AP BIOLOGY SYLLABUS Course Overview AP Biology conforms to the standards as outlined by the College Board The topics covered include biochemistry cell structure and functio by fou74417

VIEWS: 0 PAGES: 10

More Info
									                       AP BIOLOGY SYLLABUS
Course Overview
AP Biology conforms to the standards as outlined by the College Board. The topics
covered include biochemistry, cell structure and function, metabolism, genetics, DNA
structure and technology, evolution, classification, plant anatomy and physiology, animal
anatomy and physiology, and ecology. When categorized into three general areas, the
topic percentage coverage is as follows:
        I.      Molecules and cells – 25%
        II.     Heredity and evolution – 25%
        III.    Organisms and populations – 50%

With the introduction of each new topic, the eight major unifying themes in biology are
consistently applied across the entire curriculum. The eight major unifying themes in
biology are as follows:
        1. Science as a process
        2. Evolution
        3. Energy transfer
        4. Continuity and change
        5. Relationship of structure and function
        6. Regulation
        7. Interdependence in nature
        8. Science, technology, and society

The class meets 48 minutes per day, five days per week. In addition, students are
required to attend one two-hour lab session (after school) each week. All lab activities
are hands-on, with students working in groups of two. (In the event of an extended
absence in which the consumables are no longer available, a computer-simulated/virtual
lab will be an acceptable alternative, with the required lab report submitted.) Lab
sessions will include the 12 required AP Biology labs, in addition to approximately 30
other labs and activities. Daily warm-ups consist of five questions in the AP exam style.
A free-response question accompanies each exam. It is scored on a 10-point system.

Textbook, Lab Manuals, Resources
   Biology, 6th Edition, Neil A. Campbell and Jane B. Reece, 2002, Benjamin
     Cummings.
   College Board AP Biology Lab Manual, revised 2001
   Investigating Biology, 4th edition, Judith Giles Morgan and M. Eloise Brown
     Carter
   Student Study Guide for Campbell and Reece Biology 6th ed., Martha R. Taylor,
     2002
   Carolina Neo/LAB Collection: AP Biology., CD Series of 12 AP Biology Labs.,
     Neo/SCI Corporation.
   Genetics Update Conference, Sam Rhine, University of St. Thomas, Houston, TX.
(The Roman numeral following each topic represents the general area indicated above.)
WEEK 1                                                               SEMESTER 1
Course Introduction………………………………………………..……….…….Chapter 1
    Biological organization
    Diversity and unity
    Science process

Introduction to Animal Behavior (III).…….……….…………………………..Chapter 51
                                                  AP Biology Lab #11 Animal Behavior
     Genetic and environmental factors – Sokolowski Drosophila Experiments
     Learning – maturation; imprinting; habituation – graylag geese experiment;
       Skinner
     Cognition – kinesis; taxis; landmark; migration

Chemistry Review (I)…………………………………………………..………Chapter 2
    Elements of life
    Electrons and bonding
    Polarity vs. nonpolarity
    Chemical reactions


WEEK 2
Water (I)…………………………………………..…………………….…….…Chapter 3
                                             Lab: Model Building
                                          Lab: Properties of Water
                                                   Lab: Solutions
   Molecular structure leads to polarity
   Hydrogen bonding
   Cohesion and adhesion
   Solvent properties
   Dissociation

Carbon Compounds (I)..…………………………………………………………Chapter 4
                                                             Lab: Model Building
    Organic chemistry
    Stanley Miller – abiotic synthesis of organic compounds
    Tetravalence of carbon atom
    Versatility of carbon compounds due to atomic structure
    Functional groups

Macromolecules (I)………………………………………………………………Chapter 5
                                                         Lab: Model Building
                                   Lab: Identification of Organic Compounds
   Polymer structure and function
      Cellular synthesis and breakdown
      Carbohydrates as fuel and carbon source
      Lipids for energy storage and membrane component
      Protein conformations determine function
      X-ray crystallography and protein model-building
      Nucleic acids store and transmit genetic information


WEEK 3
Metabolism (I).…………………………………………………………………Chapter 6
                                                 AP Biology Lab #2 Enzyme Catalysis
                                                                  Lab: Toothpickase
    Metabolic pathways – catabolic and anabolic
    Laws of Thermodynamics and energy transformations
    ATP - powers cellular work; phosphorylation; coupling of anabolic and catabolic
      pathways
    Enzymes lower energy barriers; environmental factors; cofactors; inhibitors
    Substrate specificity and induced fit
    Metabolic control and allosteric regulation


WEEK 4
Cells (I)…..……………………………………………………..………….…….Chapter 7
                                                             Labs: Microscope Usage
                                                               Lab: Centrifuge Usage
                                                      Lab: Microscopic View of Cells
    Microscope and centrifuge – historical perspective; modern technology
    Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
    Nucleus and ribosomes
    Endomembrane system; compartmentalization; biosynthetic functions
    Membranous organelles – mitochondria; chloroplasts; peroxisomes
    Cytoskeleton – structure and function
    Extracellular matrix and cell wall
    Intercellular junctions
    Cooperation of organelles – cell function


WEEK 5
Membrane Structure and Function (I)…..………………………...………..Chapters 8, 11
                                          AP Biology Lab #1 Diffusion and Osmosis
   Current fluid mosaic model evolved from artificial membrane experiments
   Cell-to-cell recognition
   Molecular structure and selective permeability
   Passive transport – diffusion and osmosis
      Active transport – ion pumps; co-transport; exocytosis; endocytosis
      Cell signaling and reception
      Signal transduction and protein phosphorylation


WEEK 6
Cell Cycle (I)..………………………………………………………...………..Chapter 12
                                                          AP Biology Lab #3A Mitosis
                                                                       Lab: Karyotypes
    Genetic continuity and distribution of genetic information in chromosomes
    Interphase – continuity of DNA
    Mitotic phases and mitotic spindle
    Cytokinesis in plants and animals
    Mitosis as evolved from binary fission
    Molecular controls – checkpoints; cyclins; cyclin-dependent kinases
    Internal signals – kinetochores experiments
    External signals – growth factors; density-dependent inhibition; anchorage
    Cancer cells escape cell cycle controls


WEEK 7
Meiosis (II)..………………………………………………………………….....Chapter 13
                                                             AP Biology Lab #3B Meiosis
    Importance in heredity
    Sexual life cycles - alternation of fertilization and meiosis; gametogenesis
    Reduction in chromosome number
    Genetic variations due to chromosomal arrangement and independent assortment
    Crossing over produces recombinant chromosomes


WEEKS 8, 9
Mendelian Genetics (II)..…………………………………………………..Chapters 14, 15
                                              AP Biology Lab #7 Genetics of Organisms
                                              Lab: Genetic Distribution of Corn Kernels
   Law of Segregation and alleles
   Law of Independent Assortment and gametes
   Mendelian genetics and rules of probability
   Particulate behavior of genes
   Complete dominance; incomplete dominance; co-dominance
   Multiple alleles, pleiotropy; epistasis; polygenic inheritance
   Phenotypes – impact of nature vs. nurture
   Mendelian inheritance in humans – recessive; dominant; multifactorial disorders
   Genetic testing – amniocentesis; CVS; newborn screening; karyotype
      Chromosomal theory of inheritance
      Morgan – experiments lead to gene linkage
      Heritable variations through genetic recombinants through independence
       assortment and crossing over
      Chromosome mapping
      Sex-linkage
      Genetic disorders and chromosome numbers – aneuploidy and polyploidy
      Alteration of chromosome structure - deletion, duplication, inversion, and
       translocation
      Extra-nuclear genes


WEEK 10
Molecular Biology (II).…………………………………………………….Chapters 16, 17
                                                          Labs: DNA Model Building
                                              Lab: Replication Models Using Enzymes
   DNA as the genetic material – Avery, McCarty, and Macleod, and Hershey-Chase
   Rosalind Franklin and X-ray diffraction
   Watson and Crick models and the double helix
   Nucleic acid structure and importance of complementary base pairing
   Models for replication – conservative; semi-conservative; dispersive
   Enzymes control replication – primase; polymerases; ligase
   Telomeres and telomerase
   Early evolution of genetic code
   Transcription – DNA-directed; enzymes; modification of transcript; introns;
      codons
   Translation – RNA-directed; t-RNA; enzymes; ribosome structure and function
   Point mutations – substitution; insertion; deletion
   Energy requirements of transcription and translation


WEEK 11
Viral Models (II)….………………………………………………………...…..Chapter 18
                                                                 Lab: Plasmid Models
    History of viral discovery – Mayer; Beijerinck
    Viral structures – genome, capsid, envelope, bacteriophages
    Host ranges – transfer of genetic information
    Reproductive cycles – lytic and lysogenic
    Retroviruses and reverse transcriptase; HIV
    Viral diseases and prevention; vaccines
    Emerging viruses and cancer
    Viroids and prions; Stanley Prusiner
    Bacterial transformation, transduction, and conjugation
    Transposons and insertion sequences
      Operons – repressor, regulatory gene, inducer


WEEK 12
DNA Technology (II)..………………………………………………………….Chapter 20
                                       AP Biology Lab #6A Bacterial Transformation
                                             AP Biology Lab #6B Gel Electrophoresis
                                                                    Lab: PCR Models
   Bacterial plasmids and DNA cloning
   Restriction enzymes, recombinant DNA
   Polymerase chain reaction and electrophoresis
   Genomics and DNA sequencing
   DNA technology in medicine, pharmaceuticals, forensics, and agriculture
   Ethical questions – genetically modified organisms, availability of genetic
     information

Genetic development (II)..……………..…………………………………..Chapters 19, 21
                                                      Lab: Turning Genes On and Off
    DNA packaging in chromatin
    Control of gene expression
    Oncogenes; proto-oncogenes; tumor-suppressor genes
    Embryonic development-differentiation
    Transcriptional regulation through cytoplasmic and cellular signals
    Homeotic genes
    Cell signaling and induction


WEEK 13
Evolution (II)….……………………………………………………..…….Chapters 22, 23
                                  AP Biology Lab #8 Population Genetics and Evolution
    Historical influences – taxonomy; gradualism; evolution
    Darwin’s research – Beagle, Origin of Species
    Descent with modification – common ancestor
    Natural selection – struggle for existence; adaptation to environment;
       reproduction/inheritance of favorable characteristics over generations
    Evidence of evolution – homologies; biogeography; fossil record
    Population genetics couples evolution and allele frequencies (Hardy-Weinberg)
    Microevolution – genetic drift and natural selection


WEEK 14
Speciation/Phylogeny (II)………………………………………………….Chapters 24, 25
                                                      Lab: Constructing a Cladogram
    Species concepts – biological; ecological; morphological
      Gene pool isolation due to zygotic barriers
      Allopatric speciation – geographic barriers
      Sympatric speciation – polyploidy; autopolyploidy; allopolyploidy
      Punctuated equilibrium model
      Macroevolution – cumulative change over time
      Evolution-development – allometric growth; heterochrony; paedomorphosis
      Fossil record – dating methods; continental drift; mass extinctions
      Taxonomy – hierarchical classification; cladistics


WEEK 15
Origins of Life/Diversity (II)..…………………………………………………..Chapter 26
     Early earth – emergence of prokaryotes; eukaryotes; multicellular organisms;
        plants; animals
     Miller-Urey – synthesis of organic polymers in early-Earth simulation
     Protobionts
     Three-domain system – universal ancestor


WEEK 16
Prokaryotes (III)….……………………………………………………………..Chapter 27
                                                 Lab: Bacterial Metabolism and Cultures
                                             Lab: Microscopic Investigation of Bacteria
                                                                     Lab: Gram Staining
    Structure – diversity of shapes; cell wall construction; nucleoid region; plasmid
    Metabolic diversity – photoautotrophs; chemoautotrophs; photoheterotrophs;
       chemoheterotrophs; aerobes; anaerobes
    Function – decomposers; parasites; technology

Protists (III)…………………………………………………………….……….Chapter 28
                                              Lab: Protists – Microscopic Investigation
    Evolution from prokaryote – endomembrane system; endosymbiosis
    Diversity of structure and function– unicellular to multicellular; autotrophic and
        heterotrophic


WEEK 17
Introduction to Plants (III)………………………………………..………..Chapters 29, 30
                                              Lab: Physical Comparison of Plant Phyla
     Adaptations to land – reproductive; vascular tissue; seed, flower
     Bryophytes – gametophore; rhizoid; sporangium
     Seedless vascular plants
     Gymnosperms – seed; pollination
     Angiosperms – monocot; dicot
Fungi (III)…………………………………………………….…………………Chapter 31
                                                      Lab: Comparison of Fungal Phyla
                                                               Lab: Anatomy of Fungi
    Evolutionary adaptations – protista ancestor
    Structure – hyphae; mycelium; chitin; heterokaryon
    Diversity – unicellular; multicellular; zygosporangium; ascus; basidium
    Function – decomposers; pathogens; mycorrhizae; commercial uses


WEEK 18
Introduction to Animals (III).......…………..………………………………Chapter 32, 40
     Evolution from flagellated protest
     Introduction to animals – body symmetry; body plans; germ layers; tissues
     Homeostasis and feedback mechanisms


WEEKS 19, 20, 21                                                   SEMESTER 2
Cellular Respiration (I)…..……………………………………………………….Chapter 9
                                                AP Biology Lab #5 Cellular Respiration
    Redox reactions and oxidizing agents
    Role of oxygen - aerobes
    Recycling of ATP – oxidative and substrate-level phosphorylation
    Glycolysis – energy input and output
    Krebs cycle – acetyl CoA; CO2 product
    Electron transport – cytochromes; chemiosmosis; proton gradient and oxidative
       phosphorylation
    Energy flow between photosynthesis and respiration
    Fermentation – alcohol, lactic acid, anaerobes

Photosynthesis (I)….………………………………………………..………….Chapter 10
                                                    AP Biology Lab #4 Photosynthesis
    Chloroplast structure – chlorophyll, mesophyll, stomata
    Energy of light; transformation
    Light reactions – photons; chlorophyll a and b structure and function;
       photosystems; proton gradient and phosphorylation; ATP; NADPH
    Cyclic vs. noncyclic flow – supply and demand
    Calvin cycle – G3P; rubisco; energy requirements
    Alternative mechanisms – adaptations in C4 plants and CAM plants


WEEKS 22, 23, 24, 25
Plants Structure and Function (III)…..………………..Chapters 29, 30, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39
                                               AP Biology Lab #9 Transpiration
                                                       Lab: Effects of Hormones on Plants
                                         Lab: Nutritional Requirements and Plant Growth
      Root structure – taproot; fibrous root; root hairs
      Stem structure – node; apical bud; terminal bud; apical dominance
      Leaf structure – blade; petiole
      Plant tissue – dermal; vascular; ground
      Plant growth – meristems; primary; secondary; vascular bundles; stomata;
       vascular cambium; cork cambium; bark
      Transport in plants – osmosis; water potential; turgidity; transpiration; guttation
      Plant nutrition – macronutrients; micronutrients; hydroponics; soil composition
       and conservation; nitrogen-fixation
      Plant reproduction - alternation of generations; pollination; evolutionary
       adaptations; asexual reproduction
      Plant responses – signal transduction; hormones; phototropism experiments;
       circadian rhythms; environmental stimuli
      Debate over plant biotechnology


WEEKS 26, 27
Invertebrate Structure and Function (III)……………………………………….Chapter 33
                                     Lab: Comparison of Invertebrate External Structures
                                       Lab: Dissection Comparison of Internal Structures
    Diversity of structure – spongocoel; osculum; gastrovascular cavity
    Diversity of systems - incomplete/complete digestive tract; open/closed
       circulatory system; exoskeleton
    Reproduction – hermaphrodite; regeneration;, parthenogenesis
    Responses – cnidocysts; ganglia; nerve cord

Vertebrate Structure and Function (III)..……………………….………….Chapters 34, 40
                                      Lab: Comparison of Vertebrate External Structures
                           Lab: Dissection Comparison of Vertebrate Internal Structures
    Diversity of structure – chordate; notochord; vertebral column; tetrapod; amniote
    System interactions – cloaca; gills; lungs; alimentary canal; digestive tract
    Reproduction – amniotic egg; placenta; monotreme; marsupial
    Response – cephalization; neural crest; lateral line; ectotherm; endotherm


WEEKS 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33
Structure/Function/System Interactions (III)…..Chapters 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49
                                 AP Biology Lab #10 Physiology of Circulatory System
                                                                             Lab: Reflexes
     Nutrition – herbivore; carnivore; digestion; variations in digestive tracts
     Circulation and gas exchange – cardiovascular system; circulation; gas transport
       and exchange
      Defenses – external; leukocytes; immune response
      Homeostasis – thermoregulation, osmoregulation, excretion
      Chemical signals – hormones regulate growth and development
      Reproduction – internal and external fertilization; embryonic development
      Responses – membrane potential and nerve impulses; neural integration;
       neurotransmitters; sensory receptors; movement
      Evolution of the cerebrum


WEEKS 34, 35, 36
Ecology (III)……..…………………………………………...………..Chapters 50, 51, 54
              AP Biology Lab #12 Dissolved Oxygen and Aquatic Primary Productivity
                                              Lab: Energy Flow through Trophic Levels
    Social behavior – agonistic; territory; courtship; evolutionary context
    Mating behavior and natural selection
    Signaling and communication
    Energy flow and cycles
    Distribution of organisms – species dispersal, behavior selection, habitat
      selection, biotic and abiotic factors
    Biomes – Aquatic and terrestrial
    Ecosystems – trophic levels, energy flow, cycling of chemical elements
    Greenhouse effect and global warming

								
To top