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Cholera In Malaysia

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Cholera In Malaysia Powered By Docstoc
					Or TAUN in Bahasa Malaysia
              By
     Razeen and Zulhisyam
 Cholera, sometimes    known
  as Asiatic or epidemic cholera, is an
  infectiousgastroenteritis caused
  by enterotoxin-producing strains of
  the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.
 Vibrio cholerae is a Gram-
  negative bacterium that produces cholera
  toxin, an enterotoxin, whose action on
  the mucosal epithelium lining of the small
  intestine
 Calcutta India in the early 1800
 Since then, there have been a total of
  eight cholera pandemics.
  • 1=1817-1823 spread from India to Southeast
    Asia, Central Asia, the Middle East and Russia
  • The recent cholera epidemic in Pohnpei, which
    was part of the eighth and current pandemic
 The Italian doctor Filippo Pacini was the first to
  discover the cholera bacteria (Vibrio cholerae) in
  1854 when cholera hit Florence,
 but his discovery was ignored by the Italian medical
  community which still subscribed to the miasmatic
  theory of illness.
 1883 that the cholera bacteria was discovered again
  independently by the German physician Robert
  Koch.
 By this time the western medical establishment was
  ready to accept the fact that microorganisms did
  indeed cause illnesses such as cholera.
 exhaustive diarrhea
 blood pressure may    drop
  to hypotensive levels within an hour
 The acute form of the disease (cholera
  gravis) leads within hours to hypovolemia,
  acidosis, and potassium deficiency from the
  loss of fluid and electrolytes
 Complications include renal failure,
  pulmonary oedema, abortion in pregnant
  women, and profound hypoglycemia and
  seizures in young children.
 contamination   is typically other cholera
  patients
 untreated diarrhea discharge is allowed to
  get into waterways or into groundwater or
  drinking water supplies
 Any infected water and any foods washed in
  the water, as well as shellfish living in the
  affected waterway, can cause an infection.
 KUALA TERENGGANU, Nov 21 (Bernama) -- The use
  of contaminated fish to make crackers, a favourite
  snack in the state, has been identified as among the
  sources of cholera outbreak Terengganu
 Samples from raw chickens taken at the Gong Pauh
  wholesale market in Wakaf Mempelam as well as
  samples from two ice factories also tested positive
  for the bacteria
 so far 621 patients were admitted due to acute
  gastroenteritis. including 22 carriers and 138 tested
  positive for the disease.
 New strain of cholera found. resistant to the
  antibiotics usually used to treat cholera. recent floods
  maybe one of the cause of the outbreak.
     KUALA LUMPUR, Nov. 23 (Xinhua) -- Sabah, a state in East Malaysia, is
    confirmed to be the second state in the country to have recorded a
    cholera outbreak, a Malaysian official said on Monday.
      There were 18 cases reported in the state, said Malaysian Deputy Health
    Minister Rosnah Abdul Rashid Shirlin after launching the Second
    International Conference on Rural Medicine 2009 at KotaKinabalu, Sabah's
    state capital.
      While two states in Malaysia had reported cholera cases, Rosnahsaid
    the ones in Terengganu, an eastern state in peninsula Malaysia, were
    caused by different bacteria strain, requiring different antibiotics for
    treatment.
      Noting that the situation in Sabah State was under control, Rosnah
    advised the public to look after their health and hygiene, and to be careful
    when handling food.
      The first cholera case in the recent outbreak was reported on Nov. 11 at
    Kuala Terengganu, the state capital of Terengganu State and as of Sunday,
    a total of 185 confirmed cases were reported in the state.
      KUALA LUMPUR, Nov. 26 (Xinhua) -- Cholera outbreaks in the two
    northern states in peninsula Malaysia are believed to have been spread
    from Thailand, a Malaysian official said on Thursday.
      Malaysian Deputy Health Minister Rosnah Abdul Rashid Shirlin told
    reporters at a ground breaking ceremony for a power plant in Sabah, a
    state in East Malaysia on Thursday.
      Rosnah said that while cholera cases were reported in the states of
    Terengganu, Kelantan and Sabah, patients in Sabah showed only ordinary
    cholera symptoms and would recover by taking ordinary antibiotics.
      However, patients in Terengganu and Kelantan, two northern states in
    peninsula Malaysia bordering Thailand, were not reacting to the ordinary
    antibiotics.
      She said that the ministry found out on Wednesday that the unusual
    form of cholera was spread from Thailand where similar types of the
    disease were reported.
     The first cholera case in the recent outbreak was reported on Nov. 11 at
    Kuala Terengganu, the state capital of Terengganu and to date, Rosnah
    said Terengganu reported 185 cases while Kelantan reported 14 cases.
       Rank   Countries                         Amount

#1            Brazil              18 deaths

=2            Argentina           3 deaths

=2            Peru                3 deaths

=2            Ecuador             3 deaths

=2            El Salvador         3 deaths

=2            Egypt               3 deaths

=2            Venezuela           3 deaths


=8            South Africa        2 deaths


=8            Colombia            2 deaths

= 10          Belize              1 deaths

= 10          Nicaragua           1 deaths

= 10          Germany             1 deaths


= 10          Korea, South        1 deaths


= 10          Japan               1 deaths


= 10          United States       1 deaths


              Total:                          46 deaths


              Weighted average:               3.1 deaths
 administration  of oral rehydration salts to
  replace lost fluids
 In severe cases, intravenous
  administration of fluids may be required
 Drugs
  • Tetracycline: an antibiotic (trade name
    Achromycin) derived from microorganisms of
    the genus Streptomyces and used broadly to
    treat infections
  • Sulphonamides:more effective and less toxic
    antibiotics
 Water supply and sanitation
 Personal hygiene, food preparation
  and health education
  • Avoid contaminated water
  • Avoid contaminated food
  • Avoid ice, unless you are sure that it is made from
    safe water.
  • Avoid raw seafood and other raw foods
  • Ice cream from unreliable sources
 Vaccines
 http://malaysia.news.yahoo.com/bnm/2009112
  7/tts-floods-terengganu-night-bm-
  993ba14.html
 http://news.asiaone.com/News/AsiaOne+New
  s/Malaysia/Story/A1Story20091124-
  181850.html
 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cholera
 http://thestar.com.my/news/story.asp?file=/20
  09/12/6/nation/20091206123538&sec=nation
 http://www.who.int/topics/cholera/en/

				
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