Slide 1 - Alison Carstens by gyvwpsjkko

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									A Carstens
         Educational Psychologist




                           PEACE EDUCATION

        The Montessori approach to the conflict within the
                         classroom ….
               …. and the war within the world

   A Carstens
 A Carstens
          Educational Psychologist




Maria Montessori insisted that if humanity wished to succeed in establishing solid
foundations for world peace, it had to focus on the prevention of war. She believed that
helping the young child develop into a healthy adult was crucial to this endeavor.



 “When children are accustomed, from earliest childhood onwards, to considering those
   who surround them as a source of help to explore the world, they are not tempted to
 adopt a wary or hostile attitude towards men who belong to different races or religions.
  At a later date, children raised according to these principles will be of great help in the
                           construction of a peaceful society...” MM
    A Carstens
A Carstens
         Educational Psychologist




          Applying Peace Education in our endeavor to bring an end to bullying


                             Maria maintained that if families and
                              communities did not become more
                                  understanding of the child’s
                            developmental needs, then the goals of
                            helping humanity develop its potential
                                    would not be reached.


   A Carstens
A Carstens
         Educational Psychologist




                Common, clearly understood definitions of bullying, are the
                cornerstone of any successful program.

                The following is an example of a definition (each phase, i.e. 3-6, 6-
                9, 9-12 class should be helped to create an age appropriate
                definition)


                To harass someone is to bother, make fun of,
                trouble or attack them, and this is done
                repeatedly. Someone who harasses wants to hurt
   A Carstens
                the other person (it’s not an accident), and does or
                says the same things over and over again.
A Carstens
         Educational Psychologist




                                  Definitions and consequences of
                                engaging in these problem behaviours
                                 should be posted in common areas
                                   and classrooms and reviewed
                                              regularly.

                                    learners must be engaged in this
                                               process.

   A Carstens
A Carstens
         Educational Psychologist




                     Discuss the four main types of bullying with your children:



                                         PHYSICAL

                                           VERBAL

                                           SOCIAL

                                       ELECTRONIC
   A Carstens
A Carstens
         Educational Psychologist




                Physical:

                • hitting, shoving, kicking, spitting on, beating up on others
                • damaging or stealing another person’s property

                Verbal:

                • name-calling, mocking, hurtful teasing
                • humiliating or threatening someone
                • making people do things they don’t want to do

   A Carstens
A Carstens
         Educational Psychologist




           Social:

           • excluding others from the group
           • spreading gossip or rumors about others
           • making others look foolish
           • making sure others do not spend time with a certain person

           Electronic:
           using computer, e-mail, phone or cellular phone text messages to:

            • threaten or hurt someone’s feelings
            • single out, embarrass or make someone look bad
            •
   A Carstens spread rumors or reveal secrets about someone
A Carstens
         Educational Psychologist




                                    What Works?
                                    What Doesn’t?




   A Carstens
A Carstens
         Educational Psychologist




                           What Works?

                           *Strong teacher/adult leadership, learner-
                            teacher bonding,
                           *Clear, consistent and fair behavioural
                            norms,
                           *Ongoing teacher training,
                           *Effective supervision and playground
                            design and
                           *Parent training.
   A Carstens
A Carstens
         Educational Psychologist




     What Doesn’t Work?

     *Inflexible zero tolerance policies which don’t consider intensity,
     longevity, context

     *Suspension/expulsion of learners without school re-entry plan or
     daytime structure (academic support and counseling). In-school
     suspensions are best way to ensure participation in academic,
     therapeutic programming. This strategy requires additional school
     resources …

   A Carstens
A Carstens
         Educational Psychologist




            …continued

            *Segregation of learners with emotional/behavioural difficulties,

            *Sports, arts, or recreational activities that exclude those who
            want to participate.




   A Carstens
 A Carstens
          Educational Psychologist




                  Working with children to achieve an anti-bullying climate…

"Averting war is the work of politicians; establishing peace is the work of education." MM




    A Carstens
 A Carstens
          Educational Psychologist




Behavioural management

Using positive (rewarding or reinforcing to learner) and negative (unpleasant or
undesirable to learner) consequences to shape a learner’s behaviour. Positive
consequences increase the likelihood that a given behaviour will reoccur and negative
consequences decrease the likelihood that a given behaviour will reoccur. In the end, a
learner’s own perception determines whether a consequence is rewarding or
unpleasant. Consequences must be immediate, fair, consistent, and individualized (zero
tolerance policies do not meet the last three criteria).

    A Carstens
 A Carstens
          Educational Psychologist




Modeling

Changing the behaviour and social interactions a learner witnesses. Learners are most
likely to copy and learn from peer and adult models who are respected, have status, are
perceived as realistic and natural, and are rewarded for their behaviour. For example,
teachers can provide powerful messages to bystanders in a bullying incident by
intervening in an authoritative and calm manner to support the victim and deal with the
bully. Learners can use similar strategies by refusing to be a bystander, intervening
safely, and getting help from an adult.

**It should be noted that when adults and peers fail to intervene when learners are
harmed, or intervene inconsistently, they are also conveying strong messages
supporting anti-social behaviour.
      A Carstens
 A Carstens
          Educational Psychologist




Social problem solving

Adults and peers can use proven strategies to help high-risk learners think about how to
see situations in constructive ways: stop to think about a problem and solve it in practical
steps, generate options to process the benefits and drawbacks of the options, and
develop pro-social values (e.g., consideration for the needs and rights of others).

Learners who are frequently involved in victimization and/or aggression often have faulty
methods of problem solving. CB strategies can teach them how to identify the problem,
assertively communicate the problem, generate solutions, evaluate possible solutions
and select one, take action on the chosen solution, and evaluate the outcome.
    A Carstens
A Carstens
         Educational Psychologist




                School Environment Matters…




   A Carstens
 A Carstens
          Educational Psychologist




Anti-bullying and harassment programs that are nested within a positive school
environment (characterized by emotionally supportive peer-peer, staff-learner
relations, and staff-staff relations) have better outcomes.

School culture has been defined as the set of beliefs and norms shared by learners and
staff. There is variation in the extent to which adults and young people identify with the
school and accept school values. For example, young children are more likely than
adolescents to accept a teacher’s authority and learner codes of conduct. Adolescents,
especially those who are frequently involved in anti-social behaviour, are likely to oppose
school values and teacher authority. An important element of school culture is school
membership (learner perceptions about acceptance and belonging at school).
    A Carstens
A Carstens
         Educational Psychologist




                           WHAT CAN BE DONE TO REDUCE
                           BULLYING IN SCHOOL:

            Montessori recognized children as the redeeming factor in the
            evolution of humankind. In order to bring about a world of
            peace and tolerance, where war is an absurdity, it is important
            to focus and teach peace early. Having a peace curriculum in
            your Montessori classroom is a sure way to prepare your
            children to be peace-seekers.

                “…we must gather together all the elements of the world and
                      organize them into a science of peace.” MM
   A Carstens
A Carstens
         Educational Psychologist




                                    Montessori Methods include…




   A Carstens
A Carstens
         Educational Psychologist




                                    3-6 (Preschool) Phase…


                                The Global View
                                Introduction to the world
                                Land and water forms
                                Globes
                                World maps
                                Plants of the world
                                Animals of the world
                                Peoples of the world
                                Fundamental needs of humans
   A Carstens                   Global comparisons
A Carstens
         Educational Psychologist




                                    ElementaryPhase…

            The Cosmic View           The evolution of consciousness and love
            Physics experiments       Cosmic tale
            Impressionistic Charts    Clock of eras
            Timeline of life          Evolution of interdependence of life
            Unconscious contribution Caring
            Timeline of early humans Reflective thought
            Creative imagination      Conscious choice
            Altruism                  Timeline of BC and AD
            Timeline of civilizations
            Progress of human need fulfillment
   A Carstens
A Carstens
         Educational Psychologist




                                    Secondary Phase…


                               The Social View
                               History timeline
                               Timeline of great peacemakers
                               Global economics and politics
                               Social responsibility
                               Conscious choice to act
                               Responsibility as co-creators


   A Carstens
A Carstens
         Educational Psychologist




                                    Other methods include…




   A Carstens
A Carstens
         Educational Psychologist




                           Increase the commitment and
                           leadership of the principal to reduce
                           school violence, bullying and
                           harassment.

                           Without the principal’s investment and
                           leadership, it is unlikely that any
                           school intervention will work and be
                           sustained.

   A Carstens
A Carstens
         Educational Psychologist




                           Conduct a Needs Assessment
                           A recognition that no one intervention
                           program fits all school needs and
                           resources is an important beginning step.

                           Schools differ and bullying and
                           harassment vary across schools and grade
                           levels. It is critical to conduct a Needs
                           Assessment and ongoing assessment
                           for bullying.
   A Carstens
A Carstens
         Educational Psychologist




                           Improve the schools climate and sense
                           of school belongingness for all
                           learners.

                           There is a need to first assess your
                           School’s Climate and discover
                           ways to improve the School Climate and
                           learner connectedness.


   A Carstens
A Carstens
         Educational Psychologist




                  Increase teachers’ awareness, commitment and
                  ability to intervene as well as integrate any
                  intervention program into the curriculum and
                  school routines.

                  Bullying unfolds in a relationship characterized by a power
                  imbalance that
                  makes it increasingly difficult for victimized learners to end the
                  bullying on
                  their own. Adults have to play an essential role in protecting
                  victimized children
                  and reducing bullying.

                  That teachers buy into the intervention program is
   A Carstens
                  critical.
A Carstens
         Educational Psychologist




                Implement and evaluate school-wide intervention programs that
                are
                evidence-based.

                Conduct a careful review of what has been found to work and what
                programs do not work. Implement proven programs that assess
                outcomes on a regular basis.

                Anticipate possible barriers that will undermine and interfere with
                the success of the program; have a plan on how to anticipate
                and address these potential obstacles.

   A Carstens
A Carstens
         Educational Psychologist




                    It is not sufficient to work with individual children.

                   Solutions to bullying need to be both systemic
                                and evidence-based.




   A Carstens
A Carstens
         Educational Psychologist




                           Establish a follow-up intervention with
                           “high-risk” learners who do not
                           improve with the school-wide and
                           classroom-based interventions.
                           Quite simply, some learners will require
                           further interventions.




   A Carstens
A Carstens
         Educational Psychologist




         Efforts to bully-proof schools need to include bystander intervention
         programs that nurture learner leadership and involvement.

         Peers can play a critical role in supporting bullying and promoting a culture of
         aggression. But when peers intervene to come to the assistance of victims, they
         can be equally effective in stopping bullying. Whether it is in the form of bystander
         intervention programs, a peer-warning system or a peer-mediation program

                                    Learners’ participation is critical.



   A Carstens
A Carstens
         Educational Psychologist




                            Involve parents from the outset and
                            provide ongoing training and feedback.

                            A school-parent partnership is the “glue”
                            that makes bullying programs work
                            and helps to improve the learners’
                            academic performance. The principal
                            needs to take the leadership role in making
                            parent participation a high priority for her
                            school.


   A Carstens
A Carstens
         Educational Psychologist




                           Improve school safety by addressing
                           the presence of gangs.

                           The best-intentioned programs can be
                           compromised by the presence of gangs
                           and peer pressure. There is a need to
                           systematically assess for the presence of
                           gang influences at school.



   A Carstens
A Carstens
         Educational Psychologist




Develop school-community partnerships that are designed to reduce school
violence and bullying.

                               “It takes a village to raise a child”

this is most important when addressing bullying and harassment. Whether the
member of the wider community is the School Superintendent, a member of the
media or newspaper reporter who writes stories about school violence and
bullying, there are a number of ways for the community to join with schools to
reduce bullying.


   A Carstens
 A Carstens
          Educational Psychologist




                 Time and patience….


Anti-bullying interventions are not one-time initiatives. Instead, evidence-based
interventions are ongoing, and changes in bully/victim problems often are not
evident until well into the second year of implementation. For example, it is not
uncommon for there to be increased reporting of bullying by learners over the
short term. This is most likely the result of efforts to increase awareness and
sensitivity within schools



    A Carstens
 A Carstens
          Educational Psychologist




             In conclusion…
Without explicit and intentional moral and spiritual education, Montessori believed,
mankind would inevitably revert to its habit of war. Values such as global citizenship,
personal responsibility, and respect for diversity, she argued, must be both an implicit
and explicit part of every child’s (and adult’s) education. These values in Montessori
education are every bit as crucial as the subjects of math, language or science. Maria
Montessori wrote in Education and Peace:

“Peace is a goal that can only be attained through common accord, and the means to achieve this
   unity for peace are twofold: first, an immediate effort to resolve conflicts without recourse to
  violence—in other words, to prevent war—and second, a long-term effort to establish a lasting
                         peace among men” (Montessori, 1949, p. 27).

    A Carstens
   A Carstens
            Educational Psychologist




                                                              List of resources
Teaching peace: a dialogue on the Montessori method. Journal of Peace Education, 3(1), 39-53. Duckworth, C. (2006).

EDUCATION FOR PEACE: CONTENT, FORM, AND STRUCTURE, MOBILIZING YOUTH FOR CIVIC ENGAGEMENT. Kevin Kester
Northwestern University, Civic Education Project Woosong University, Department of English Language Communication

Assessment Toolkit for Bullying, Harassment and Peer Relations at School. Dr. Mark Totten, Research Consultant. CPHA Project Team: Perpetua
Quigley, Project Coordinator Melinda Morgan, Research Assistant. Canadian Public Health Association, September 2004.

www.anti-bullyingalliance.org.uk

www.centerforcooperativeprinciples.org




        A Carstens
A Carstens
         Educational Psychologist




                   “…we must gather
                   together all the
                   elements of the world
                   and organize them
                   into a science of
                   peace.” MM




   A Carstens
A Carstens
         Educational Psychologist




   A Carstens

								
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