Forms for Business Reference Check

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					                 Scienze per la
    comunicazione internazionale

      Lingua Inglese 1 grp A-E
            21st lesson
          22nd March 2004
                  Prof.ssa Francesca Vigo
                  vigof@unict.it
                  095-7102261
                  Office hours
                  Wednesday 15 – 17
                  room 138




1
         Match the underlined words with the grammatical
                    forms (Business Language Practice p.55)
    1.     Did you speak to the sales management?
    2.     I saw her on Monday
    3.     Give me a ring sometime tomorrow
    4.     I think Paula works in the marketing section
    5.     Could I speak to Mrs. Lee?
    6.     It’s a friendly company to work for
    7.     That’s a very interesting suggestion
    8.     Who’s going to the meeting on Friday?
    9.     I’m afraid we never give credit to new customers
    10.    LKM closed down because exports fell away

    Personal pronoun; question word; conjunction;
       preposition; adverb; modal auxiliary; definite article;
2      noun; adjective; main verb
    Match the verbs underlined with the tenses (Unit 25)

    1.   I’m still waiting for your sales report
    2.   Has anyone used this program before?
    3.   At ten o’clock we were still arguing!
    4.   She’d already left by the time I got to the office
    5.   I’ll be at head office till four o’clock
    6.   Delivery normally takes two or three days
    7.   I haven’t been waiting long
    8.   We tried to break into the Polish market last year

    Present simple; present continuous, present perfect;
       present perfect continuous; past simple; past
3      continuous; past perfect; the ‘ll future
                Textual cohesion – Reference


       Semantic concept

       Refers to relations of meaning that exist within a text

       These relations make unrelated sentences an
        unified/consistent whole

       It occurs when the interpretation of some elements in
        the text depends on that of another

       Some linguistic items have a referential property:
        they MUST REFER to other elements in the text to
4       be interpreted
    WHAT IS A TEXT?




5
    …

     The word text is used in linguistics to refer to any
    passage, spoken or written, of whatever length, that
    does form an unified whole (Halliday- Hasan, 1976, Cohesion in
    English, Longman)


     …il termine indica un insieme di frasi, scritto o
    parlato, di qualunque ampiezza, che ha una certa
    funzione comunicativa, tra le cui parti esistono
    collegamenti formali (cohesion) e relazioni semantiche
    (coherence) (Casadei, Breve dizionario di Linguistica, Carocci)
6
    …a    defining feature of a branch of linguistics…texts are
    seen as language units which have a definable
    communicative function, characterised by such principles
    as COHESION, COHERENCE and informativeness.
    (Crystal D., 1994, A Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics, Oxford,
    Blackwell   )

    …testo…una       occorrenza comunicativa che soddisfa 7
    condizioni      di   testualità..   (coerenza,      coesione,
    intenzionalità, accettabilità, informatività, situazionalità e
7   intertestualità)
       A text is an unit of language in use

       It may be anything form a single proverb to a whole
        play, from a momentary cry for help to an all-day
        discussion
       It is regarded as a semantic unit
       A text does not consist of sentences, it is realised by
        sentences

    (From Halliday and Hasan, cit.)
8
     Usually we know whether any specimen of our
     language constitutes a TEXT or not.
     There must been certain features which characterise
     the texts
     We try to identify them and to establish which are
     the properties of and English text.




9
     WHAT IS TEXTURE?




10
     TEXTURE

        It is the property of being a text

        It is what distinguishes a TEXT from a collection of
         sentences
        English has (like all other languages) certain
         resources for creating texture
        If a passage of English containing more that a
         sentence is perceived as a text, there will be certain
         linguistic features present, which contribute to its
         total unity.
11
     example

     1. ‘Wash and core six cooking apples. Put
          them into a fireproof dish’
     -    Them = anaphoric = cohesion/referential
     1a. ‘Wash and core six cooking apples. Put the
          apples into a fireproof dish
       - coreferential
       - use of article
       - NOTE: the use of pronouns is not the only
          way of expressing identity of reference
12
     Example

     2. ‘So we pushed him under the other one’
     - …so what?.....different effect (humorous..)




13
     Cohesion, Coherence, Reference

        Cohesion and coherence mainly deal with
         the construction of a text
        Reference is a key feature also for reading a
         text




14
     reference


        Some linguistic items can’t be interpreted semantically in
         their own right.
        They make reference to something else for their
         interpretation
        In English these items are:
         a. Personals
         b. Demonstratives
         c. Comparatives


15
                       Examples:
     information is to be retrieved from elsewhere

                            a.Personals
     Three blind mice, three blind mice
     See how they run, see how they run
                          b.Demonstratives
     Doctor Foster went to Gloucester in a shower of rain.
     He stepped into a puddle right up to his middle and never
     went there again
                           c. Comparatives
     There were two wrens upon a tree
16   Another came, and there were three
     According to where the information has to be retrieved, the reference
             can be:
     Exophoric                        Endophoric
     Exosphoric : relates to the situation
     Endophoric: relates to the text

     Endophoric relations may be anaphoric or cataphoric

     NOTE: Both exophoric and endophoric reference embody an instruction
            to retrieve information
           There is always a presupposition that must be satisfied:
     THE THING REFERRED TO IS IDENTIFIABLE SOMEHOW
17
     TYPES OF REFERENCE



     3 types of reference:
     Personal: personal reference is reference by means of
        function in the speech situation, through the category of
        PERSON
     Demonstrative: demonstrative reference is reference by
        means of location, on a scale of proximity
     Comparative: comparative is indirect reference by means
        of identity or similarity


18
     Black British, White British

     Which items are referential?

        Pronouns
        Deictics
        The definite article

     These items make a text cohesive, i.e. they reduce
       repetitions and redundancy.

     Reformulations and synomins help to achieve cohesion
       too
19
     Read the following passage, give a possible
     translation for the underlined words and
     define their grammatical value


     Criminal statistics are often quoted to prove that crime is increasing, but
     these statistics do not always present the real picture. In this balanced
     study Dr West examines the offences committed by those under 21.
     Most convicted persons are young males, he admits, but that is nothing
     new. It remains true that the incidence of convictions declines after the
     age of 14 (which is the peak) and begins to peter out among those in
     their 20s. Delinquency – and that means theft in one form or another or
     very pretty crime – is a passing phase of youth.

      The social, hereditary and psychological factors that determine
     delinquent behaviour are discussed in the central part of the book, and
     the final chapters are devoted to the penal and remedial measures
     which are being applied in Great Britain. A special chapter covers what
     the press considers most sensational about juvenile crime: girls, sex,
20   drugs and violence
     Textual reference
     With reference to the previous passage
     match the given expressions with what they
     refer to in the text

     1.   These statistics
     2.   This balanced study
     3.   Those under
     4.   That
     5.   Which
     6.   Those in their 20s
     7.   that



21
     MACRO – MICRO ECONOMISTS - KUWAIT



     Skimming: read the text and answer the following
          questions
     1.   What kind of job is offered?
     2.   Who is offering th job?
     3.   Where was this ad taken from?


     Predicting: try to predict what kind of information
          are given WITHOUT READING THE TEXT AGAIN


22   Scanning: check your predictions
     …

     Possible content
     1. Advantages
     2. Career
     3. Explanation of the form
     4. Candidate’s requisites
     5. Duties
     6. References
     7. Job place
     8. Wage
     9. Working hours
23
     …paragraphs…



     Read the passage again and try to explain what
     information is given in each paragraph

     1.
     2.
     3.
     4.
     5.

24

				
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