effects of these intelligent computer driven systems
   The effect of AI methods will soon become clear in the
    area of energy conservation as they become commercial
    References:
3.   Figueredo, et. al., Intelligent Solutions to Energy
     Conservation Problems,