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Planning the PDA by Fiona Cregan EPD Teacher 2005 - 2007 Tuesday 16th October 2007 Moving from Induction to EPD • The Induction programme is designed to introduce the beginning teacher to the breadth of school life. • The Action Plan is used to highlight a broad area for development. Example: SEN, providing appropriate support • The teacher-tutor gives the beginning teacher a lot of direction. The aim of EPD EPD should: • Support the teacher and remain manageable. • Focus on the specific professional development needs of the individual teacher within the context of her/his school. • Allow the beginning teacher to demonstrate greater self-direction and to select a focus that is of personal interest. Guidelines for the PDA • The PDA should be meaningful, useful and beneficial to teaching and learning. • It should have a narrower focus than the Induction Action Plan. • It should bear reflection on previous practice, inc. issues raised in the summative report on induction. • You should plan a focus that will enhance pupil learning. • You should highlight a purpose that is of personal interest and professional use. Phase PDA Topic Focus of PDA Outline Purpose of PDA Background Information Focus of PDA What you expect your pupil(s) to achieve as a result of your teaching: Purpose of PDA How do you expect to develop as a teacher, as a result of reflecting on your own practice? Establishing the Focus • Establish the focus: Focus of PDA What you expect your pupil(s) to achieve as a result of your teaching: This is an important process. Take time to establish a focus that you are comfortable with and that you think is worthwhile. Start by asking questions... • Which class could benefit from focused work? • What issues could you seek to address? • What skills, competences and attitudes might students need to develop? • How can I promote students‟ involvement in their own learning? Class, Pupil(s) or Group(s) of Pupils For the PDA, you will be asked to: Make a factual note of the pupil(s) or group(s) of pupils within the class(es) with whom you intend to carry out this PDA. For the purpose of Data Protection, do not identify individuals by name. Selecting a target group Which class could benefit from focused work? Example: An exam class – A-level? GCSE? KS3? SEN students? Your form class? • Be realistic! • Choose a class that you have a good relationship with, or students who are challenging but who you have been able to work well with. • Remember: You will be observed teaching them. What issues could you seek to address? • Poor student motivation, for example, following KS3 examinations towards the end of Year 10. • Lack of awareness about KS3, GCSE, AS/A2 examination requirements, mark scheme etc. • Students‟ poor understanding of or lack of interest in a specific module. • Poor social skills, lack of experience of working in a small group. • Poor oral language skills, few opportunities for oral presentation. • Low self-esteem, self-confidence. My Chosen Focus and Target Group Following this reflective process...I decided to tailor my PDA: • to the needs of my Year 10 students‟ in the last term of Year 10, at the end of the KS3 curriculum in order to facilitate the development of: • Their Thinking Skills and Personal Capabilities: - Managing information, Decision-making, Problem- solving and Being Creative - Self-Management skills: abilities to “evaluate strengths and weaknesses, set goals and targets, manage and regulate self” - Working with Others Defining the Focus of my PDA My objectives were to: • Promote my students‟ motivation for learning and positive behaviour following the KS3 examinations • Develop oral language skills, facilitating transition from KS3 to KS4 GCSE Speaking and Listening requirements • Develop extended writing skills • Promote my students‟ involvement in their own learning – self-assessment and peer-assessment; evaluation of active Learning strategies, suggesting improvements • Foster my students‟ social competence, emotional intelligence, self-esteem and self-confidence The reasons for my choice Using a log of significant incidents, I had noted: • My students' lack of motivation in English, following the completion of the KS3 examinations and noting their awareness that there was no other assessed component. • That the focus on the Reading and Writing requirements of the KS3 examination had skewed the curriculum at KS3. Students needed opportunities to develop their oral language skills, working in groups and in a formal manner delivering individual presentations. The reasons for my choice Using a log of significant incidents, I had noted: • The effectiveness of the Active Learning Strategies to promote students‟ Thinking Skills and Personal Capabilities at a PMB whole-school classroom teaching training course at Ulidia RC • That students in my Year 10 class needed opportunities to develop social and emotional competences • Useful research on the development of students‟ emotional intelligence e.g.: Daniel Goleman‟s writing on emotional intelligence. What skills, competences and attitudes do your students need to develop? Consider: • Your own observations of students. • Subject requirements. • The Departmental Development Plan - highlight departmental targets that the PDA will relate to. • Your Head of Department and teacher-tutor‟s advice. • The Revised Curriculum requirements. • The School Development Plan - highlight whole- school targets that the PDA will relate to. In my case, I wanted my students to develop: Thinking, Problem-Solving and Decision-Making Skills Managing Being Creative Information & Working with Others Self-Management Thinking, Problem-Solving and Decision-Making Skills • distinguishing fact from opinion • making links between cause and effect • generating possible solutions • justifying methods and conclusions Managing Information • asking questions • breaking down a task Being Creative • evaluating information • seeking out questions to & explore • experimenting with ideas, e.g. green hat Working with Others Self-Management • listening • sharing opinions • evaluating strengths and • respecting others’ views weaknesses • collaboration, negotiation • setting targets • managing self, e.g. time Managing Information Learning intentions I wanted my students to develop their skills in: • asking focused questions. 5 • planning and setting goals, break tasks into sub-tasks. 5 • Using their own and other‟s ideas to locate sources of information. 5 • selecting, classifying, comparing and evaluating information. 5 • selecting most appropriate method(s) for a task. 5 • using a range of methods for collating, recording and representing information. 5 • communicating with a sense of audience and purpose. 5 Thinking, Problem Solving, Decision Making Learning intentions I wanted my students to be able to: • sequence, order, classify, make comparisons. 5 • make predictions, examine evidence, distinguish fact from opinion. 5 • make links between cause and effect. 5 • justify methods, opinions and conclusions. 5 • generate possible solutions, try out alternative approaches, evaluate outcomes. 5 • examine options, weigh up pros and cons. 5 • use different types of questions. 5 • make connections between learning in different contexts. 5 Self Management Learning intentions I wanted my students to be able to: • be aware of personal strengths, limitations and interests 5 • set personal targets and review them 5 • manage behaviour in a range of situations 5 • organise and plan how to go about a task 5 • focus, sustain attention and persist with tasks. 5 • review learning and some aspect that might be improved 5 • learn ways to manage own time. 5 • seek advice when necessary. 5 • compare own approach with others and in different contexts 5 Being Creative Learning intentions I wanted my students to be able to: • seek out questions to explore and problems to solve 5 • experiment with ideas and questions 5 • make new connections between ideas/information. 5 • learn from and value other people‟s ideas 5 • make ideas real by experimenting with different designs, actions, outcomes. 5 • challenge the routine method. 5 • value the unexpected or surprising 5 • see opportunities in mistakes and failures 5 • take risks for learning 5 Working with Others Learning intentions I wanted my students to be able to: • listen actively and share opinions 5 • develop routines of turn-taking, sharing and cooperating. 5 • give and respond to feedback 5 • understand how actions and words effect others 5 • adapt behaviour and language to suit different people and situations 5 • take personal responsibility for work with others and evaluate own contribution to the group. 5 • be fair. 5 • respect the views and opinions of others, reaching agreements using negotiation and compromise. 5 • suggest ways of improving their approach to 5 • working collaboratively 5 How could I promote my students‟ involvement in their own learning? • Adhere to principles informing Assessment for Learning: • Share learning intentions with students • Share success criteria for tasks • Provide opportunities for self-assessment • Provide opportunities for peer-assessment • Provide opportunities for students to evaluate teaching strategies. • Record oral presentations (e.g. camcorder) and invite students to evaluate their presentation skills. How could I promote Assessment for Learning • I gave each student a handout of the TS &PC framework – naming the five strands and the specific skills and capabilities. • I provided students with the learning intentions for each task so that students could self-monitor their progress. • I highlighted that students would self-assess their performance and that a member of the group would peer-assess their performance at the end of each task. Task: In a group, explore Buddy’s problem and investigate possible solutions This task will develop the following thinking skills and personal capabilities: Managing Information I will be able to... Self-assessment Peer-assessment ask focused questions 5 5 plan and set goals and break tasks into sub-tasks 5 5 use own and others ideas to locate sources of information 5 5 Score: 5 5 /3 Thinking, Problem Solving, Decision Making I will be able to... examine evidence, distinguish fact from opinion 5 5 make links between cause and effect 5 5 generate possible solutions, try out alternative approaches, 5 5 evaluate outcomes justify methods, opinions and conclusions 5 5 Score: 5 5/4 Working with Others I will be able to... • listen actively and share opinions 5 5 develop routines of taking turns, sharing and co-operating 5 5 give and respond to feedback 5 5 respect the views and opinions of others, reaching 5 5 agreements using negotiation and compromise Score: 5 5/4 Total: 5 5/11 Self-assessment: (Focus on one learning intention) Strength: ________________________________________________________________________ Weak area: ________________________________________________________________________ Peer-assessment: (Focus on one learning intention) Strength: ________________________________________________________________________ Weak area: ________________________________________________________________________ Students can achieve a Merit (3-9/11) or Distinction (10-11/11) for the task. Purpose of the PDA Purpose of the PDA How do you expect to develop as a teacher, as a result of reflecting on your own practice and which competences do you expect to develop? • This section should outline the beginning teacher‟s own opinion of his/her professional needs and objectives that are of personal interest. • Take time to consider worthwhile goals. Start by asking questions... • What areas for continuing professional development were raised in the summative report on induction? • What do you feel are your professional needs and interests? • How could revised curriculum initiatives be incorporated into your practice? • What teaching strategies would like to develop competence in? • What would you be enthusiastic about? • Have staff development courses raised anything of interest to you? Teachers' Competences RELATED COMPETENCES This relates to the following competences referred to in section 2:1 'Teachers' Competences and Core Criteria' in The Teacher Education Partnership Handbook, DENI. Source: http://www.deni.gov.uk/teacher_education_partnership_handbook-3.pdf Choose 6 competences, from the following headings • Focus on no more than six competences in total. • Enter the competences under the appropriate heading 1. Understanding of the Curriculum, and Professional Knowledge 2. Subject Knowledge and Subject Application 3. Teaching Strategies and Techniques, and Classroom Management 4. Assessment and Recording of Pupils‟ Progress 5. Foundation for Further Professional Development Purpose of the PDA Examples: I hope to: • develop competence in using ICT to teach my subject • implement the requirements of the Revised Curriculum in and through subject teaching, e.g. TS & PC • develop greater skills in teaching SEN students • pilot innovative teaching strategies, for example, Active Learning Strategies. You must then outline a narrower focus - specific objectives within the identified area. Purpose of PDA v Curriculum initiatives • Which new curriculum initiatives could be incorporated into your practice? September 2007 marks the official change-over to the Revised Curriculum. Connected Learning, Assessment for Learning, Thinking Skills and Personal Capabilities, Personal Development, and Learning for Life and Work are fundamental components of the revised curriculum. Purpose of PDA v School Priorities For the PDA, you will be asked to refer to: School Priorities Reference priorities in the School Development Plan which relate directly to teaching and learning in your classroom. Example: A planned objective of this PDA is to contribute to the Implementation of Thinking Skills and Personal Capabilities, as one of the areas of curriculum change identified in the revised curriculum Purpose of PDA v Departmental Priorities For the PDA, you will be asked to refer to: Departmental or Key Stage Priorities Reference priorities set out in your departmental or key stage development plans which relate directly to teaching and learning in your classroom. Implementation of Thinking Skills and Personal Capabilities TS & PC will be developed in and through the Areas of Learning. Therefore, subject teachers, as facilitators, need to establish appropriate subject content. In English, this might relate to identification of a character’s experience of a problem in a novel. My chosen purpose in the context of Departmental Priorities • To develop a structured teaching programme to support teachers in the English Department to deliver Thinking Skills and Personal Capabilities in and through English subject teaching. Implementation of Active Learning strategies • To pilot Active Learning strategies - the Six Thinking Hats and Jigsawing approaches to problem-solving. Refining the purpose of the PDA As a result of this PDA, I wanted to: • develop my awareness of the Thinking Skills and Personal Capabilities framework • act on CCEA curriculum guidance on infusion, to establish problem-solving contexts drawn from the novel, and to develop a series of lessons and resources that will facilitate the parallel development of knowledge, understanding and skills in English and TS & PC. • pilot Active Learning Strategies, focusing on thought showers, the Six Thinking Hats problem-solving approach and Jigsawing, and to investigate students‟ responses to these learning strategies. • use Active Learning Strategies to address the decline in student motivation for learning, and to promote positive learning behaviours. • use student evaluations of the teaching programme and the specific Active Learning Strategies to reflect on my own practice and to plan for future implementation. • build confidence in delivering curriculum initiatives, in sharing my experience of a developing and implementing an innovative teaching programme with members of the English department and in delivering presentations to members of staff, to disseminate good practice. Which teaching strategies would be useful? Example: Active Learning Strategies “Learners need to be thoroughly engaged with their own learning and given opportunities to practice their skills, reflect on their achievements and to recognise their strengths and weaknesses,” and to have “opportunities for collaboration and dialogue about learning.” Focus on selected teaching strategies, for example, thought showers, the Six Thinking Hats problem- solving approach and Jigsawing. http://www.nicurriculum.org.uk/docs/key_stage_3/ks3_stat_suppl ementary_3004.pdf Thought Showers „Thought showers‟ refers to the traditional „brainstorming‟ technique and is used at the beginning of a lesson to generate students‟ ideas. The objective is to generate as wide a range of students‟ ideas as possible, inviting all students to participate, before filtering ideas. The facilitator will record students‟ ideas on the blackboard. Six Thinking Hats problem-solving approach • Edward de Bono invented the Six Thinking Hats as a framework for thinking. It is a problem-solving approach that encourages students to reflect on their thinking and to recognise that different modes of thinking are required in different situations. • White hat thinking identifies the facts and details of a topic • Red hat thinking looks at a topic from the point of view of emotions and feelings • Black hat thinking examines the problems associated with a topic • Yellow hat thinking focuses on the positive aspects of a topic • Green hat thinking requires creativeness, imagination and unfettered thinking about a topic • Blue hat thinking focuses on reflection, metacognition (thinking about the thinking that is required), and the need to understand the big picture. Jigsawing The facilitator creates a large jigsaw – each of the 4 pieces will be A3 size and the pieces should fit together when fixed to the blackboard, to emphasise that the learning is connected to a central question. The facilitator writes a question or challenge on each of the pieces. The resources have a strong visual effect – connecting the jigsaw pieces at the end of the lesson emphasises that the leaning is connected. This approach provides opportunities for students to evaluate the previous group's responses. Engaging students Plan how best to engage students in the lessons: • Explain the focus of the work to students. • Explain clearly to students what is required of them. Take time to establish a secure foundation in lessons prior to the observed lesson. • CCEA advocate the Launch-Activity-Debrief lesson model. • Highlight the significance of the work – its relevance, high standards, clear instructions. • Establish levels/grades and rewards. Example: Certificates - Merit and Distinction • Nurture a sense of achievement • Inform parents, e.g. parental letter Roles within the group The learning experiences are intended to promote student participation and one student in each group will fulfil the role of scribe, chairperson, and spokesperson. These individuals must fulfil certain responsibilities in order to fulfil the requirements of the task: • the scribe will record the group‟s ideas, • the chairperson will manage the group, for example, time management, fair opportunities for participation; • the spokesperson will be responsible for writing and presenting the spokesperson‟s report, evaluating the group‟s responses to the whole class. These roles will be rotated during the programme to ensure that each student gains experience of fulfilling each role at least once. The spokesperson’s role The spokesperson must fulfil additional responsibilities following the group task. She is responsible for reading and collating each group member‟s responses to the evaluation of the task and writing the spokesperson‟s report. The spokesperson also presents the report to the whole class. This role provides opportunities for students to develop oral presentation skills and self-confidence. Students will have opportunities to develop independent writing skills in writing the spokesperson‟s report. Reflection 5 To what extent do you feel you have developed in relation to the stated related competences? Background Reading For Section 5 of the PDA, Reflection on My Practice, you will be asked: How did the background information challenge and extend your thinking about teaching and learning? Background Reading Possible sources: • „Thinking Skills and Personal Capabilities for Key Stage 3‟ http://www.nicurriculum.org.uk/docs/skills_and_capabilities/tr aining/TSPC-Guidance-KS3.pdf • Planning Presentation http://www.nicurriculum.org.uk/key_stage_3/index.asp • The Statutory Curriculum at Key Stage 3: Supplementary Guidance http://www.nicurriculum.org.uk/docs/key_stage_3/ks3_stat_su pplementary_3004.pdf Background Reading The Revised Curriculum minimum content objectives: • http://www.nicurriculum.org.uk/docs/key_stage_3/ks3_stat_supplem entary_3004.pdf The ACTS (Activating Children‟s Thinking Skills) project: http://www.rewardinglearning.com/development/docs/termtalk/termtal k_article.pdf Personal Development, one of the strands of Learning for Life and Work (LLW) identified in the revised curriculum at KS3: http://www.nicurriculum.org.uk/docs/key_stage_4/areas_of_learning/ guidance/ks4_personal_development_guidance_16407.pdf Background Reading Emotional Intelligence: Why it can Matter More than IQ (Daniel Goleman, 1998) “The capacity for recognizing our own feelings and those of others, for motivating ourselves, for managing emotions well in ourselves and in our relationships." What does Active Learning mean? “… team work, working “…working in a group together as friends and and discussing things.” sharing all our ideas…thinking and - J J, Pupil 2 listening.” - C R, Pupil 1 “People in a group who listen to each others‟ opinions. It is fun and interesting.” “…fun group work!” - R C, Pupil 4 - C M, Pupil 3 Evaluating thought showers How useful was the thought shower approach for gaining the whole class ideas at the beginning of the task? • "It helped to show all the different groups' ideas and what the whole class came up with." (OMY) • "It was very useful because it was easier splitting it up and it helped us to answer our questions." (CR) • "It helped to see everyone's ideas." (CM) • “I think it was useful and fun.” (SD) • “It was really useful and our class get on together really well.” (JJ) • "I thought it was very useful as we gave more ideas and opinions." (LMCK) • "I think it was useful because I learned from it." (ALT) • "I thought it was very useful because it helped me understand what to do." (AM) • "I think it's very good because it gives you more help." (BK) How useful was the Six Thinking Hats approach in helping to solve problem? the helped me to think out the problem.” (SCl) • “It • “Very interesting as a way to gather information.” (SJD) • “It was very useful. I learned a lot of things and I learned new words and their meanings – like devil‟s advocate!” (ALT) • “The Six Thinking Hats were a bit hard but the group helped me out.” (YMCG) • “It was really useful and it made the work easier to understand.” (JJ) • “The Six Thinking Hats made it easier to understand the question and to get more out of the question asked.” (RC) • “The Six Thinking Hats approach was very useful because it made you think more and made your answers more detailed.” (OMY) Which hat was most useful? The green hat because… • "You were using your creative imagination." (COH) • "It let you think about creative activities." (SCl) • "You could use your own ideas and your imagination." (SD*) • "It was positive and you could think of an easy escape!" (CR) • "I love using my mind." (YMCG) • "You were using your imagination and could make everything up and the green hat [generated] the most points." (JJ) • "I understood it and found it interesting." (SJD) • "It helped us more." (OMU) • "It's creative." (BB) Which hat was least useful? The black hat because... • "It was pointing out what was wrong." (SJD) • "It wasn't really helpful." (OMU) • "It made me doubt some situations and was confusing." (COH) • "I found it hard to think of ideas for it." (SD*) • "It made us all think and began to confuse what we were thinking about." (RC) • "It was confusing the group." (OMY) The blue hat because... • "It did not really help with anything." (BB) • "It was least useful." (YMCG*) • "It was like all the hats pulled into one and we already had them all." (JJ) Which hat was least useful? hat because... The yellow hat because... The red "I didn't “It was only really learn positive thinking.” from this –S one.“ - A-L "It was hard for me "We already to think of positive knew the things.” character's -L feelings.“ -O Did the group work well together to solve the • problem? “Yes, everyone had their chance to say what they thought and all worked really well together.” (JJ) • “Not at the start but we got around it.” (YMCG) • “Yes we worked very well and took turns at answering.” (BB) • “Yes we shared ideas and our group worked well.” (LMCK) • “I think our group worked well together and came up with good ideas.” (SD) • “Yes we all worked together strongly. Everyone had their opinions and discussed the problem.” (COH) • “Yes, the group worked well and really did their best to answer all questions. We all had a good time.” (OMU) • “Yes, because we all put our ideas together and listened to each other.” (SJD) • “Yes, we all worked well and all took part and participated.” (OMY) Suggest how the task could be improved • “If we all spread [the task] out a bit more and had someone to time it.” (O M) • “More time on each question.” (O M) • “More team work and letting each person share their opinions and solutions.” (C O‟H) • “I think we should have got a better watch!” (S D) • “If everyone was in the class.” (Y McG) • “Getting a group member to become more involved by asking her questions.” (R C) Evaluation of the Jigsawing approach Describe the approach in a few words: “It was really good. “I think the approach was I enjoyed it.” very different from the Six -OM Thinking Hats approach. It was very interesting and fun.” -CM “I think it was a change – it interested me more because I had never done it before.” - Y McG What was the most useful aspect of the approach? “Each group writing in a “Looking at the four different coloured marker different groups answers – we had green.” and replying to give your -SD answers.” -GB “It was split into four different “Getting to look at it sections.” from different -SC viewpoints.” - A-L T Compare the Jigsawing approach to the Six Thinking Hats approach “It was different because you had to look over other “The Jigsawing approach people‟s ideas and was very different but both evaluate them.” activities let us discuss - L McK and talk about the differences.” -RC “The Jigsawing approach was easier because in the Six Thinking Hats you could “It was a different get mixed up with the hats, experience but I really so we got more ideas using enjoyed it.” the Jigsaw.” -GB -SD Long-term planning How often should Active Learning strategies be used? • A high degree of teacher planning is required to implement these strategies, in the initial stages. • Student evaluations indicated that 80% of students felt that Active Learning strategies should be used at least once a month, 40% stated “once each week.” • I would plan to introduce Active learning Strategies once or twice each month, during a double period. •The group problem-solving task will lead to independent writing tasks and independent oral assessment. • The last term of KS3 could then be used to explore Active Learning strategies at length. How often should Active Learning Strategies be used? “Every so often, not “Twice a week, as one straight after people work better another.” together than alone.” -JJ -CR “Once every week.” “Often, because they -OM make solving problems easier.” -BB Suggest how the Active Learning programme could be improved “Everybody would need to come into school!” “If every team mate -SC co-operated and shared more ideas.” -CR “It doesn‟t need to be improved!” -OM
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