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Slide 1 - Belfast Education _ Library Board


									 Planning the
    by Fiona Cregan
EPD Teacher 2005 - 2007
      Tuesday 16th October 2007
Moving from Induction to EPD
• The Induction programme is designed to
  introduce the beginning teacher to the breadth
  of school life.
• The Action Plan is used to highlight a broad
  area for development.
  Example: SEN, providing appropriate support
• The teacher-tutor gives the beginning teacher a
  lot of direction.
              The aim of EPD
EPD should:
• Support the teacher and remain manageable.
• Focus on the specific professional development
  needs of the individual teacher within the context of
  her/his school.
• Allow the beginning teacher to demonstrate greater
  self-direction and to select a focus that is of personal
       Guidelines for the PDA
• The PDA should be meaningful, useful and
  beneficial to teaching and learning.
• It should have a narrower focus than the Induction
  Action Plan.
• It should bear reflection on previous practice, inc.
  issues raised in the summative report on induction.
• You should plan a focus that will enhance pupil
• You should highlight a purpose that is of personal
  interest and professional use.
PDA                         Topic
                            Focus of PDA
Outline                     Purpose of PDA
                            Background Information

Focus of PDA
What you expect your pupil(s) to achieve as a result of your

Purpose of PDA
How do you expect to develop as a teacher, as a result of
reflecting on your own practice?
     Establishing the Focus
• Establish the focus:

Focus of PDA
What you expect your pupil(s) to
achieve as a result of your teaching:

This is an important process.
Take time to establish a focus that you are
comfortable with and that you think is worthwhile.
  Start by asking questions...
• Which class could benefit from focused
• What issues could you seek to address?
• What skills, competences and attitudes
  might students need to develop?
• How can I promote students‟ involvement
  in their own learning?
Class, Pupil(s) or Group(s) of Pupils

 For the PDA, you will be asked to:

 Make a factual note of the pupil(s) or group(s) of
 pupils within the class(es) with whom you intend to
 carry out this PDA.

 For the purpose of Data Protection, do not
 identify individuals by name.
         Selecting a target group
Which class could benefit from focused work?
Example: An exam class – A-level? GCSE? KS3?
         SEN students?
         Your form class?
• Be realistic!
• Choose a class that you have a good relationship
    with, or students who are challenging but who you
    have been able to work well with.
•   Remember: You will be observed teaching them.
What issues could you seek to address?
• Poor student motivation, for example, following KS3
    examinations towards the end of Year 10.
•   Lack of awareness about KS3, GCSE, AS/A2
    examination requirements, mark scheme etc.
•   Students‟ poor understanding of or lack of interest
    in a specific module.
•   Poor social skills, lack of experience of working in a
    small group.
•   Poor oral language skills, few opportunities for oral
•   Low self-esteem, self-confidence.
My Chosen Focus and Target Group
Following this reflective process...I decided to
 tailor my PDA:
• to the needs of my Year 10 students‟ in the last term of
  Year 10, at the end of the KS3 curriculum in order to
  facilitate the development of:
• Their Thinking Skills and Personal Capabilities:
  - Managing information, Decision-making, Problem-
  solving and Being Creative
  - Self-Management skills: abilities to “evaluate
  strengths and weaknesses, set goals and targets,
  manage and regulate self”
  - Working with Others
  Defining the Focus of my PDA
My objectives were to:
• Promote my students‟ motivation for learning and positive
  behaviour following the KS3 examinations
• Develop oral language skills, facilitating transition from
  KS3 to KS4 GCSE Speaking and Listening requirements
• Develop extended writing skills
• Promote my students‟ involvement in their own learning –
  self-assessment and peer-assessment; evaluation of
  active Learning strategies, suggesting improvements
• Foster my students‟ social competence, emotional
  intelligence, self-esteem and self-confidence
             The reasons for my choice
       Using a log of significant incidents, I had noted:

• My students' lack of motivation in English, following the
    completion of the KS3 examinations and noting their
    awareness that there was no other assessed component.
•   That the focus on the Reading and Writing requirements of
    the KS3 examination had skewed the curriculum at KS3.
    Students needed opportunities to develop their oral
    language skills, working in groups and in a formal manner
    delivering individual presentations.
            The reasons for my choice
        Using a log of significant incidents, I had noted:

• The effectiveness of the Active Learning Strategies to
    promote students‟ Thinking Skills and Personal
    Capabilities at a PMB whole-school classroom teaching
    training course at Ulidia RC
•   That students in my Year 10 class needed opportunities
    to develop social and emotional competences
•   Useful research on the development of students‟
    emotional intelligence e.g.: Daniel Goleman‟s writing on
    emotional intelligence.
        What skills, competences and
attitudes do your students need to develop?
• Your own observations of students.
• Subject requirements.
• The Departmental Development Plan - highlight
    departmental targets that the PDA will relate to.
•   Your Head of Department and teacher-tutor‟s advice.
• The Revised Curriculum requirements.
• The School Development Plan - highlight whole-
    school targets that the PDA will relate to.
     In my case, I wanted my students to develop:

              Thinking, Problem-Solving
              and Decision-Making Skills

  Managing                              Being Creative

Working with Others                   Self-Management
                           Thinking, Problem-Solving
                           and Decision-Making Skills
                     • distinguishing fact from opinion
                     • making links between cause and effect
                     • generating possible solutions
                     • justifying methods and conclusions
 Managing Information
• asking questions
• breaking down a task                                    Being Creative
• evaluating information                          • seeking out questions to
                                    &             explore
                                                  • experimenting with
                                                    ideas, e.g. green hat
  Working with Others
  • listening
  • sharing opinions                              • evaluating strengths and
  • respecting others’ views                        weaknesses
  • collaboration, negotiation                    • setting targets
                                                  • managing self, e.g. time
         Managing Information
Learning intentions
I wanted my students to develop their skills in:
• asking focused questions.                                       5
• planning and setting goals, break tasks into sub-tasks.         5
• Using their own and other‟s ideas to locate sources of
  information.                                                    5
• selecting, classifying, comparing and evaluating information.   5
• selecting most appropriate method(s) for a task.                5
• using a range of methods for collating, recording and
  representing information.                                       5
• communicating with a sense of audience and purpose.             5
       Thinking, Problem Solving,
           Decision Making
Learning intentions
I wanted my students to be able to:
•      sequence, order, classify, make comparisons.                   5
•      make predictions, examine evidence, distinguish fact from
       opinion.                                                       5
•      make links between cause and effect.                           5
•      justify methods, opinions and conclusions.                     5
•      generate possible solutions, try out alternative approaches,
       evaluate outcomes.                                             5
•      examine options, weigh up pros and cons.                       5
•      use different types of questions.                              5
•      make connections between learning in different contexts.       5
                   Self Management
Learning intentions
I wanted my students to be able to:
•   be aware of personal strengths, limitations and interests    5
•   set personal targets and review them                         5
•   manage behaviour in a range of situations                    5
•   organise and plan how to go about a task                     5
•   focus, sustain attention and persist with tasks.             5
•   review learning and some aspect that might be improved       5
•   learn ways to manage own time.                               5
•   seek advice when necessary.                                  5
•   compare own approach with others and in different contexts   5
                    Being Creative
Learning intentions
I wanted my students to be able to:

•   seek out questions to explore and problems to solve             5
•   experiment with ideas and questions                             5
•   make new connections between ideas/information.                 5
•   learn from and value other people‟s ideas                       5
•   make ideas real by experimenting with different designs, actions,
    outcomes.                                                         5
•   challenge the routine method.                                   5
•   value the unexpected or surprising                              5
•   see opportunities in mistakes and failures                      5
•   take risks for learning                                         5
         Working with Others
Learning intentions
I wanted my students to be able to:

•   listen actively and share opinions                               5
•   develop routines of turn-taking, sharing and cooperating.        5
•   give and respond to feedback                                     5
•   understand how actions and words effect others                   5
•   adapt behaviour and language to suit different people and situations 5
•   take personal responsibility for work with others and evaluate own
    contribution to the group.                                       5
•   be fair.                                                         5
•   respect the views and opinions of others, reaching agreements
    using negotiation and compromise.                                5
•   suggest ways of improving their approach to                      5
•   working collaboratively                                          5
     How could I promote my students‟
     involvement in their own learning?
• Adhere to principles informing Assessment for
•   Share learning intentions with students
•   Share success criteria for tasks
•   Provide opportunities for self-assessment
•   Provide opportunities for peer-assessment
•   Provide opportunities for students to evaluate
    teaching strategies.
•   Record oral presentations (e.g. camcorder) and
    invite students to evaluate their presentation skills.
How could I promote Assessment for
  • I gave each student a handout of the TS &PC
  framework – naming the five strands and the
  specific skills and capabilities.

  • I provided students with the learning intentions
  for each task so that students could self-monitor
  their progress.

  • I highlighted that students would self-assess
  their performance and that a member of the group
  would peer-assess their performance at the end
  of each task.
Task:      In a group, explore Buddy’s problem and investigate possible solutions

This task will develop the following thinking skills and personal capabilities:
Managing Information

I will be able to...
                                                               Self-assessment   Peer-assessment
        ask focused questions                                     5                  5
        plan and set goals and break tasks into sub-tasks         5                  5
        use own and others ideas to locate sources of information 5                  5
                                                          Score:      5               5 /3
Thinking, Problem Solving, Decision Making

I will be able to...
      examine  evidence, distinguish fact from opinion               5               5
      make links between cause and effect                            5               5
      generate possible solutions, try out alternative approaches,   5               5
       evaluate outcomes
      justify methods, opinions and conclusions                      5               5
                                                           Score:     5               5/4
Working with Others

I will be able to...

• listen actively and share opinions                             5                  5
 develop routines of taking turns, sharing and co-operating     5                  5
 give and respond to feedback                                   5                  5
 respect the views and opinions of others, reaching             5                  5
  agreements using negotiation and compromise
                                               Score:            5                  5/4
                                               Total:            5                  5/11
Self-assessment: (Focus on one learning intention)
Strength:           ________________________________________________________________________
Weak area:          ________________________________________________________________________

Peer-assessment: (Focus on one learning intention)
Strength:           ________________________________________________________________________
Weak area:          ________________________________________________________________________

Students can achieve a Merit (3-9/11) or Distinction (10-11/11) for the task.
             Purpose of the PDA
    Purpose of the PDA
    How do you expect to develop as a teacher, as a result of
    reflecting on your own practice and which competences do you
    expect to develop?

• This section should outline the beginning teacher‟s own
    opinion of his/her professional needs and objectives
    that are of personal interest.
•   Take time to consider worthwhile goals.
Start by asking questions...
• What areas for continuing professional
    development were raised in the summative report
    on induction?
•   What do you feel are your professional needs and
•   How could revised curriculum initiatives be
    incorporated into your practice?
•   What teaching strategies would like to develop
    competence in?
•   What would you be enthusiastic about?
•   Have staff development courses raised anything
    of interest to you?
            Teachers' Competences

        This relates to the following competences referred to
        in section 2:1 'Teachers' Competences and Core
        Criteria' in The Teacher Education Partnership
        Handbook, DENI.

     Choose 6 competences, from
       the following headings
• Focus on no more than six competences in total.
• Enter the competences under the appropriate heading
1.    Understanding      of     the     Curriculum,   and
      Professional Knowledge
2.    Subject Knowledge and Subject Application
3.    Teaching Strategies and Techniques, and Classroom
4.    Assessment and Recording of Pupils‟ Progress
5.    Foundation for Further Professional Development
          Purpose of the PDA
I hope to:
• develop competence in using ICT to teach my subject
• implement the requirements of the Revised
   Curriculum in and through subject teaching, e.g. TS &
• develop greater skills in teaching SEN students
• pilot innovative teaching strategies, for example,
   Active Learning Strategies.
  You must then outline a narrower focus - specific
  objectives within the identified area.
 Purpose of PDA v Curriculum
• Which new curriculum initiatives could be
 incorporated into your practice?

 September 2007 marks the official change-over to the
 Revised Curriculum. Connected Learning,
 Assessment for Learning, Thinking Skills and
 Personal Capabilities, Personal Development, and
 Learning for Life and Work are fundamental
 components of the revised curriculum.
   Purpose of PDA v School
For the PDA, you will be asked to refer to:
School Priorities Reference priorities in the School
Development Plan which relate directly to teaching and
learning in your classroom.

Example: A planned objective of this PDA is to contribute
to the Implementation of Thinking Skills and Personal
Capabilities, as one of the areas of curriculum change
identified in the revised curriculum
    Purpose of PDA v Departmental
  For the PDA, you will be asked to refer to:

  Departmental or Key Stage Priorities Reference priorities
  set out in your departmental or key stage development plans
  which relate directly to teaching and learning in your

Implementation of Thinking Skills and Personal Capabilities
TS & PC will be developed in and through the Areas of Learning.
Therefore, subject teachers, as facilitators, need to establish
appropriate subject content. In English, this might relate to
identification of a character’s experience of a problem in a novel.
My chosen purpose in the context of
     Departmental Priorities
• To develop a structured teaching programme to support
  teachers in the English Department to deliver Thinking
  Skills and Personal Capabilities in and through English
  subject teaching.

  Implementation of Active Learning strategies
• To pilot Active Learning strategies - the Six Thinking
  Hats and Jigsawing approaches to problem-solving.
 Refining the purpose of the PDA
As a result of this PDA, I wanted to:

• develop my awareness of the Thinking Skills and
  Personal Capabilities framework

• act on CCEA curriculum guidance on infusion, to
  establish problem-solving contexts drawn from the
  novel, and to develop a series of lessons and resources
  that will facilitate the parallel development of knowledge,
  understanding and skills in English and TS & PC.

• pilot Active Learning Strategies, focusing on thought
  showers, the Six Thinking Hats problem-solving approach
  and Jigsawing, and to investigate students‟ responses to
  these learning strategies.
• use Active Learning Strategies to address the decline in
  student motivation for learning, and to promote positive
  learning behaviours.

• use student evaluations of the teaching programme and
  the specific Active Learning Strategies to reflect on my
  own practice and to plan for future implementation.

• build confidence in delivering curriculum initiatives, in
  sharing my experience of a developing and
  implementing an innovative teaching programme with
  members of the English department and in delivering
  presentations to members of staff, to disseminate good
Which teaching strategies would be useful?
Example: Active Learning Strategies
“Learners need to be thoroughly engaged with their own learning
and given opportunities to practice their skills, reflect on their
achievements and to recognise their strengths and weaknesses,” and
to have “opportunities for collaboration and dialogue about

Focus on selected teaching strategies, for example,
thought showers, the Six Thinking Hats problem-
solving approach and Jigsawing.
  Thought Showers

„Thought showers‟ refers to the traditional
„brainstorming‟ technique and is used at the
beginning of a lesson to generate students‟ ideas.
The objective is to generate as wide a range of
students‟ ideas as possible, inviting all students to
participate, before filtering ideas. The facilitator will
record students‟ ideas on the blackboard.
Six Thinking Hats problem-solving
• Edward de Bono invented the Six Thinking Hats as a
    framework for thinking. It is a problem-solving approach
    that encourages students to reflect on their thinking and to
    recognise that different modes of thinking are required in
    different situations.
• White hat thinking identifies the facts and details of a topic
• Red hat thinking looks at a topic from the point of view of
    emotions and feelings
•   Black hat thinking examines the problems associated with
    a topic
•   Yellow hat thinking focuses on the positive aspects of a
•   Green hat thinking requires creativeness, imagination and
    unfettered thinking about a topic
•   Blue hat thinking focuses on reflection, metacognition
    (thinking about the thinking that is required), and the need to
    understand the big picture.
The facilitator creates a large jigsaw – each of the 4
pieces will be A3 size and the pieces should fit together
when fixed to the blackboard, to emphasise that the
learning is connected to a central question. The facilitator
writes a question or challenge on each of the pieces.

The resources have a strong visual effect – connecting
the jigsaw pieces at the end of the lesson emphasises that
the leaning is connected.

This approach provides opportunities for students to
evaluate the previous group's responses.
                Engaging students
Plan how best to engage students in the lessons:

• Explain the focus of the work to students.
• Explain clearly to students what is required of them. Take
    time to establish a secure foundation in lessons prior to the
    observed lesson.
•   CCEA advocate the Launch-Activity-Debrief lesson model.
•   Highlight the significance of the work – its relevance, high
    standards, clear instructions.
•   Establish levels/grades and rewards.
        Example:     Certificates - Merit and Distinction
•   Nurture a sense of achievement
•   Inform parents, e.g. parental letter
          Roles within the group
The learning experiences are intended to promote student
participation and one student in each group will fulfil the role of
scribe, chairperson, and spokesperson. These individuals must
fulfil certain responsibilities in order to fulfil the requirements of the
• the scribe will record the group‟s ideas,
• the chairperson will manage the group, for example,
    time management, fair opportunities for participation;
•   the spokesperson will be responsible for writing and
    presenting the spokesperson‟s report, evaluating the
    group‟s responses to the whole class.
These roles will be rotated during the programme to ensure that
each student gains experience of fulfilling each role at least once.
  The spokesperson’s
The spokesperson must fulfil additional responsibilities
following the group task.

She is responsible for reading and collating each group
member‟s responses to the evaluation of the task and
writing the spokesperson‟s report.

The spokesperson also presents the report to the whole
class. This role provides opportunities for students to
develop oral presentation skills and self-confidence.

Students will have opportunities to develop independent
writing skills in writing the spokesperson‟s report.
5 To what extent do you feel you have developed in
  relation to the stated related competences?
      Background Reading
For Section 5 of the PDA, Reflection on My
Practice, you will be asked:

How did the background information challenge
and extend your thinking about teaching and
          Background Reading
Possible sources:
• „Thinking Skills and Personal Capabilities for Key Stage 3‟

• Planning Presentation

• The Statutory Curriculum at Key Stage 3: Supplementary
             Background Reading
The Revised Curriculum minimum content objectives:

The ACTS (Activating Children‟s Thinking Skills) project:

Personal Development, one of the strands of Learning for Life
and Work (LLW) identified in the revised curriculum at KS3:
       Background Reading
Emotional Intelligence: Why it can Matter More
than IQ (Daniel Goleman, 1998)

“The capacity for recognizing our own feelings and
those of others, for motivating ourselves, for
managing emotions well in ourselves and in our
     What does Active Learning
“… team work, working      “…working in a group
together as friends and   and discussing things.”
     sharing all our
  ideas…thinking and           - J J, Pupil 2
     - C R, Pupil 1
                          “People in a group who listen
                          to each others‟ opinions. It is
                               fun and interesting.”
     “…fun group
       work!”                         - R C, Pupil 4

     - C M, Pupil 3
          Evaluating thought
    How useful was the thought shower approach for gaining the whole class
    ideas at the beginning of the task?

• "It helped to show all the different groups' ideas and what the whole class
    came up with." (OMY)
• "It was very useful because it was easier splitting it up and it helped us to
    answer our questions." (CR)
•   "It helped to see everyone's ideas." (CM)
•   “I think it was useful and fun.” (SD)
•   “It was really useful and our class get on together really well.” (JJ)
•   "I thought it was very useful as we gave more ideas and opinions." (LMCK)
•   "I think it was useful because I learned from it." (ALT)
• "I thought it was very useful because it helped me understand
    what to do." (AM)
•   "I think it's very good because it gives you more help." (BK)
How useful was the Six Thinking
Hats approach in helping to solve
the helped me to think out the problem.” (SCl)
 • “It
 • “Very interesting as a way to gather information.” (SJD)
 • “It was very useful. I learned a lot of things and I learned new
     words and their meanings – like devil‟s advocate!” (ALT)
 •   “The Six Thinking Hats were a bit hard but the group helped
     me out.” (YMCG)
 •   “It was really useful and it made the work easier to
     understand.” (JJ)
 •   “The Six Thinking Hats made it easier to understand the
     question and to get more out of the question asked.” (RC)
 •   “The Six Thinking Hats approach was very useful because it
     made you think more and made your answers more detailed.”
Which hat was most
The green hat because…

•   "You were using your creative imagination." (COH)
•   "It let you think about creative activities." (SCl)
•   "You could use your own ideas and your imagination." (SD*)
•   "It was positive and you could think of an easy escape!" (CR)
•   "I love using my mind." (YMCG)
•   "You were using your imagination and could make everything
    up and the green hat [generated] the most points." (JJ)
•   "I understood it and found it interesting." (SJD)
•   "It helped us more." (OMU)
•   "It's creative." (BB)
   Which hat was least
The black hat because...
• "It was pointing out what was wrong." (SJD)
• "It wasn't really helpful." (OMU)
• "It made me doubt some situations and was confusing."
•   "I found it hard to think of ideas for it." (SD*)
•   "It made us all think and began to confuse what we were
    thinking about." (RC)
•   "It was confusing the group." (OMY)

The blue hat because...
• "It did not really help with anything." (BB)
• "It was least useful." (YMCG*)
• "It was like all the hats pulled into one and we already had
  them all." (JJ)
  Which hat was least
                   useful? hat because...
The yellow hat because... The red

                                     "I didn't
          “It was only             really learn
        positive thinking.”         from this
               –S                     one.“
                                  - A-L

   "It was hard for me        "We already
    to think of positive        knew the
       things.”                character's
             -L                 feelings.“
     Did the group work well
       together to solve the
•                    problem?
    “Yes, everyone had their chance to say what they thought
    and all worked really well together.” (JJ)
•   “Not at the start but we got around it.” (YMCG)
•   “Yes we worked very well and took turns at answering.” (BB)
•   “Yes we shared ideas and our group worked well.” (LMCK)
•   “I think our group worked well together and came up with
    good ideas.” (SD)
•   “Yes we all worked together strongly. Everyone had their
    opinions and discussed the problem.” (COH)
•   “Yes, the group worked well and really did their best to
    answer all questions. We all had a good time.” (OMU)
•   “Yes, because we all put our ideas together and listened to
    each other.” (SJD)
•   “Yes, we all worked well and all took part and participated.”
       Suggest how the
        task could be
• “If we all spread [the task] out a bit more and had
    someone to time it.” (O M)
•   “More time on each question.” (O M)
•   “More team work and letting each person share
    their opinions and solutions.” (C O‟H)
•   “I think we should have got a better watch!” (S D)
•   “If everyone was in the class.” (Y McG)
•   “Getting a group member to become more involved
    by asking her questions.” (R C)
      Evaluation of the
     Jigsawing approach
Describe the approach in a few words:
                                          “It was really good.
     “I think the approach was
                                              I enjoyed it.”
    very different from the Six
      Thinking Hats approach.
    It was very interesting and
                                  “I think it was a change –
                                     it interested me more
                                  because I had never done
                                            it before.”
                                              - Y McG
What was the most useful
 aspect of the approach?
                               “Each group writing in a
   “Looking at the four        different coloured marker
different groups answers            – we had green.”
and replying to give your                 -SD

                                    “It was split into
                                      four different
      “Getting to look at it
        from different
             - A-L T
Compare the Jigsawing approach to
 the Six Thinking Hats approach
                                    “It was different because
                                   you had to look over other
 “The Jigsawing approach
                                        people‟s ideas and
 was very different but both
                                         evaluate them.”
  activities let us discuss
                                             - L McK
     and talk about the
             -RC                  “The Jigsawing approach
                                  was easier because in the
                                 Six Thinking Hats you could
         “It was a different     get mixed up with the hats,
       experience but I really   so we got more ideas using
             enjoyed it.”                the Jigsaw.”
                -GB                          -SD
     Long-term planning
How often should Active Learning strategies be used?
• A high degree of teacher planning is required to implement these
strategies, in the initial stages.
• Student evaluations indicated that 80% of students felt that
Active Learning strategies should be used at least once a month,
40% stated “once each week.”
• I would plan to introduce Active learning Strategies once or twice
each month, during a double period.
•The group problem-solving task will lead to independent writing
tasks and independent oral assessment.
• The last term of KS3 could then be used to explore Active
Learning strategies at length.
How often should Active
 Learning Strategies be
                           “Every so often, not
  “Twice a week, as         one straight after
 people work better             another.”
together than alone.”              -JJ

                           “Once every week.”
    “Often, because they
        make solving
      problems easier.”
 Suggest how the Active
Learning programme could
      be improved
“Everybody would need
to come into school!”
                              “If every team mate
                                co-operated and
                              shared more ideas.”
     “It doesn‟t need to be

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