Impact of Technology on Service Design by mmz11521


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									                                                         NT Curriculum Framework                  399

Technology and
Design Learning
The Technology and Design Learning Area equips learners to apply knowledge,
experiences and resources purposefully to critique, design and make products, processes
and systems. These are created to solve a problem or meet a need. Some examples
of current technologies include medical procedures, housing, household products and
appliances, electronic equipment, tools, recreation and leisure products, fads and
children’s toys. These can enhance lives and empower people, eg laser eye surgery,
motorised wheelchairs, communication and media systems, and medical research.
The use or abuse of technology can create social differences, disagreements and
ethical conflicts, eg genetically modified foods, in-vitro fertilisation technology. While
designing, developing and using technology is linked to the evolution of our species,
our future existence will be influenced greatly by technologies currently being, or yet to
be, designed and created. Consequently, responsible and democratic decision-making,
taking into account cultural, societal and environmental factors, is an important
aspect of Technology and Design. Note: Technology and Design is often confused
with Computer Technology, Information Communication Technology or Learning
Technologies. Computer Technology is one of many learning tools used in the ‘design
processes’ of Technology and Design.

In a supportive environment, technically literate learners
• become increasingly confident, self-sufficient and independent in using a range
    of materials, components and resources, information systems, techniques and
    equipment effectively and safely to design and make products, processes and
    systems relevant to real life experiences and with practical applications
•   examine critically the impact of past and present technologies in the
    home, commercial enterprise and local and global environments, and develop
    understandings about the role, range and effects of technologies on society and
    the environment.
•   develop a solid repertoire of creative thinking, risk-taking, decision-making,
    problem-solving and communication skills to develop innovative and original

                                                       Technology and Design                Learning
                                                                        Introduction        Areas
400         NT Curriculum Framework

            The interconnected phases of any technology include process commence with defining
            the problem - the intent or purpose of the design. A design brief defines the purpose
            or intent of the new or innovated product, process and system development. This is
            followed by the three inter-related strands:

               Elements: Evaluate, Impact, Communicate
               Critiquing can be the initial or ongoing analysis, assessment and evaluation of a
               product, process or system against the original intent or problem. It can also be an
               ongoing process involving deconstructing either a new or existing product, process
               or system. It is important to recognise technological practice as both beneficial
               and problematic, and that every technology can have both positive and negative
               attributes, impacts or consequences. Making decisions during the critiquing
               process often involves active and vigorous debate, compromise, consensus and
               communication at various stages of the
               cycle, and is influenced by
               •   intent of the new technology and
                   both the predicted and actual impact              DECONSTRUCTING

               •   values, experiences, political and                                                            g P r ob le m s
                                                                                                   C r e a tin                       olvi
                                                                                             as                                             ng
                   religious beliefs of different people                                de

                   and communities                                                                 DESIGNING
                                                                                       In                                                      g
                                                                                                 v a ti n                              ni n
               •   processes by which the decisions are                                                     g Research Pla n


               Designing                                                                        u ct
                                                                                                       s Safe
                                                                                                                t y E qu i p m e n
               Elements: Investigate, Options                                              od

               The design process is fundamental to                         PRODUCING                                                            g

                                                                     at                                         ns
               the development and understanding of                     e ri
                                                                             a ls Te                        tio
                                                                                     c h n iq u e s S o l u
               technology, and learners are exposed to
               a rich variety of strategies. Designing
                                                                    APPRAISE                       EVALUATING
               uses imagination, creativity, risk-taking
               and problem-solving skills to
               investigate, plan, generate, synthesise and realise ideas. The goal might be to
               design and produce an entirely new technology but it might also mean making
               an existing product, process or system better. Analysing variables and identifying
               options possible solutions are explored, and thoughts and processes are recorded
               and communicated.

               Elements: Materials, Skills and Techniques, Systems
               The production phase is the link between the thought processes of design and the
               reality of a product, process or system. Learners acquire detailed knowledge of the
               properties, potential and effectiveness of many material components and equipment
               and they understand the energies that make objects work (heat, wind, solar, electrical,
               chemical and mechanical). They select equipment from specific areas of technology
               and develop a rich repertoire of skills and techniques to respond to the design brief in
               a practical, achievable and safe way. They also plan and manage the sequential steps
               of production processes to create quality products and systems.

 Learning      Technology and Design
    Areas      Introduction
                                                         NT Curriculum Framework                  401

Linking the theory and the practical
Practical implementation of Technology and Design might progress in a classroom
as follows. Depending upon the stages of schooling, different aspects might be
negotiated as part of a group exercise, or involve the students in highly complex and
independent research and decision-making. For example, an exercise in ‘researching the
problem ‘ might be done as part of a class discussion in early years classes, but be part
of an independent analysis and research in secondary classes.

Indigenous perspectives and the Technology and Design
Learning Area
The Indigenous perspectives in this learning area can only be realised through
collaborative partnerships with schools and local Indigenous people/organisations. They
are intended to show the links, the points of connection and the points of difference
between Indigenous traditional and contemporary cultures and the Technology and
Design Learning Area Outcomes.
                                   Define the problem
                                    or challenge from          Research the
               Begin again              the design.            problem and
               if necessary.                                 consider possible
     Improve the
 product, process or               Communicate                         Choose a
 system if necessary.                                                promising or
                                                                   potential solution.
       Test and analyse
         the product,                                     Design, devise or
      process or system.           Make a product,         make a plan.
                                     process or
Strand Overview
The different stages of schooling are reflected in Technology and Design.

 KGP 1 to Band 1     Bands 2 and 3                 Band 4 to Beyond Band 5

 One strand - all    One strand - all strands      Three distinct strands -
 strands and         are integrated and specific    Designing, Producing and Critiquing
 elements are        elements begin to appear      and associated elements

 Investigate         Investigate                   Designing
                                                   • Investigate
                                                   • Options
                     Options -
 Options -           Materials, Skills
 Materials, Skills   and Techniques
                                                   • Materials
 and Techniques
                                                   • Skills and Techniques
                     Systems                       • Systems

                     Evaluate and Impact           Critiquing
 Evaluate, Impact
                                                   • Evaluate
                                                   • Impact
 Communicate         Communicate                   • Communicate

                                                       Technology and Design                Learning
                                                                        Introduction        Areas
402                 NT Curriculum Framework

                     Learners demonstrating Learners demonstrating Learners demonstrating          Learners demonstrating
 Strands and              evidence of            evidence of            evidence of                     evidence of
 Links                      KGP 1                    KGP 2                    KGP 3                       Band 1
 Designing,         DPC KGP1.1               DPC KGP2.1               DPC KGP3.1                 DPC 1.1
 Producing &        Investigate              Investigate              Investigate                Investigate
                    attend to,               explore materials,       explore a wide range of    explore the suitability of
 Critiquing         anticipate, respond      resources,               materials, resources,      a variety of materials,
                    to, initiate             techniques and           techniques and             skills and techniques
  Links             interaction with and     strategies to express    strategies for the         and describe the design
                    explore stimuli using    possibilities in basic   possibilities they offer   possibilities
  EsseNTial         the senses (auditory,    problems                 in a design problem
  Learnings:        visual, tactile and/or   DPC KGP2.2               DPC KGP3.2                 DPC 1.2
  In 1, Creative    kinaesthetic)            Options - Materials,     Options - Materials,       Options - Materials,
  Learner,          DPC KGP1.2               Skills and               Skills and Techniques      Skills and Techniques
  Con 1, Con 2,     Options -                Techniques               use a range of familiar    use materials, skills and
  Con 3             Materials, Skills        use a range of basic     materials/processes and    techniques safely, giving
                    and Techniques           materials and            equipment safely to        reasons for choices, and
  Learning Areas:   use basic materials,     equipment safely to      undertake simple           plan production
  HPE, Science,     skills and techniques    undertake simple         production processes       processes for making
  SOSE, The Arts    safely                   production processes,    DPC KGP3.3                 simple products
  Perspectives:     DPC KGP1.3               with direction           Evaluate, Impact and       DPC 1.3
  Literacy,         Evaluate, Impact         DPC KGP2.3               Communicate                Evaluate, Impact and
  Numeracy,         and Communicate          Evaluate, Impact         share ideas and express    Communicate
                    communicate in           and Communicate          opinions about own         explain own design
                    appropriate ways         play with a range        ideas and products/        processes and describe
  Learning          about own actions.       of resources and         processes/systems in       the features and uses
                                             communicate about        familiar environments.     of familiar products/
                                             own discoveries.                                    processes and systems.

                        Learners demonstrating evidence of                     Learners demonstrating evidence of
                                    Band 2                                                 Band 3

  Designing,        DPC 2.1                                           DPC 3.1
                    Investigate                                       Investigate
  Producing &       examine the suitability of key design             explore design briefs and production proposals
  Critiquing        features of familiar products/processes/          for identified users
                    systems when determining design                   DPC 3.2
                    possibilities                                     Options - Materials, Skills and Techniques
  Links             DPC 2.2                                           make choices based on safety, functional and
  EsseNTial         Options - Materials, Skills and                   aesthetic factors and give some consideration to
  Learnings:        Techniques                                        social/environmental factors to meet design brief
  In 1, Creative    recognise practical and safety constraints        requirements
  Learner,          of basic materials, skills and techniques in      DPC 3.3
  Constructive      an intended product                               Systems
  Learner           DPC 2.3                                           organise and implement a production process to
                    Systems                                           own specifications
  Learning Areas:   plan and carry out the steps of a                 DPC 3.4
  HPE, Science,     production process                                Evaluate and Impact
  SOSE,             DPC 2.4                                           describe the relationships and impact of products/
  The Arts          Evaluate and Impact                               processes/systems and the community/
                    identify a range of criteria to discuss and       environment
                    appraise products/processes/                      DPC 3.5
  Literacy,         systems in familiar environments                  Communicate
  Numeracy, LT,     DPC 2.5                                           explain and share the design process using
  Vocational        Communicate                                       appropriate technical terminology.
  Learning          explain and share the design process
                    using some technical language.

 Learning               Technology and Design
    Areas               Outcome Overview
                                                                  NT Curriculum Framework                            403

 Learners demonstrating        Learners demonstrating                   Learners demonstrating     Strands and
      evidence of                   evidence of                              evidence of
        Band 4                        Band 5                              Beyond Band 5            Links

De 4.1                       De 5.1                              De 5+.1                              Designing
Investigate                  Investigate                         Investigate
examine design briefs to     investigate and analyse how         analyse the design brief and
develop production           needs, resources and                investigate the development       Links
proposals that take into     circumstances affect the scope      and promotion of a range          EsseNTial
account the needs of         of implementation of a design       of products and processes to      Learnings:
intended users               brief                               maximise opportunities for        Creative Learner,
De 4.2                       De 5.2                              innovation                        Constructive
Options                      Options                             De 5+.2                           Learner
explain the functional,      explore alternatives and justify    Options
aesthetic, social and        functional, aesthetic, social and   demonstrate innovation in         Learning Areas:
environmental factors in     environmental design choices.       approach and justify intended     HPE, Science,
design choices.                                                  design proposals.                 SOSE, The Arts

Pr 4.1                       Pr 5.1                              Pr 5+.1
Materials                    Materials                           Materials
select from a defined         select appropriate materials        explain properties and
range of materials           with understanding of               structure of materials in terms   Links
considering properties,      properties, aesthetics,             of function, aesthetics,          EsseNTial
aesthetics and origins       economics and sustainability        economics and environment         Learnings:
Pr 4.2                       Pr 5.2                              Pr 5+.2                           Cr 1, Cr 2,
Skills and Techniques        Skills and Techniques               Skills and Techniques             Constructive
use appropriate              demonstrate high level skills       use specialised skills and        Learner
equipment and practices      using specialised equipment         modify techniques and
to achieve defined            to produce to specified              apparatus to achieve specified     Learning Areas:
standards of quality and     standards of quality and            functional and aesthetic          HPE, Science,
safety                       safety                              outcomes                          SOSE, The Arts
Pr 4.3                       Pr 5.3                              Pr 5+.3                           Perspectives:
Systems                      Systems                             Systems                           Literacy,
organise, implement and      organise, implement and             modify techniques to              Numeracy,
adjust production            adjust production processes to      assemble and control complex      Learning
processes.                   defined standards of quality.        systems to meet performance       Technology,
                                                                 requirements.                     Vocational

Cr 4.1                       Cr 5.1                              Cr 5+.1
Evaluate                     Evaluate                            Evaluate                            Critiquing
reflect on and assess         analyse, assess and modify,         evaluate critically the
products/processes/systems   if necessary, the products/         effectiveness of techniques,
according to specified        processes/systems involved in       resources and processes used to   Links
design requirements          design and production from          design and produce intended       EsseNTial
Cr 4.2                       inception to completion             product or system                 Learnings:
Impact                       Cr 5.2                              Cr 5+.2                           In 1, Cr 1,
consider the                 Impact                              Impact                            Cr 2,
appropriateness and          report on the use of products/      analyse and report on the short   Constructive
effects of products and      processes/systems and the           and long term consequences        Learner
systems on a community/      impact on the community/            of a product or process on        Learning Areas:
environment                  environment                         particular environments and       HPE, Science,
Cr 4.3                       Cr 5.3                              cultures                          SOSE, The Arts
Communicate                  Communicate                         Cr 5+.3                           Perspectives:
explain and present design   present own design proposal         Communicate                       Literacy,
proposals incorporating      requiring technical competence      create and present detailed       Numeracy,
appropriate technical        of skills and adopting technical    design and production             Learning
terminology.                 terminology to show creation        proposals in technical and non-   Technology,
                             and development of ideas.           technical forms, appropriate to   Vocational
                                                                 audience.                         Learning

                                                                 Technology and Design               Learning
                                                                           Outcome Overview          Areas
404                   NT Curriculum Framework

                         Designing, Producing and Critiquing
  Links                  OUTCOMES
  EsseNTial              Learners demonstrating evidence of Key        Growth Point 1
                         DPC KGP1.1  Investigate
  In 1, Cr 1, Cr 2,
                                     attend to, anticipate, respond to, initiate interaction with and explore stimuli
  Con 1, Con 2
                                     using their senses (auditory, visual, tactile and/or kinesthetic)
  Learning Areas:        DPC KGP 1.2 Options - Materials, Skills and Techniques
  HPE, Science,                      use basic materials, skills and techniques safely
  SOSE, The Arts
                         DPC KGP 1.3 Evaluate, Impact and Communicate
  Perspectives:                      communicate in appropriate ways about own actions.
  Learning                INDICATORS
                          Learners demonstrating evidence of Key        Growth Point 1 for example
 Investigate                                   Options - Materials, Skills and                 Evaluate, Impact and
 •    be curious about new resources or        Techniques [Num-SS]                             Communicate
      materials in a familiar environment •        demonstrate selecting and rejecting         •    answer basic questions
 •    investigate the attributes of a              behaviours and/or language when                  relating to size (big,
      variety of materials, eg feathers,           choosing materials that suit task                small), location (here,
      toothpicks, straws, paddle pop           •   interact with peers and express own              there) or colour of
      sticks, paper shapes, confetti, silver       preferences by behaviour and/or with             products
      foil, slimy play dough, clay, sand           language for specific materials or        •       respond to different
 •    develop basic skills with support            processes, eg preference to stir the             colours, shapes and
      and prompting as necessary, eg               pikelet batter, choose the red stars,            patterns within
      cut, paste, attach, roll, pinch, tear        select the fat paint brush, play with            functional activities, eg
                                                   the lavender scented play dough, use             yellow cup on black
 •    make use of familiar materials,
                                                   counters or blocks in number recognition         desk, strip pattern on
      resources or processes to create
                                                   tasks                                            class window, bright
      things to play in and with, eg
                                               •   identify and collect needed or wanted            cover on story book
      water or sand play, role play,
                                                   materials/equipment for specific tasks, eg        [Num-SS]
      construction, craft activities, music/
      dance, number and space activities           scissors to cut, rolling pin or cylinder to  •   react to a video of
                                                   roll out play dough, stapler, glue or sticky     themselves involved in
 •    use tools or materials in ways other
                                                   tape to attach                                   a task
      than their traditional use, eg a
      potato masher to mash potatoes       •       select appropriate actions to task, eg       •   use a switch to respond
      but also to mash play dough, play            cut, grate and mix ingredients in meal           to stimuli
      in a wading pool full of ping pong           preparation activities; put jigsaw pieces    •   indicate or answer
      balls                                        into simple shape puzzle; activate a tool        appropriately to
                                                   to make a design on paper such as swirl          questions about their
 •    explore equipment that appeals to
                                                   art; locate and put on hat before going          role in group
      different sensory needs, eg fibre
                                                   outside, or put bag in bag space and             technology tasks, eg
      optic lights, vibrating cushions,
                                                   enter classroom                                  ‘What did you get?’,
                                               •   select pictures or symbols that best             ‘Where is the glue?’,
 •    inspect and communicate the key
                                                   describe a task, eg cut, paste, count            ‘How did you and
      components inside familiar
                                               •   follow simple procedures in art and craft        (friend) put the blocks
      equipment, eg look inside a clock
                                                   activities, eg craypas/oil pastel drawing        together?’ [Lit-LS]
      for the batteries, untwist a lid
      to get inside a jar, pour water              with a paint or dye wash, make a card for •      communicate feelings
      through a waterwheel and                     a special occasion, print wrapping paper         about task, eg select
      indicate where the water has gone        •   utilise appropriate language and actions         between two ‘feelings’
      in and out of the system                     to indicate the sequence of steps                pictographs [HPE-PD]
 •    explore concepts and ideas                   involved in a specific activity, eg ‘First   •    use visual/verbal cues
      through own interests and teacher            we..., then we.....’ [Num-MDS]                   to organise thinking/
      directed activities.                     •   follow simple instructions when learning         actions, eg sequenced
                                                   a new skill, eg swimming, gymnastics,            pictograph list.
                                                   cutting food, gathering food, fishing.

 Learning                  Technology and Design
    Areas                  Outcomes and Indicators
                                                                  NT Curriculum Framework                               405

 Designing, Producing and Critiquing
OUTCOMES                                                                                              Links
Learners demonstrating evidence of Key       Growth Point 2                                           EsseNTial
DPC KGP2.1 Investigate                                                                                In 1, Creative
           explore materials, resources, techniques and strategies to express possibilities           Learner, Con 1,
           in basic problems                                                                          Con 2
DPC KGP2.2 Options - Materials, Skills and Techniques                                                 Learning Areas:
           use a range of basic materials and equipment safely to undertake simple                    HPE, Science,
           production processes, with direction                                                       SOSE, The Arts
DPC KPG2.3 Evaluate, Impact and Communicate
           play with a range of resources and communicate about own discoveries.                      Literacy,
INDICATORS                                                                                            Vocational
Learners demonstrating evidence of Key       Growth Point 2 for example
Investigate [Sci-WS]                         Options, Materials, Skills and       Evaluate, Impact and
• play with materials and use a variety      Techniques                           Communicate
   of skills to discover attributes, eg      [Num-SS] [Num-MDS]                   • describe how familiar objects and
   colours, textures and absorption of       • choose and use materials              products were used, eg ‘ I put the
   finger paint, musical instruments             based on characteristics, eg         red blocks beside the blue ones.’
   made of a variety of materials               specific shapes in pattern            ‘I saw the pencils float.’ ‘This is
• use materials and equipment relating          making activities,                   where I stuck the cotton ball on
   to purpose, eg patty pans for                appropriately sized ball for         the bunny’s tail.’
   muffin mixture, a rolling pin to              throwing and catching             • ask and answer questions about
   roll playdough or clay, bean bags            game, magnet ‘fish’ in                products and processes used in
   and buckets for a perceptual motor           fishing game, fishing line,            activities, eg ‘ What was that
   activity, musical instruments to make        string                               used for?’ ‘How did you use it?’
   sound effects, CD player or cassette      • use selecting and rejecting           ‘Where did you find it?’ ‘What
   player, counters in Number Sense             language when choosing               did you do to make it?’ [Lit-LS]
   activities                                   materials that suit, eg ‘I        • describe the relationship
• explore various materials for the             don’t like that glue.’ ‘I want       between materials, resources or
   sensory experiences they offer, eg           those stars.’                        products and processes, eg ‘I
   grainy play dough, satin fabric and       • select and use basic                  made the robot arms move.’ ‘We
   fake fur, ice cubes and warm water,          equipment and skills safely,         put the batter in the frying pan
   jelly and porridge, vinegar, coffee          eg colour, staple, hammer,           and then we ate it.’ ‘We made a
   and pot pourri                               screw, pour, fold, trace,            fishing net.’
• use familiar resources and tools in           manipulate                        • answer questions to describe and
   unfamiliar ways, eg coloured glue         • express ideas through                 enhance the product or process,
   to create textural effects, finger-           construction of appropriate          eg ‘ How might you make this fly/
   painting with coloured shaving foam,         products, eg special event           swim/crawl/get higher...?’ ‘ Which
   flour and water to make a paste,              cards, creation of props             part will do the most work?’
   recycled materials into a collage            associated with particular           ‘What will happen if...?’
• choose specific products to suit the           characters in texts, class play   • show familiarity and pride in
   task, eg a telephone, kettle or spade        costumes or masks                    work/play environment and
   in given play situations, a picnic with   • generate ideas by talking             assess own work to own
   appropriate food in home corner,             about the design, and the            standards, comments or products
   a bridge made out of construction            design process using own             with peers, family and teacher
   materials                                    and other people’s                   [In 2]
• tinker with gadgets to investigate            experiences to develop ideas      • explain their role in cooperative
   and describe what they are made           • ask questions relating to             technology tasks, eg ‘ I got the
   of and how they go together,                 size, shape, colour and              string and glue.’ ‘I did all the
   eg keyboards, telephones, remote             purpose of materials/                sticking.’ ‘I had a good idea.’
   control toys                                 resources                            [Lit-LS] [LT-P] [Col 3]
• describe how they solved a basic           • construct a simple object or       • share what happened directly
   problem and the difficulties                  product following teacher’s          after construction or production
   encountered, eg materials needed to          instructions, eg hand                was completed, eg ‘ I made a car
   make a mask for a class presentation,        puppet, pop-up card                  out of Lego and I made it go.’
   decisions about size and colours of a     • follow a sequence of                  ‘I painted a picture. I gave it to
   clay pot for a present                       pictures/symbols to complete         mum.’ ‘ I made a house. It fell
• explore local bush materials and              a task, eg button up a               down.’
   discuss what they can be used for            shirt, tie shoelaces, make
        .                                       play dough.

                                                                Technology and Design                   Learning
                                                                      Outcomes and Indicators           Areas
406                 NT Curriculum Framework

                      Designing, Producing and Critiquing
  Links              OUTCOMES
  EsseNTial          Learners demonstrating evidence of Key         Growth Point 3
                     DPC KGP3.1 Investigate
  In 1, Creative
                                explore a wide range of materials, resources, techniques and strategies for the
  Learner, Con 1,
                                possibilities they offer in a design problem
  Con 2
                     DPC KGP3.2 Options - Materials, Skills and Techniques
  Learning Areas:               use a range of familiar materials/processes and equipment safely to undertake
  HPE, Science,                 simple production processes
  SOSE, The Arts
                     DPC KGP3.3 Evaluate, Impact and Communicate
  Perspectives:                 share ideas and express opinions about own ideas and products/processes/
  Literacy,                     systems in familiar environments.
  Vocational         INDICATORS
                     Learners demonstrating evidence of Key         Growth Point 3 for example

 Investigate [Sci-WS]                       Options - Materials, Skills       Evaluate, Impact and Communicate
 • examine, classify and discuss key        and Techniques [Num-MDS]          • consider the implications of own ideas,
    attributes and purposes of both         • classify products according        eg ‘ Would my bird house meet the
    familiar and unfamiliar materials,        to specific criteria such as        needs of the birds in the aviary?’
    tools and resources, eg describe a        purpose, size, preference,      • identify and discuss why specific
    selection of items from a ‘Mystery        movement, suitability              products and processes have been
    Box’                                    • discuss special safety rules,      chosen, eg CD player for CDs, mouse
 • make decisions about which tool/           skills or conditions               pellets to feed the mice, scissors to cut
    technique is needed, eg scissors to       associated with different          paper, ingredients in a recipe, paper
    cut, rolling pin to make play dough       materials or equipment,            mache for a mask
    flat                                       eg scissors, electrical         • express opinions using own criteria, eg
 • use familiar resources and materials       processes and electronic           ‘That one is the biggest.’ ‘This one has
    in unfamiliar ways, eg make slimy         devices, hunting tools,            the most eyes.’ ‘The highest one is over
    playdough, make coloured sand             ceremonial objects,                there.’
    pictures, cord/string painting,           [LT-O]
                                                                              • ask questions and share observations
    vegetable sculptures, old clean socks   • determine, search for and          about products or processes with peers,
    as puppets, ‘junk box ‘ construction      use materials and describe         family and teacher, eg ‘I like the colours
 • share the processes of ‘tinkering’,        the product, process or            on that card.’ ‘I tried to stick the
    eg observing, taking apart, putting       system, eg big box to make         matchsticks on but the glue wasn’t
    back together, trialing new ways          a car, dress ups, boxes, tins      strong enough.’
    of putting the ‘bits’ together with       and play money in the
                                              shop, chairs, a sheet to        • draw a design before making and
    appropriate tools                                                            trial materials to be used, eg check
                                              make a tent
 • comment on how one material                                                   to see that some polyhedron shapes
    would improve the use of another,       • discuss ideas with peers           join together before making a
    eg water added to sand for                and describe the planned           3-dimensional house [LT-R]
    building: ‘If we had water it would       design and production
                                              process                         • predict how products and processes
    be better.’                                                                  could be improved within scope of
 • select suitable resources for specific    • use a variety of                   task, eg ‘Which part will...?’ ‘How
    tasks, eg cardboard instead of            approaches when                    will...?’ ‘How might...?’
    paper in construction, light weight       examining a basic
                                              problem, eg confer and          • describe and reflect on the use
    fabric or paper for kites and                                                of specific materials in producing
    parachutes, pulleys/gears to make a       brainstorm possibilities
                                              with friends, outline and          own ideas, eg ‘I tried to push the
    simple clothes line to dry art work                                          matchsticks on but I needed something
                                              record necessary steps,
 • describe and discuss a construction                                           bigger like paddle pop sticks.’
                                              search for materials, try
    of a familiar environment, eg                                             • reflect on roles of self and others in
                                              again if necessary
    how the layout of wooden blocks                                              cooperative group technology tasks, eg
    represents rooms in their house, a      • attend to verbal and visual
                                              instructions for the               ‘I liked getting the paper and stapler.’
    3D story map of a favourite fairy                                            ‘I asked the teacher to help me stick
    tale [LT-P]                               processes they offer, eg
                                              thread paper strips or wool        the pins in.’ [Col 3]
 • express opinions on innovative
                                              using over and under            • write a simple procedure/ draw the
    approaches, eg ‘I really like how
                                              technique, make a simple           steps involved in making a simple
    the boxes were used in that one...’
                                              sandwich or fruit salad,           familiar product, eg pop corn, ice
                                              follow a roster to look after      blocks
                                              classroom plants                • assess and communicate the degree of
                                                                                 completion of own work, eg ‘I will be
                                                                                 finished this soon.’
 Learning               Technology and Design
    Areas               Outcomes and Indicators
                                                                  NT Curriculum Framework                              407

 Designing, Producing and Critiquing
OUTCOMES                                                                                             Links
Learners demonstrating evidence of Band        1                                                     EsseNTial
DPC 1.1 Investigate
                                                                                                     In 1, Creative
        explore the suitability of a variety of materials, skills and techniques and describe
                                                                                                     Learner, Con 1,
        the design possibilities
                                                                                                     Con 2, Con 3
DPC 1.2 Options - Materials, Skills and Techniques
        use materials, skills and techniques safely, giving reasons for choices, and plan            Learning Areas:
        production processes for making simple products                                              HPE, Science,
                                                                                                     SOSE, The Arts
DPC 1.3 Evaluate, Impact and Communicate
        explain own design processes and describe the features and uses of familiar                  Perspectives:
        products/processes and systems.                                                              Literacy,
INDICATORS                                                                                           Vocational
Learners demonstrating evidence of Band        1 for example                                         Learning

Investigate [Sci-WS]                  Options - Materials, Skills and         Evaluate, Impact and Communicate
• describe special characteristics    Techniques [Num-MDS]                    • examine the successes and failures
   of different objects or systems,   • use familiar materials in different      of designs and production for
   eg paper, balsa wood, clothing        ways, reflecting on and                  future possibilities
   of a firefighter                        discussing the process, eg           • show preferences for some
• investigate and describe how           redesign the classroom, create a        materials and explain why they
   some materials and equipment          new cereal box better suited to         should be used, eg paper cuts, slots
   such as glue, staples, masking        students of this age                    or hinges to join paper and card,
   tape and pins are suitable         • choose and use specific materials,        different materials inside musical
   for joining other materials, eg       processes or systems needed to          shakers
   paper, plastic, cardboard, foam       complete tasks, eg dress ups and     • identify different approaches or
• explore the working                    props, structures, construction or      improvements to products,
   characteristics of materials, eg      craft materials                         processes or systems
   plaiting yarn to make it           • use common tools and shared           • ask questions and share
   stronger                              equipment in the classroom              observations to clarify, describe,
• combine familiar materials and         safely and carefully, eg hole           confirm and plan the design brief,
   test their properties to create       punch, screw driver                     design and production proposals
   new products or processes,         • classify materials and make the       • trial different materials in the
   eg blotting paper prints, self-       links to possible uses of these         development of systems and reflect
   watering plant pot, spring-           materials in work or play [LS]          on effectiveness, eg different sizes,
   based jack-in-the-box,             • work collaboratively with peers          shapes
   packaging for a fragile item          to generate designs and produce      • share assessments of own work
• examine how mechanisms can             them [Col 3]                            based on negotiated criteria, eg
   be used in different ways, eg      • identify similarities and                functionality, ease of completion,
   wheels/axles, joints that allow       differences between familiar            aesthetics
   movement                              systems, eg communication -          • report on the effectiveness of
• investigate and discuss which          letter, email and telephone,            cooperative group strategies and
   materials best fulfil a specific        multimedia stories and books            task processes [Col 3]
   function, eg ‘The big blocks          [LT-P]
   are good at the bottom.’ ‘The                                              • write, draw and share the key
                                      • carry out a short sequence of            steps involved in making a familiar
   bucket is better for carrying         steps to assemble and operate a
   water than the flowerpot.’                                                     product, eg recipe, tie dyeing
                                         system, eg make a greeting card
   [Num-SS]                              with movable internal parts, take    • give reasons why one product is
• take apart an object and use           part in small group assembly line       preferred over another and describe
   parts to create a new object,         production of a simple lunch            the benefits of that product
   eg dismantle a telephone and       • plan and create simple systems,       • recount and record the materials or
   computer keyboard and use             eg a vehicle that moves when            resources necessary to complete a
   the parts in making a robot,          pushed or pulled                        task
   undo packages or boxes and                                                 • label own sketches to show the
   use as a template to make own      • follow own steps in a process to
                                         develop systems, eg make simple         parts of their completed design, eg
   [LT-O]                                                                        a boat, rocket, imaginary tool
                                         spinners, use levers and a fulcrum
• generate options in response           to make a model of a see-saw         • develop sequence maps and plans
   to open-ended design                  or a catapult, a roster system for      for individuals and groups to
   problems, eg device to make           feeding a class pet                     complete a familiar task, eg class
   Tiddalik the Frog laugh                                                       roster for morning news, making a
                                      • collect bush materials to make
• identify materials used in             a traditional item, with support        healthy meal [LT-P].
   making traditional items, eg          from an Indigenous artist       .
   twine, baskets, mats       .

                                                                Technology and Design                  Learning
                                                                     Outcomes and Indicators           Areas
408                  NT Curriculum Framework

                        Designing, Producing and Critiquing
  Links                 OUTCOMES
  EsseNTial             Learners demonstrating evidence of Band       2
  Learnings:            DPC 2.1 Investigate
  Creative                      examine the suitability of key design features of familiar products/processes/
  Learner,                      systems when determining design possibilities
                        DPC 2.2 Options - Materials, Skills and Techniques
                                recognise practical and safety restraints of basic materials, skills and techniques in
  Learning Areas:               an intended product
  HPE, Science,         DPC 2.3 Systems
  SOSE, The Arts                plan and carry out the steps of a production process
  Perspectives:         DPC 2.4 Evaluate and Impact
  Literacy,                     identify a range of criteria to discuss and appraise products/processes/systems in
  Numeracy,                     familiar environments
  Vocational            DPC 2.5 Communicate
  Learning                      explain and share the design process using some technical language.

 Learners demonstrating evidence of Band          2 for example
 Investigate [Sci-WS]                                          Options - Materials, Skills and Techniques
 •    analyse the materials needed in a design                 [Num-MDS]
      proposal, eg to make a stable frame structure,           •   explore characteristics of various materials, and
      simple gear systems                                          make informed decisions about their use, eg paper,
 •    identify key functional and aesthetic features of            timber, plastics, metal, natural materials such as
      technological ideas, techniques and practices                bark, sticks, grasses, seed pods or clay
                                                               •   use familiar complex tools and equipment safely
                                                                   and for their intended purpose, eg computer
 •    explain how mechanisms can be used in
                                                                   peripherals, public address system, screen printing,
      different ways, eg moving joints, construction
                                                                   slicing, dyeing, hammering, cooking [LT-O]
                                                               •   research the best options for design possibilities
 •    alter familiar materials to change the end
                                                                   and limitations, eg select a variety of scented and
      product, eg add chocolate to a basic recipe
                                                                   textured plants to see which is preferred by a
 •    classify according to criteria such as functionality         visually impaired person in a new garden [LT-R]
      or aesthetics, eg furniture, children’s toys,
                                                               •   make things from a range of familiar resources,
      classroom tools
                                                                   using a variety of strategies, tools and, discussing
 •    take apart technology, eg dead mobile phone,                 the design and production process, eg musical
      keyboard, typewriter, adding machine,                        instruments such as clap sticks, didgeridoo, kulup,
      telephone, electrical circuit boards, small motors,          djambu
      solar panels remote control toys [LT-O]
                                                               •   propose individual and group plans to complete a
 •    select a preferred option from research into                 task to specifications [Col 3].
      design brief requirements, and justify the
      approach taken to develop solutions
 •    decide on appropriate strategies when a design
      fails, eg try a different approach, different
      materials, ask a friend for assistance [LT-R]
 •    work collaboratively with Indigenous artists/
      designers to explore traditional technological
      expertise, knowledge and skills      .

 Learning                 Technology and Design
    Areas                 Outcomes and Indicators
                                                                   NT Curriculum Framework                               409

    Designing, Producing and Critiquing
                                                                                                       Learning Areas:
                                                                                                       HPE, Science,
                                                                                                       SOSE, The Arts

Learners demonstrating evidence of Band         2 for example
Systems [Sci-CC]                          Evaluate and Impact [LT-S]                 Communicate [Lit-LS] [Lit-W]
•   investigate the role of systems in    •   ask questions and conduct a survey     •   explain how parts of a design
    everyday life [LT-S]                      to assess the advantages and               or system interconnect and
•   identify familiar production              disadvantages of using a certain           work together, eg a puppet,
    processes in class or home                product, eg a range of different           gear systems
    environment, eg simple                    types of cups for serving drinks at    •   develop design proposals as
    patchwork, meal preparation,              a drink stall                              part of a group and describe
    paper mache, tie dyeing               •   discuss how common objects can             the process
•   identify the energy sources that          be used for a variety of purposes,     •   analyse what has been
    make systems work, eg solar,              dependent on specific safety,               accomplished to see if a new
    electrical, wind                          aesthetics, and functionality              design meets identified needs
•   improve or change systems and                                                    •   select, draw or detail own
    reflect on the consequences, eg        •   share preferences for specific              ideas for familiar events,
    organise a different class system         products, processes or systems, eg         eg decorations/games for a
    of getting student books marked           recycled products versus ‘use only         class party, draw a birds-eye
    by teacher, debate the pros and           once’ products, safety aspects of          view of a bedroom
    cons of a bicycle track in a school       playground equipment                       [Num-SS] [Arts-CrA]
    environment                           •   trial a new system and                 •   use magazine clippings and
•   negotiate and develop design              communicate its effectiveness              pictures to create a visual
    and production proposals                  according to negotiated criteria,          sequence of the stages for
                                              eg controlling traffic flow at the           developing a product and
•   follow a plan or instructions
                                              canteen, rostering playground play         produce a written text to
    to construct a working model,
                                              areas                                      match visuals, eg building
    eg Technic Lego system, rocket,
    paper aeroplane                       •   compare and contrast similarities          a house, shade shelters
                                              and differences between familiar           [Arts-CrA].
•   identify, label and record all
                                              systems, eg letters and emails,
    necessary steps to create a
                                              different remote control toys [LT-P]
    process or system and to fulfil
    design brief, eg moving models        •   evaluate the effectiveness of
    using wheels and axles; the base,         investigative approaches to design
    circuitry and wand of a ‘steady           problems, eg research, questioning
    hand’ game [LT-P].                        techniques, surveying, trial and
                                              error, cooperative strategies [LT-R]
                                          •   make and share simple judgments
                                              about outcomes (results).

                                                                  Technology and Design                  Learning
                                                                       Outcomes and Indicators           Areas
410                   NT Curriculum Framework

                        Designing, Producing and Critiquing
  Links                OUTCOMES
  EsseNTial            Learners demonstrating evidence of Band        3
                       DPC3.1    Investigate
  Creative Learner,
                                 explore design briefs and production proposals for identified users
                       DPC3.2    Options - Materials, Skills and Techniques
                                 make choices based on functional and aesthetic factors and give some consideration
  Learning Areas:                to social/environmental factors to meet design brief requirements
  HPE, Science,
                       DPC3.3    Systems
  SOSE, The Arts
                                 organise and implement a production process to own specifications
  Perspectives:        DPC3.4    Evaluate and Impact
  Literacy,                      describe the relationships and impact of products/processes/systems and the
  Numeracy,                      community/environment
                       DPC3.5    Communicate
                                 explain and share the design process using appropriate technical terminology.

 Learners demonstrating evidence of Band        3 for example
 Investigate [Sci-WS]                                           Options - Materials, Skills and Techniques
 •    analyse possible materials and some of the                [Num-MDS]
      products, processes or systems that might be              •   describe processes and techniques used to
      developed, eg circuit board for a damp detector,              manipulate a range of materials to meet design
      link mechanisms                                               challenges
 •    examine skills and techniques needed to fulfil             •   select more complex materials and tools safely
      design brief requirements                                     to complete a task and meet design brief
 •    identify key functional, aesthetic and social                 requirements, eg build an animal enclosure, glue
      features of technological ideas and practices                 gun, sewing machine, photographic equipment
                                                                •   present the advantages and disadvantages of
                                                                    their design to their peers, eg for a new
 •    explore the potential of materials needed,
      eg a musical instrument that can be tapped
      or plucked to make different tones, eg                    •   select used or recycled materials to meet own or
      wind chimes, tongue drums, traditional musical                other’s design specifications
      instruments                                               •   translate perceived needs into design goals to
 •    combine materials to develop understanding of                 guide own work, eg design and construct models
      simple pneumatics or structures for an identified              of shade systems for plants, ceremonies, develop
      purpose                                                       a solution for packaging astronaut’s food
 •    choose features to be included in a design                •   conduct research in order to generate a design
      proposal and explain the choices, eg use                      brief, eg building architecture, aesthetics and
      information obtained from a class survey to                   safety features before designing a new school
      develop a key ring tag                                        entrance or a new playground area in a remote
 •    use a flexible but persevering approach to
      working with a design brief and a variety                 •   develop simple production plans from design
      of materials and resources, ensuring that                     proposals, eg design shade structures for
      collaborative work can occur at various entry                 students for a school Sports Day, modify a recipe
      points in the process [In 5] [Col 3]                      •   create a single proposal from multiple ideas/
 •    explore past, present and possible future                     possible solutions and explain the choice, eg
      innovations as they pertain to technology [In 6]              use hydraulics in a puppet theatre stage,
                                                                    demonstrating its smooth operation over other
 •    examine how the context of various Indigenous
      communities influences concepts and
      applications of different technologies, eg                •   negotiate role within groups and develop time
      remote community living        .                              management plans in the form of tables or flow
                                                                    charts [Col 3].

 Learning                Technology and Design
    Areas                Outcomes and Indicators
                                                                   NT Curriculum Framework                              411

    Designing, Producing and Critiquing
                                                                                                      Creative Learner,
                                                                                                      Learning Areas:
                                                                                                      HPE, Science,
                                                                                                      SOSE, The Arts

Learners demonstrating evidence of Band         3 for example
Systems [Sci-CC]                         Evaluate and Impact [LT-S]                   Communicate
•   identify the components and the      •   match outcomes (results) with            [Col 1] [Lit-LS] [Lit-W]
    relationships between these in           original intentions and needs in         •   explain how the design and
    range of simple systems                  design proposals, eg develop further         production processes are
•   try out different options when           safety aspects for a skate park,             linked, eg prepare a roster
    examining systems, eg simple             animal enclosure                             for a range of duties for
    electrical circuits in illuminated   •   use a set of criteria based on               members of the design team
    Christmas scenes, different              aesthetics, purpose and task                 [Col 3]
    energy sources                           suitability when considering the         •   produce and present a scale
•   identify and describe the energy         effectiveness of materials, eg               model of a simple familiar
    sources that make systems work,          consider a range of fabrics that             item, eg a bookshelf
    eg solar, electrical, wind               represent furnishings in a model set         [Num-SS]
                                             design, tensile strength of metal        •   draw and label a simple
•   assess the roles of people in the
                                             components                                   diagram or a 3-dimensional
    operation of systems
                                         •   describe the relationships between           image, using appropriate
•   explain the steps in a system
                                             products, processes and systems, eg          symbols to represent an
    they have devised, eg operating
                                             the effect of climate, culture and           actual product, eg the
    school canteen, organisation of a
                                             resources on the designs of different        wiring system of a battery
    car wash, lifting machines using
                                             forms of shelter; the voting system          powered torch, box with
    pulleys and gears, adding in
                                             and class elections                          compartments [Num-SS]
    variations to common recipes
                                         •   describe how products, processes and •       maintain an electronic
•   generate own ideas about
                                             systems could be made better for             journal or folio in which
    systems and communicate this
                                             intended users, eg plan, describe,           completed works, works in
    information, eg bird feeding
                                             trial and assess a healthy menu for          progress and stimulus
    system for a variety of birds,
                                             school lunches                               materials can be stored
    transport and communication of
                                         •   evaluate cooperative group tasks             [LT-P].
    the future.
                                             (developing an equipment list, time
                                             plans and production proposals), eg
                                             setting up a class exhibition [Col 3].

                                                                 Technology and Design                  Learning
                                                                       Outcomes and Indicators          Areas
412                   NT Curriculum Framework

  Links                OUTCOMES
  EsseNTial            Learners demonstrating evidence of Band        4
                       De 4.1    Investigate
  Creative Learner,
                                 examine design briefs to develop production proposals that take into account the
                                 needs of intended users
                       De 4.2    Options
  Learning Areas:                explain the functional, aesthetic, social and environmental factors in design choices.
  HPE, Science,
  SOSE, The Arts

 Learners demonstrating evidence of Band        4 for example
 Investigate [Sci-WS]                                           Options [Num-SM] [Num-CD]
 •    agree on specific criteria to judge the effectiveness      •   generate and justify design ideas including
      of a proposed solution, eg aesthetics, usefulness,            drawings and plans, eg use a selection of
      suitability, ease of production                               3-dimensional annotated sketches to
 •    examine technology processes and consider how                 communicate different designs for a child’s hand-
      applying technology can cause tension in society              held skill game
 •    investigate the implications of alternative options and   •   make modifications to incorporate new ideas and
      identify what is needed to implement a proposal               justify choices, using appropriate criteria, eg fabric
                                                                    and fabric decorations for a pencil case, foods
 •    examine changing lifestyles and work patterns and
                                                                    chosen for an adolescent for a weekend camping
      how these have affected the development of
                                                                    trip, packaging for a family breakfast promotion,
                                                                    the advantages and disadvantages of a range of
 •    design and produce a toy that used cam mechanisms             propagation mixes for growing seedlings
      (shaped and off-centre wheels)
                                                              •     use a variety of criteria to select a design, eg
 •    research, develop and modify a plan to suit own               difficulty of manufacture, impact, balance, colour
      and others’ preferences, eg the design of a spice rack,       and contrast in a clock face
      a range of fabric and fabric decorations or fastenings
                                                              •     generate and develop ideas through the design
      suitable for a pencil case, a range of foods for
                                                                    and production processes
      adolescents, propagation mixes for growing vegetable
      seedlings                                               •     demonstrate understanding that failed solutions
                                                                    can provide useful information for future
 •    display a productive and critical approach to plans and
                                                                    approaches, eg different solutions in developing
                                                                    an alternate energy vehicle or a fun park
 •    explore cooperatively a range of options in the               cable car, appropriate housing in Indigenous
      development of production plans or design briefs,             communities
      eg record breakfast food preferences, investigate
                                                                •   work in groups to develop and follow time
      cooking utensils and methods across different cultures
                                                                    plans, eg prepare muffins, pick, sort and grade
 •    identify and respect the role of others in group              vegetables according to industry standards
      cooperation tasks, and the input (contribution)
                                                                •   develop a folio while working through mini
      that others bring to problem solving, design and
                                                                    design briefs leading into a major project while
      production [Col 3]
                                                                    investigating the concepts of reconciliation and
 •    research ways that Indigenous peoples are utilising           body adornment.
      advanced technologies to retain and strengthen their
      cultures, eg use of CD Rom for cultural storage,
      Tanami Network, remote area distance education

 Learning                 Technology and Design
    Areas                Outcomes and Indicators
                                                                   NT Curriculum Framework                              413

OUTCOMES                                                                                              Links
Learners demonstrating evidence of Band       5                                                       EsseNTial
De 5.1    Investigate
          investigate and analyse how needs, resources and circumstances affect the scope of
          implementation of a design brief
De 5.2    Options                                                                                     Learner
          explore alternatives and justify functional, aesthetic, social and environmental
          design choices                                                                              Learning Areas:
                                                                                                      HPE, Science,
                                                                                                      SOSE, The Arts
Learners demonstrating evidence of Band       5 for example
Investigate [Sci-WS]                                          Options [Num-SM] [Num-CD]
•   appreciate how pervasive technologies are from a          •    investigate a range of options in the
    local and global perspective, eg how materials and             interpretation and expression of design briefs,
    equipment have developed in different cultures and             eg natural, synthetic and blended fabrics with
    over time                                                      relation to their use in textile products; survey
•   analyse the variables and relationships within                 staff members to discover preferred prices,
    intended products/processes/systems, eg genetically            food preferences and portion sizes for a school
    modified foods, impact of TV dinners on family                  based alfresco café
    life, prototypes for alternate systems of power           •    modify and model alternate designs, eg a
    production                                                     device for a person with a disability to turn on
•   investigate and evaluate existing products, processes          a tap
    and systems, eg the design of a community airstrip,       •    advocate and defend the technical, aesthetic
    child-minding options, existing wind turbine models,           and ethical aspects of their design, eg a piece
    fast reaction/computer games                                   of furniture made from recycled materials
•   modify and vary designs as necessary to develop           •    propose and justify solutions that enhance the
    possibilities in response to the design brief, eg, a           finished product, eg a safe and functional
    range of fencing materials suitable for Anglo Nubian           child’s carry seat for an adult’s bicycle, house
    goats, a remote controlled car park barrier                    design models, fencing materials which fit
•   examine the historical development of technologies             specified functional criteria
    from a local and global perspective, eg cameras,          •    analyse and graph the responses from peers
    games                                                          and family members, eg the constraints and
•   draw on ideas from a wide range of sources and                 trade-offs in the production of plantation
    cultures                                                       timbers
•   examine the suitability and appropriateness of            •    develop alternative ideas considering previous
    design proposals, eg use a thermoformer to mould               discussions on criteria, eg different restaurant
    plastic for a desktop tidy, health and safety                  menus
    issues in processing bush food, food preservation         •    analyse the design brief, develop ideas through
    and hygiene implications in freezing and thawing               the design process and make a product, process
    sandwiches, most appropriate decorative samples                or system that meets identified needs
•   use lateral thinking strategies to brainstorm and         •    develop effective strategies for managing
    record useful processes and solutions                          people and resources
•   find examples of situations where Indigenous               •    approach design and production proposals with
    communities and modern technology are consciously              flexibility and perseverance.
    working together for cultural and social
    maintenance, eg Centre For Appropriate Technology
    in Alice Springs.

                                                                  Technology and Design                 Learning
                                                                       Outcomes and Indicators          Areas
414                  NT Curriculum Framework

  Links                 OUTCOMES
  EsseNTial             Learners demonstrating evidence of Beyond         Band 5
                        De 5+.1 Investigate
                                analyse the design brief and investigate the development and promotion of a
                                range of products and processes to maximise opportunities for innovation
                        De 5+.2 Options
                                demonstrate innovation in approach and justify intended design proposals.
  Learning Areas:
  HPE, Science,
  SOSE, The Arts

 Learners demonstrating evidence of Beyond          Band 5 for example
 Investigate [Sci-WS]                                         Options [Num-SM] [Num-CD]
 •    research and record material and equipment              •   give reasons for choosing particular designs, eg
      options and process/product interactions in the             circuitry for an electronic watering device for poultry
      development of design proposals, eg techniques or       •   experiment with models to demonstrate different
      strategies relating to nutrient deficiencies of soil,        methods, eg engineering a bench seat, extruders
      the ‘service component’ of a range of food and
                                                              •   develop own criteria and modify own proposals, eg
      hospitality enterprises
                                                                  change land yacht design in response to availability
 •    modify and vary designs as necessary to develop             of parts, production processes for sweet foods for
      possibilities in response to the design brief, eg the       100 clients/guests, personal logos for wet suits
      application of knock-down fittings in the furniture
                                                              •   identify the needs of users and actively participate in
      industry and how they influence the design
                                                                  design and production processes
      outcome, the variety of commercially available
      poultry water delivery devices in the search for        •   examine a range of experimental techniques to
      an alternative electronically controlled design,            select alternative and imaginative design processes,
      innovative fork lift trucks, interactive tourist            eg when decorating fabric, developing automatic
      information map                                             door systems, self -levelling suspension for a trailer
 •    experiment and create a variety of products to          •   prepare a series of experiments that critically
      be used in the production of larger projects, eg            examine products, processes and systems, eg yarns
      spin wool, weave fabrics, develop components of a           and their use in woven and knitted fabrics, the
      computer program                                            advantages and disadvantages of chemical and
                                                                  organic fertilisers, models of car park barriers,
 •    research and present the key issues involved
                                                                  remote controlled hoists
      in different production processes and develop
      arguments for the most ethically viable options, eg     •   justify choices, eg the advantages and disadvantages
      animal health, nutrition, costs, chemical treatments        of a range of factors in preparing a formal meal
      and additives, housing, feed methods, human and             menu
      animal rights, legislation                              •   search and research ways to improve products,
 •    investigate the implications of new methods for             processes and systems.
      managing information
 •    research traditional Indigenous technologies, eg
      large scale fish traps and weir systems in riverine
      environments in Victoria, techniques for extracting
      toxins from plants to render them edible       .

 Learning                 Technology and Design
    Areas                 Outcomes and Indicators
                                                                NT Curriculum Framework                               415

OUTCOMES                                                                                            Links
Learners demonstrating evidence of Band      4                                                      EsseNTial
Pr 4.1    Materials
                                                                                                    Cr 1, Cr 2,
          select from a defined range of materials, considering properties, aesthetics and
Pr 4.2    Skills and Techniques
          use appropriate equipment and practices to achieve defined standards of quality            Learning Areas:
          and safety                                                                                HPE, Science,
                                                                                                    SOSE, The Arts
Pr 4.3    Systems
          organise, implement and adjust production processes.                                      Perspectives:
INDICATORS                                                                                          Learning
Learners demonstrating evidence of Band      4 for example
Materials [Sci-CC]                   Skills and Techniques                        Systems [Sci-CC]
•   choose appropriate materials to   •   demonstrate a range of safe skills      •   select a particular system to
    complete a task and meet design       to achieve set standards, eg adjust         improve an outcome (result)
    brief requirements, eg a blend of     sewing machine techniques to stop       •   identify patterns and
    sustainable timber with concrete      slippery fabrics from puckering,            relationships in systems
    to create a comfortable and           clamp and cut timber to
                                                                                  •   develop own ideas and
    appealing outdoor bench, a            specifications using appropriate
                                                                                      understandings about
    range of nutritionally balanced       tools, use a dowelling jig to drill
                                                                                      systems, and share this
    and appealing foods for a child’s     holes in timber for edge joining,
                                                                                      information, eg the processes
    birthday party, decorations on a      use a blow moulder to produce
                                                                                      involved in weaving yarn into
    pencil case                           a plastic dome for a ball bearing
                                                                                      fabric, a clamping system for
•   select a range of materials to        game, use a propane torch to
                                                                                      gluing wood for chopping
    work well in combination, eg a        successfully silver solder a twisted
    compost mix suitable for mango        bangle
                                                                               •      use a range of energy sources
    production                       •    practise and develop high standards
                                                                                      to make systems work, eg
•   assess materials and products         of workmanship to industry
                                                                                      solar, electrical, wind
    on a set of criteria, based           standards, eg use a chef’s knife
    on aesthetics, functionality,         safely to cut vegetables to specified •      consider structural,
                                          sizes and shapes, plant native trees        mechanical, electrical, and
    appropriateness, suitability, eg
                                          in industry approved ways                   organisational systems in
    appropriate off-cuts of timber in
                                                                                      different cultures
    a wooden toy, a range of finishes •    vary the technology process phases
    for environmentally friendly sign     when making adjustments to the          •   write own production
    systems in school gardens             design and production proposals,            procedure, eg make a toy
                                          eg examine variables while making           of student’s own design, belt
•   analyse the effectiveness of the
                                          a pin hole camera                           and pulley transmission
    materials used and the product,
                                                                                      systems, chain and sprocket
    process or system created, eg    •    listen to and view instructions and
    take into account warped timber,      interpret into practical action using
    twisting sections and open knots      a range of skills and techniques        •   describe the sequential steps
    when making a chopping board •                                                    necessary when developing
                                          vary the steps used to produce
                                                                                      a useful system, eg explore
•   incorporate found objects to          a part when a new variable is
                                                                                      options for installing
    produce a piece of jewellery          introduced, eg recognise that pre-
                                                                                      software, changing a bicycle
•   use natural materials to plan         drilling is needed on an upright
    and construct manufactures that       when incorporating a front stay on
                                          a spice rack                            •   follow commercial
    were and are used by Indigenous
                                                                                      instructions in examining
    peoples, eg fibres, reeds, sinew •     develop own design and
                                                                                      systems, eg a commercial
    to weave into fabric/string for       production proposals, using skills
                                                                                      pattern to produce a pair of
    nets, mats and baskets      .         and techniques appropriately
                                                                                      boxer shorts, furniture glues
                                     •    trial various methods of producing          and finishes.
                                          desired results, eg change materials
                                          or processes as necessary.

                                                              Technology and Design                    Learning
                                                                    Outcomes and Indicators            Areas
416                  NT Curriculum Framework

  Links                OUTCOMES
  EsseNTial            Learners demonstrating evidence of Band        5
                       Pr 5.1      Materials
  Cr 1, Cr 2,
                                   select appropriate materials with understanding of properties, aesthetics,
                                   economics and sustainability
                       Pr 5.2      Skills and Techniques
  Learning Areas:                  demonstrate high level skills using specialised equipment to produce to specified
  HPE, Science,                    standards of quality and safety
  SOSE, The Arts
                       Pr 5.3      Systems
  Perspectives:                    organise, implement and adjust production processes to defined standards of
  Literacy,                        quality.

 Learners demonstrating evidence of Band         5 for example
 Materials [Sci-CC]                Skills and Techniques                                 Systems [Sci-CC]
 •    test a particular material   •   practise and develop a repertoire of good         •   organise, implement and
      based on efficiency of            skills and techniques that allow for high             report on a system to
      production and justify its       quality work, eg a blouse with collar and             satisfy design brief
      choice, eg appropriate           buttons sized to fit client, a wooden container        requirements, eg
      mulch material for               to specified size using through dovetail joints,       drenching program for
      landscaping projects             pruning to industry best practice                     goats and follow up
 •    specify desired materials    •   use equipment suited to the task and to a             monitoring procedure of
      to complete task, eg             high standard of safety and workmanship,              their health status,
      specify each part of a           eg specialised drill, rivet and weld techniques       computer controlled toy
      watering device that is          to construct aluminium can crusher parts,         •   examine the effectiveness
      reliable, efficient and           garnishing tools to create complex garnishes          of common systems, and
      portable                         for main meals, scissors or rotary cutters            develop understandings to
 •    assess materials and         •   manufacture a product using a range of                share with other learners,
      products to a negotiated         techniques to meet a timeline and to                  eg accurately control and
      set of criteria, based on        negotiated standards, eg a sliding door               sequence the movements
      aesthetics, functionality,                                                             of a robotic arm, develop
                                   •   consider how systems affect the management
      appropriateness and                                                                    skills in ‘mise en place’
                                       processes at a local and global level
      suitability, eg discard                                                                (preparation) to produce
                                   •   devise and implement a production process             meals, tie dye a quantity
      knotty timber, ‘sun smart’
                                       for a mass produced piece of furniture with a         of t-shirts
      protective garment
                                       design team
      fabrics, fast food                                                                 •   modify a production
      products                     •   assess the group negotiated tasks to own              process as necessary, eg
                                       criteria, eg working relationships, group             prolong the shelf life of
 •    analyse the effectiveness
                                       productivity [Col 3]                                  food without the use of
      of materials used in
      products, processes and      •   read, understand and follow ‘do-it-yourself’          chemical additives, change
      systems, eg give reasons         books, eg make a coffee table, a child’s              an energy source to a
      for selecting a particular       garment, a soft toy or tactile art, switching         more appropriate one for
      construction material for        circuits                                              the technology
      a collapsible barbecue       •   vary the problem-solving techniques used to       •   identify and justify the
      stand, select timber for         suit the contents of the design brief, eg             steps essential to effective
      a coffee table based on          use appropriate tools and equipment to suit           systems.
      its workability, looks and       technology in design brief
      origins.                     •   define the roles and contributions each
                                       member of a team has made in the
                                       production of a product or system.

 Learning                 Technology and Design
    Areas                 Outcomes and Indicators
                                                                NT Curriculum Framework                              417

OUTCOMES                                                                                          Links
Learners demonstrating evidence of Beyond       Band 5                                            EsseNTial
Pr 5+.1   Materials
                                                                                                  Cr 1, Cr 2,
          explain properties and structure of materials in terms of function, aesthetics,
          economics and environment
Pr 5+.2   Skills and Techniques
          use specialised skills and modify techniques and apparatus to achieve specified          Learning Areas:
          functional and aesthetic outcomes                                                       HPE, Science,
                                                                                                  SOSE, The Arts
Pr 5+.3   Systems
          modify techniques to assemble and control complex systems to meet performance           Perspectives:
          requirements                                                                            Literacy,
INDICATORS                                                                                        Vocational
Learners demonstrating evidence of Beyond       Band 5 for example                                Learning

Materials [Sci-CC]                     Skills and Techniques                  Systems [Sci-CC]
•   examine and explore the            •   use equipment and tools safely     •   use results of data to modify or
    properties of various materials,       and to industry standards, eg          improve processes or systems,
    assessing their potential uses         produce a dovetail cutting jig         eg the performance of gears,
    and operations, eg packing,            for use on a table saw                 brakes and propulsion systems
    materials, storage and transport   •   use equipment to manipulate            of a human powered vehicle,
    requirements to meet export            materials to design                    streamline the cleaning system
    specifications for rambutans            specifications                          in a food and beverage service,
•   specify preferred materials in                                                fine tune the reactive times of
                                       •   use specialist skills and
    processes, products and systems                                               an automatic verandah light
                                           developed technique
    created, eg a comparative table        effectively, eg pre-harvest,       •   prepare a report giving
    of evening dress fabrics, open         harvest and post harvest               specifications and justifying
    loop or closed loop control            mangoes, use a scripting               choices made, eg a low-voltage
    systems                                language to produce a sub-             light system activated by
•   devise specific equipment for           routine in a database                  opening a cupboard door
    working with materials             •   produce products and systems       •   devise and develop an effective
•   experiment with the use,               to detailed specifications and to       production process or system,
    amalgamation and fusion of             high standards of workmanship          eg sustainable agriculture in
    various materials, eg jewellery                                               the NT that meets organic
                                       •   analyse the process of
                                                                                  certification criteria
•   report on the suitability of           developing design briefs and
    materials used, eg lettuce             proposals, and share this          •   experiment with and trial
    varieties for a new salad, using       information with others                systems to produce or create
    texture, taste, aesthetics,                                                   alternatives, eg original film
                                       •   manage people, resources and
    availability and crispness;                                                   and editing techniques, self-
                                           equipment to facilitate the
    strength of knock-down fittings                                                balancing crane
                                           desired results
    for a piece of furniture                                                  •   explore alternative energy
                                       •   develop own materials,
•   use a variety of materials to                                                 sources and debate the
                                           resources or processes as
    create an innovative, original                                                advantages and disadvantages
                                           necessary to assist production
    or functional product explaining       processes, eg two jigs to test     •   analyse the control of systems
    and justifying the various             for the most efficient drilling         in particular environments
    materials used.                        procedure in production of a       •   explain and implement a
                                           sideboard.                             process or system aimed at
                                                                                  creating a new product or
                                                                                  solution to an existing
                                                                                  challenge, eg recycling project

                                                              Technology and Design                 Learning
                                                                    Outcomes and Indicators         Areas
418                   NT Curriculum Framework

  Links                 OUTCOMES
  EsseNTial             Learners demonstrating evidence of Band      4
                        Cr 4.1   Evaluate
  In 1, Cr 1, Cr 2,
                                 reflect on and assess products/processes/systems according to specified design
                        Cr 4.2   Impact
  Learning Areas:                consider the appropriateness and effects of products and systems on community/
  HPE, Science,                  environment
  SOSE, The Arts
                        Cr 4.3   Communicate
  Perspectives:                  explain and present design proposals incorporating appropriate technical
  Literacy,                      terminology.

 Learners demonstrating evidence of Band        4 for example
 Evaluate [Sci-WS]                        Impact [LT-S]                                     Communicate
 •    contemplate alternate approaches •      assess ethical and environmental aspects      [Lit-LS] [Lit-W] [LT-P]
      when a first approach doesn’t            of an intended or real product or system,   •     track the links
      quite work out, eg Technic Lego,        eg explain why a variety of milk products         between variables
      electronic circuitry, software          have evolved from variables such as profit,        and interactions in
      applications, design problems           health, taste and choice; the environmental       the development of
 •    consider the similarities and           impact of pre-harvest chemical applications       products or systems,
      differences in products, processes      for mangoes, rambutans and bananas                eg write up a simple
      and systems and evaluate            •   report on the relationship between                control program for
      according to criteria, eg               variables, eg healthy foods and healthy           the remote operation
      plantation timber or imported           living based on an interview between              of an electric motor,
      hardwood for spice holders,             family and friends discussing what they eat       produce a poster
      labelling and packaging of biscuits     and healthy living                                showing design
                                                                                                elements of a pencil
 •    examine products/                   •   weigh up the advantages and
      processes/systems in terms of           disadvantages of competing design
      function, performance, quality          proposals, eg digital sound recording and     •   share with teacher
      and safety, eg ball bearing game,       its associated CD label, home made or             and peers the
      production of child’s garment,          commercial food preparation for large             processes used and
      drenching/pasture management            functions, hand-made or commercially              record the process,
      program on goat health                  produced utensils in food preparation             eg to construct a
                                                                                                child’s toy, to grow
 •    measure the performance of          •   justify choices made in group decision-
                                                                                                vegetables using a
      systems, using own devised              making, and link these choices to the end
                                                                                                range of treatments
      methods and standards                   products or systems produced [In 3]
                                                                                                such as mulch or
 •    reflect on design brief              •   consider the reasons for using particular         naked soil
      requirements using self/peer/           systems in certain situations
                                                                                            •   create and maintain
      teacher comments, eg prepare        •   research, consider and communicate                a folio to record
      and make a pizza                        consequences, eg posters, media releases          analysis, progress and
 •    use information from journal            and web page production about rainforest          process, eg
      (self/teacher comments), eg             logging, tap designs for people with              multimedia, graphics,
      suggest changes to pencil case          impairment of the hands                           text.
      construction                        •   communicate with agencies operating
 •    reconsider own design ideas after       networks that include remote Indigenous
      feedback and constructive               communities and fringe housing projects
      criticism.                              and determine if there are specific needs or
                                              strategies that must be put in place   .

 Learning                 Technology and Design
    Areas                Outcomes and Indicators
                                                                    NT Curriculum Framework                                419

OUTCOMES                                                                                                Links
Learners demonstrating evidence of Band           5                                                     EsseNTial
Cr 5.1     Evaluate                                                                                     In 1, Cr 1,
           analyse, assess and modify, if necessary, the products/processes/systems involved in         Cr 2,
           design and production from inception to completion                                           Constructive
Cr 5.2     Impact                                                                                       Learner
           report on the use of products/processes/systems and the impact on the community/             Learning Areas:
           environment                                                                                  HPE, Science,
Cr 5.3     Communicate                                                                                  SOSE, The Arts
           present own design proposal requiring technical competence of skills and                     Perspectives:
           adopting technical terminology to show creation and development of ideas.                    Literacy,
INDICATORS                                                                                              Vocational
Learners demonstrating evidence of Band           5 for example
Evaluate [Sci-WS]                 Impact [LT-S]                                        Communicate
•   develop own criteria and •        collect, analyse and present sequentially        [Lit-LS] [Lit-W] [LT-P]
    use these effectively when        organised data in the development of             •   plan and record the design
    assessing own products,           a working process or system, eg the                  process from inception to
    processes and systems, eg         performance of gears, brakes and                     conclusion, sharing pertinent
    quality of own                    propulsion systems of a human powered                aspects with others
    constructed garment, new          vehicle; improvements in the layout and          •   prepare detailed, researched
    cake recipe                       design of a local newspaper or newsletter            design proposals for a range
•   record and use a range            [Num-CD]                                             of products, eg a toy for
    of criteria to evaluate, eg   •   modify designs following assessments of              a young child, a futuristic
    art displays, health/safety       performance                                          apparatus, a logo for a club,
    issues when constructing    •     analyse the advantages and disadvantages             water pollution indicator,
•   assess the effectiveness of       of using specific products, processes or              touch sensitive switch,
    operations in the                 systems, eg timber preserved with arsenic            electronic game
    production cycle, eg              salts                                            •   use a folio to document
    harvesting quality          •     explain values within industries, eg clothing,       the design process, eg a
    mangoes                           music and recording, food handling/                  special purpose building or
•   analyse how needs,                preparation/delivery                                 home with plan and sections,
    resources and                                                                          specifications and plans for a
                                  •   compare and contrast the differences
    circumstances affect the                                                               goat fence, plan and construct
                                      in technological systems and the
    development and use of                                                                 a garment for own use
                                      consequences, eg furniture production in
    technologies                      Indonesia compared with an Australian            •   orally present service
•   examine and explain               company                                              requirements using industry
    possible solutions to                                                                  standards, eg food and
                               •      analyse information gathered and report
    problems or flaws in                                                                    hospitality project
                                      against specific criteria, eg gender, safety
    design, eg explain how            and child development issues in the creation •       prepare a set of graphics
    friction can be minimised         of a toy library, the environmental impacts          (exploded isometric/
    in the gearing system of a        of mimosa in the Top End                             orthogonal drawings), eg
    vehicle                                                                                drawings for a coffee table
                               •      re-appraise original needs, opportunities
•   consider own approach to                                                               [Num-SM]
                                      and options
    design briefs, and analyse                                                         •   in collaboration with
                               •      reflect on the effects of a new technology
    the effectiveness in terms                                                             Indigenous people, prepare
                                      on society, eg ‘fad’ toys, fashion
    of value for time spent,                                                               a design brief for an
                                      innovations, communication
    necessity for research and                                                             appropriate living space for
    investigative strategies,  •      examine the personal, local and global               an extended family, taking
    reflection time and                impacts of ideas and innovations                     into account kinship
    production time            •      examine the social and cultural forces               relationships     .
•   compare own work with             that made colonial Australia reluctant to
    that done by others, and          recognise, accept or adopt Indigenous
    work produced                     technologies      .
    commercially [In 2].

                                                                  Technology and Design                    Learning
                                                                        Outcomes and Indicators            Areas
420                   NT Curriculum Framework

  Links                OUTCOMES
  EsseNTial            Learners demonstrating evidence of Beyond          Band 5
  Learnings:           Cr 5+.1    Evaluate
  In 1, Cr 1, Cr 2,               critically evaluate the effectiveness of techniques, resources and processes used to
  Constructive                    design and produce intended product or system
                       Cr 5+.2    Impact
  Learning Areas:                 analyse and report on the short and long term consequences of a product or
  HPE, Science,                   process on particular environments and cultures
  SOSE, The Arts       Cr 5+.3    Communicate
  Perspectives:                   create and present detailed design and production proposals in technical and non-
  Literacy,                       technical forms, appropriate to audience.

 Learners demonstrating evidence of Beyond           Band 5 for example
 Evaluate [Sci-WS]                      Impact [LT-S]                                    Communicate
 •    deal with constraints and      •      redesign techniques and procedures           [Lit-LS] [Lit-W] [LT-P]
      difficulties in a pragmatic and        based on knowledge gained from               •   examine and analyse the
      realistic way                         experience                                       links and relationships
 •    assess production proposals/      •   assess and compare work done by self,            between technology and
      implementation and develop            others or produced commercially                  the community or
      strategies to improve                                                                  environment, eg
                                        •   research and investigate how production
      techniques, eg decorated                                                               multi-national companies
                                            and manufacture affects the
      evening garment                                                                        promoting baby and toddler
                                            environment, eg the effects of logging
                                                                                             foods in third world
 •    analyse consumer trends and           on the traditional life style of Papua New
      their impact on production,           Guinea tribal communities
      eg examine the impact of                                                           •   present a comprehensive
                                        •   investigate the impact of developing
      preferences on the furniture                                                           report on a design and
                                            a commercial enterprise in remote
      industry, marketing                                                                    production proposal, eg
                                            communities, eg eco-tourism, bush
      techniques in the fast food                                                            marketing a new food
                                            tucker harvesting and export
      industry when developing a                                                             aimed at adolescents, an
                                            [SOSE- Env]
      school based fast food                                                                 environmental impact study
                                        •   evaluate the efficiency and impact                on stormwater run-off and
      enterprise, dispensing
                                            of short/long term production                    pollution
                                            modifications, assess best alternatives
 •    critically analyse production                                                      •   explain a design through
                                    •       analyse the impact of advertising and            graphics, PowerPoint,
      processes/techniques of a new
                                            publicity on production, eg market               storyboard or real products,
      commercial product, eg noni
                                            forces of supply and demand on the               eg surfboard design project
                                            manufacture of fast foods, convenience           and relevant processes/
 •    provide a critical analysis           foods on the health status of adolescents        procedures, range of
      and develop a report on
                                        •   analyse and assess the impact of                 sophisticated garnishing
      the suitability of products,
                                            community and social needs on the                techniques for a catering
      processes and systems, eg
                                            development and design of technologies,          function
      medium density fibre board
                                            eg vandal proof materials in the        •        prepare a multi-media
      kitchens in the Top End
                                            construction of public venues                    presentation or report, eg
                                        •   investigate the effects of technological         the viability, suitability,
 •    develop a realistic attitude to       changes on production and use of                 costing and environmental
      the development of design             materials in various industries, eg              effects of their choice of
      brief solutions, eg research          electronics, robotics                            possible fertilisers for an
      and investigation strategies,                                                          organic garden plot         .
                                        •   examine the social consequences of
      design and production times,
                                            the introduction of Western technology
      realistic reflection.
                                            and its distribution on Indigenous
                                            communities over the past 200 years    .

 Learning                 Technology and Design
    Areas                 Outcomes and Indicators

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