AP PSYCHOLOGY Review for the AP Exam 1) Monozygotic is to identical as ________________ is to fraternal. dizygotic 2) Perfect positive correlation is to +1.00 as ________________________ is to - perfect negative correlation 1.00. 3) David Meyers is to happiness as Elizabeth Kubler Ross _______________________is to death and dying. 2 4) Latency is to 4 as anal is to _______. 5) John Locke is to tabula rosa as Charles Spearman _________________is to g factor. 6) Freud is to psychosexual as Erikson is to ________________________. psychosocial 7) Cocaine is to dopamine as nicotine is to acetylcholine ____________________ 8) Awareness is to lucid dreaming as hidden _______________ is to latent dream. 9) Alfred Binet is to IQ as Daniel Goleman ______________________is to EQ. 10) Dysphasia is to the spoken word as _______________ is to the written word. dyslexia satiation 11) Hunger is to eating as ___________is to full. 12) Blood pressure is to non-conscious as ________________________________i something easily brought to mind s to pre-conscious. 13) Height of a wave is to amplitude as frequency waves per second are to ___________ just noticeable difference 14) JND is to ________________________ as MMPI is to Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. 15) Axis II is to personality disorder and Axis V global assessment of functioning is to _____________________________ 16) The cerebral cortex is to higher level limbic system or amygdala thinking as ________________________ is to emotion. 17) Somatosensory cortex is to parietal lobe frontal lobe as motor cortex is to ___________ Edward Thorndike 18) Puzzle box is to _________________as Skinner box is to B.F. Skinner. 19) Systematic procedures that cannot fail are to ___________ as time saving mental algorithms shortcuts is to heuristics. 20) Dysthymia is to depression as bipolar disorder hypomania is to __________________ 21) Bobo is to observational learning as visual depth perception cliff is to __________________ 22) Automatic is to implicit learning as explicit memory intentional effort is to ________________ 23) Radical determinism is to behaviorism as ________________________ is to the reciprocal determinism social-cognitive theory. 24) Depression is to serotonin as dopamine schizophrenia is to ________________ stage 2 25) Sleep spindles are to ______________ as delta waves are to stage 4 sleep. 26) Type A is to aggressive as Type B _____________is to relaxed 27) Resting potential is to polarization as action potential is to ________________ depolarization 28) Prediction is to correlation study as cause-effect relationship is to experimental method ___________________ 29) Psychopath is to antisocial personality schizophrenia disorder as psychotic is to _____________ 30) Max Wertheimer is to Gestalt psychology John B. Watson as _________________is to Behaviorism. 31) Natural observation is to description as prediction correlation study is to ________________ 32) Knowledge of how your memory works is to metamemory as knowledge of how you problem solve is to metacognition ______________ 33) Sensory neurons are to afferent as motor efferent neurons neurons are to ___________________ 34) Freud is to psychoanalysis as Gustav Fechner ____________________ is to depression. 35) Consistency is to reliability as accuracy is to ______________ validity 36) GABA is to Huntington’s disease as serotonin / norepinephrine ___________________________ is to derpession. 37) Occipital lobe is to vision as temporal lobe _________________ is to hearing. 38) Cerebellum is to little brain as homunculus little man is to ___________________ hippocampus 39) The amygdala is to fear as _____________ is to memory. 40) Physical stimulation is to sensation as interpretation is to _______________. perception 41) Photoreceptors are to vision as hair cells _________________are to hearing. 42) Valium is to anxiety as Paxil is to depression _____________________ transduction 43) Encoding is to memory as _____________ is to sensation. 44) Variable-ratio is to slot machine as __________________ is to factory fixed-ratio piecework. 45) The MMPI is to objective test as the TAT projective test is to ______________________ 46) Cone is to color as rod is to black and white ____________________ 47) Tympanic membrane is to middle ear as inner ear cochlea is to _____________________ 48) Self-actualization is to top as ___________________ is to bottom biological needs 49) Michael Gazzaniga is to split-brain research Sigmund Freud as _________________ is to id, ego, and superego. 50) Id is to pleasure principle as reality principle ego is to __________________ 51) Mid-life crisis is to middle adulthood as late adulthood reassessment is to ________________ 52) Paradoxical sleep is to _______________ as manic- REM sleep depressive is to bipolar disorder. figure 53) Tree is to sky as ______________is to ground. Humanism 54) Empathy is to _______________ as free association is to psychoanalysis 55) Bird is to concept as Robin is to __________________ prototype LTM 56) Infinite is to ________________ as 7 is to STM. 57) Stanley Milgram is to obedience as Leon Festinger _______________is to cognitive dissonance. 58) James-Lange is to physiological first Cannon Bard as ____________________ is to simultaneous. 59) The study of brain structures is to biological psychology as the study of cognitive psychology mental illness is to__________________ 60) The Wright Brothers are to aviation as _______________ is to Wilhelm Wundt psychology. 61) Regulation of thirst is to hypothalamus as relay of messages is to _________________ thalamus 62) Range is to measure of variability as mode is to measure of central tendency ________________________ 63) MAOI is to monoamine oxidase inhibitor as SSRI is to Selective serotonin reuptake _________________________________ inhibitor 64) Long-term is to storage as acoustic is to _________________ sensory 65) The removal of a chore is to ______________________ as the adding negative reinforcement of a chore is to positive punishment. 66) Expectations and knowledge are to top- down processing as the color and shape bottom-up processing are to _______________________ 67) A fast response rate is to ratio schedule as a steady/constant response is to Interval schedule _______________________ 68) Max Weber is to Weber’s Law Edward Thorndike as ___________________ is to the law of effect. 69) The conscious mind and the physical brain are to the mind-body problem as stage theories and continuous development are to the stage continuity problem _______________________ 70) Perceptual experiences lacking sensory hallucinations stimuli are to _______________ as false beliefs are to delusions. 71) Insomnia is to sleep disorder as ADHD is _____________________ to developmental disorder 72) SRRS is to stress as the MMPI personality is to ___________________ 73) Multifactorial is to biopsychosocial model as predisposition is to the dianthesis stress model _____________________ 74) Dydthemia is to mood disorder as PTSD is to __________________ anxiety disorder 75) Collective unconscious is to Jung as Adler inferiority complex is to ______________ 76) Picture is to visual encoding as general meaning is to ____________________ semantic encoding 77) Alfred Binet is to the bell curve as Hermann Ebbinghaus _____________________is to the forgetting curve. 78) Loss after trauma is to anterograde as loss for events prior to trauma is to retrograde ____________________ 79) Voluntary behaviors are to operant conditioning ___________________as involuntary behaviors are to classical conditioning. 80) Aversive conditioning is to behavioral techniques as RET is to cognitive therapy ___________________ 81) Cognitive maps are to latent learning as trains and tunnels are to latent dream content _______________ 82) Prefrontal cortex is to __________________ as the brainstem higher level thinking is to vital functioning. 83) Norepinephrine is to mood as endorphines are to __________________ pain reduction 84) Formation of new memories is to hippocampus as coordinated movement cerebellum is to the _________________________ 85) Valium and xanax are to benzodiazepines as Zoloft and Paxil are antidepressants/SSRIs to _____________________ 86) Robert Sternberg is to the triarchic theory of intelligence as _____________ is to XXX the triangular theory of love. 87) The best of two desireable activities is to the approach-approach as the lesser of avoidance-avoidance two evils is to ____________________ 88) Optimal level is to arousal theory as incentive theory rewards are to _________________ 89) Experimental group is to treatment as control group __________________is to no treatment. 90) Sticking to your guns even when proven wrong is to belief perserverance as only searching for a certain type of gun is to _______________________ confirmation bias 91) Structure of consciousness is to structuralism _____________________ as flow of consciousness is to functionalism. 92) Troubles falling asleep is to insomnia as sleeping too much is to ______________ hypersomnia 93) The study of human behavior is to psychology as the study of psychoactive psychopharmacology drugs is to ________________________ 94) Circadian is to “about a day” as hypnosis sleep is to _____________________ 95) The ACT is to aptitude test as the Advanced Placement Exam is to achievement test ____________________ 96) Creating solutions is to divergent thinking as eliminating possibilities is to convergent thinking ____________________ 97) Piaget is to cognitive as Kohlberg is to moral ____________ 98) Attachment is to Harlow as hierarchy of Maslow needs is to _____________ 99) Generativity v. Stagnation is to _________________ as integrity v. adulthood despair is to old age. 100) Paper and pencil are to the Stanford- Binet as blocks and pictures are to Wechsler Scales/Test _________________________ 101) Repeated is to reliable as accurate is to valid ________________ 102) The triarchic theory of intelligence is to Sternberg as Theory of Multiple Intelligences ____________________________ is to Gardner. 103) Social facilitation is to __________________________as social Increase in performance impairment is to reduction in performance. 104) Kleptomania is to impulse-control disorder as hypochrondriasis is to somotoform disorder __________________________ 105) Phil Zimbardo is to prison as Wilhelm first laboratory Wundt is to ______________________ 106) Acquisition is to classical conditioning as alarm is to General Adaptation Syndrome ______________________________ 107) Albert Bandura is to reciprocal Walter Mischel determinism as _________________ is to person x situation (cognitive/affective theory) 108) Medical concerns are to Axis III as __________________ environmental concerns are to Axis IV. 109) Obsession is to thought as compulsion _________________ is to ritualistic action 110) Hue is to color as saturation is to __________________________ purity movement 111) Kinesthesia is to__________________ as vestibular sense is to sense of balance 112) Light intensity is to different ___________________ as frequency is to brightness different pitch. 113) Humanistic and psychanalytic are to insight therapy as behavioral and cognitive ___________________ if to solution therapy. 114) Disorganized thoughts, hallucinations and delusions are to positive symptoms flat affect as _____________ are to negative symptoms. 115) Joseph Wolpe is to systematic Albert Ellis desensitization as ___________ is to RET 116) Toilet training is to anal stage as Oedipal complex is to phallic stage ________________ 117) Place is to context dependent memory mood as ______ is to state dependent memory. 118) Phineas Gage is to the frontal lobe as hippocampus Clive Wearing is to the _______________ 119) Specific and systematic procedures are to formal reasoning (deductive) as believability and availabilty are to informal (inductive) ________________ 120) Association is to classical conditioning as reinforcements and punishments are to operant conditioning ________________________ 121) Michael Gazzaniga is to biological psychology as Phil Zimbardo is to social psychology _________________ 122) Acetylcholine is to Alzheimer’s as ________________ is to Parkinson’s. dopamine 123) Chlorpromazine is to schizophrenia as lithium is to ______________ bipolar disorder 124) Number of responses is to ratio as time passed is to ________________ interval 125) Fixed sequence independent of the environment is to maturation as permanent chance due to the learning environment is to _________________ 126) Fixed-action patterns are to the instinct theory of motivation as homeostasis is the drive-reduction theory the _______________________ 127) Lateral hypothalamus is to start as ventromedial hypothalamus is to stop. ________________________ 128) The phenomenological aproach is to the humanistic approach as the social- cognitive approach is to behaviorism ______________ 129) Edward Titchner is to structuralism as William James ____________________ is to functionalism. 130) Manipulated variable is to ____________________ as outcome Independent variable variable is to dependent variable. 131) Compliance to social demands is to social role theory of hypnosis as split dissociation theory consciousness is to _______________ 132) Mimic is to agonist as occupation/prevention is to antagonist __________ 133) Alcohol is to depressant as barbituate stimulant is to __________________ 134) Dreaming is to REM sleep as sleepwalking is to ___________________ stage 4 135) Learned helplessness is to rates as monkeys attachment is to ___________________ 136) Avoidance of punishment is to preconventional as pleasing others is to conventional __________________ 137) Identity v. role confusion is to adolescence as industry v. inferiority is to early childhood ___________________ 138) Odds and evens are to split-half reliability as alternate forms are to alternate forms of reliability __________________________ 139) Martin Seligman is to ______________________ as Charles positive psychology Darwin is to the theory of evolution. Milgram 140) Jung is to Freud as ________________ is to Asch. 141) Hans Salye is to GAS as David Weschler ______________________ is to WAIS. 142) Global and stable are to pessimism as specific and unstable are to optimism ____________________ 143) Conversion disorder is to ___________________ as attack is to somatoform disorder panic disorder. 144) Free-floating is to generalized anxiety disorder as attack is ________________________ to panic disorder 145) Unconditional positive regard is to Carl Rogers as self-actualization is to Abraham Maslow _____________________. 146) Sense of smell is to olfaction as sense gustation of taste is to ______________________ 147) Minimum amount of stimulus detected absolute threshold is to ___________________ as smallest difference between stimulti detected is to difference threshold. 148) After-images are to the opponent process theory as television sets are to Trichromatic Theory of color vision _________________________________ 149) Nerve deafness is to hair cells as conductive deafness ____________________ is to the middle ear. brightness 150) Light intensity is to ___________ as amplitude is to loudness. 151) Amplitude is to decibels as frequency __________________ is to Hertz. 152) Lengthy is to psychoanalytic as time- limited is to _______________________ psychodynamic 153) Phenomenologists are to humanistic __________________as client-centered therapy is to person-centered therapy. 154) Desensitization hierarchy is to Joseph Wolpe __________________ as hierarchy of needs is to Abraham Maslow. 155) Remembering what you had for dinner last night is episodic memory as remembering how to ride your bike is to procedural memory _________________________ 156) Stimulus-response is to classical conditioning as response-stimulus is to operant conditioning ________________________ 157) Neuroleptics are to psychotic as benzodiazepines are to neurotic (anxiety/mood) _____________________ 158) Ridges of the cortex are to gyri as sulci valleys of the cortex are to ____________ 159) Breathing is to the medulla as waking to the alarm is to ____________________ reticular formation 160) Pavlov is to classical conditioning as Bandura ___________________ is to observational learning. 161) Firm and punitive is to authoritarian as authoritative firm but fair is to _________________ 162) Reasoning and problem solving are to fluid intelligence as specific knowledge is crystallized intelligence to __________________________ anxiety disorder 163) OCD is to __________________ as bipolar disorder is to mood disorder. 164) Multiple personality disorder is to dissociative identity disorder as manic-depression disorder _______________________ is to bipolar disorder 165) Vestibular sense is to body position as somatic sense is to touch, pain,temperature _________________ 166) Max Weber is to sensation as Elizabeth memory (constructive) Loftus is to _______________________ frequency 167) Pitch is to _______________ as loudness is to amplitude. 168) Distrust of others is to paranoid personality disorder as ideas of self- importance are to narcissistic personality disorder _______________________________ 169) Interpretation of transference is to psychoanalysis as systematic behavior therapy desensitization is to ________________ 170) Interpretation of speech and written words is to Wernicke’s area as production Broca’s Area of speech is to _____________________ 171) Language is to left hemisphere as facial recognition, visual-spatial ability ________________________________ is to right hemisphere. 172) Neuro transmitters are to the nervous hormones system as ___________________ are to the endocrine system. 173) Sympathetic system is to action as rest parasympathetic system is to _________ 174) Long wavelength is to low frequency as high frequency short wavelength is to ______________ 175) Unconscious wish fulfillment is to Freudian interpretation of dreams and synthesizing random neural firings is to _______________________ activation synthesis theory 176) Marijuana is to hallucinogen as MDMA is to____________________ amphetimine 177) Low sound frequencies are to frequency theory as high sound Place Theory frequencies are to ________________ 178) New interfering with the old is to retroactive interference as old interfering proactive interference with the new is to __________________ 179) Instructions are to posthypnotic suggestion as memory loss is to posthypnotic amnesia _______________________ yellow 180) Green is to red as ____________ is to blue.