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Compositions And Methods For Modification Of Biomolecules - Patent 7807619

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Compositions And Methods For Modification Of Biomolecules - Patent 7807619 Powered By Docstoc
					


United States Patent: 7807619


































 
( 1 of 1 )



	United States Patent 
	7,807,619



 Bertozzi
,   et al.

 
October 5, 2010




Compositions and methods for modification of biomolecules



Abstract

The present invention provides modified cycloalkyne compounds; and method
     of use of such compounds in modifying biomolecules. The present invention
     features a cycloaddition reaction that can be carried out under
     physiological conditions. In general, the invention involves reacting a
     modified cycloalkyne with an azide moiety on a target biomolecule,
     generating a covalently modified biomolecule. The selectivity of the
     reaction and its compatibility with aqueous environments provide for its
     application in vivo (e.g., on the cell surface or intracellularly) and in
     vitro (e.g., synthesis of peptides and other polymers, production of
     modified (e.g., labeled) amino acids).


 
Inventors: 
 Bertozzi; Carolyn R. (Berkeley, CA), Agard; Nicholas J. (Berkeley, CA), Prescher; Jennifer A. (Berkeley, CA), Baskin; Jeremy Michael (Berkeley, CA) 
 Assignee:


The Regents of the University of California
 (Oakland, 
CA)





Appl. No.:
                    
11/264,463
  
Filed:
                      
  October 31, 2005

 Related U.S. Patent Documents   
 

Application NumberFiling DatePatent NumberIssue Date
 60624202Nov., 2004
 

 



  
Current U.S. Class:
  514/520  ; 435/18; 514/532; 530/409
  
Current International Class: 
  C07K 14/705&nbsp(20060101)

References Cited  [Referenced By]
U.S. Patent Documents
 
 
 
6077954
June 2000
Cook et al.

6329523
December 2001
Cook et al.

2003/0170917
September 2003
Hui et al.



   
 Other References 

Cope et al., Journal of the American Chemical Society, 1950, vol. 72, No. 3, pp. 1128-1132. cited by examiner
.
Huisgen (1963) Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2:565-598. cited by other
.
Shea and Kim. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1992, 114, 4846-4855. cited by other
.
Reese and Shaw (1970) Chem. Comm. 1172-1173. cited by other
.
Wilbur et al. Bioconj. Chem. 1996, 7, 689-702. cited by other
.
Bistrup et al. J. Cell Biol. 1999, 145, 899-910. cited by other
.
Saxon et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2002, 124, 14893-14902. cited by other
.
Hang and Bertozzi. Acc. Chem. Res. 2001, 34, 727-736. cited by other
.
Link et al. Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 2003, 14, 603-609. cited by other
.
Lee et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2003, 125, 9588-9589. cited by other
.
Wang et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc, 2003, 125, 3192-3193. cited by other
.
Kiick et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2002, 99, 19-24. cited by other
.
Speers and Cravatt. Chem. Biol. 2004, 11, 535-546. cited by other
.
Saxon and Bertozzi Science 2000, 287, 2007-2010. cited by other
.
Link, A. J.; Tirrell, D. A. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2003, 125, 1164-1165. cited by other
.
Dube and Bertozzi. Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 2003, 7, 616-625. cited by other
.
Vocadlo et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2003, 100, 9116-9121. cited by other
.
Prescher et al.. Nature 2004, 430, 873-877. cited by other
.
Seo et al. J. Org. Chem. 2003, 68, 609-612. cited by other
.
Li et al. Tetrahedron Lett. 2004, 45, 3143-3146. cited by other
.
Wittig and Krebs. Chem. Ber. 1961, 94, 3260-3275. cited by other
.
Meier et al. Chem. Ber. 1980, 113, 2398-2409. cited by other
.
Turner et al.. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1972, 95, 790-792. cited by other.  
  Primary Examiner: Tate; Christopher R.


  Assistant Examiner: Teller; Roy


  Attorney, Agent or Firm: Borden; Paula A.
Bozicevic, Field & Francis LLP



Government Interests



STATEMENT REGARDING FEDERALLY SPONSORED RESEARCH


The U.S. government may have certain rights in this invention, pursuant to
     grant nos. ROI GM58867 awarded by the National Institutes of Health.

Parent Case Text



CROSS-REFERENCE


This application claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Patent Application
     No. 60/624,202 filed Nov. 1, 2004, which application is incorporated
     herein by reference in its entirety.

Claims  

What is claimed is:

 1.  A compound of the formula: ##STR00036## wherein: each of X and X' is independently: (a) H;  (b) one or two halogen atoms (e.g., bromo, chloro, fluoro, iodo);  (c)
--W--(CH.sub.2).sub.n--Z, wherein n is an integer from 1-4;  wherein W, if present, is O, N, or S;  and wherein Z is nitro, cyano, sulfonic acid, or a halogen;  (d) --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--W--(CH.sub.2).sub.m--Z, wherein n and m are each independently 1 or
2;  wherein W is O, N, S, or sulfonyl;  with the proviso that if W is O, N, or S, then Z is nitro, cyano, or halogen;  and with the proviso that if W is sulfonyl, then Z is H;  or (e) --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--Z, wherein n is an integer from 1-4;  and wherein
Z is nitro, cyano, sulfonic acid, or a halogen;  Y is H;  and R.sub.1 is selected from a carboxylic acid, an alkyl ester, an aryl ester, a substituted aryl ester, an aldehyde, an amide, an aryl amide, an alkyl halide, a thioester, a sulfonyl ester, an
alkyl ketone, an aryl ketone, a substituted aryl ketone, a halosulfonyl, a nitrile, and a nitro.


 2.  The compound of claim 1, wherein R.sub.1 is an alkyl ester.


 3.  The compound of claim 1, wherein X and X' are both H, and wherein R.sub.1 is a substituted aryl ester.


 4.  The compound of claim 3, wherein R.sub.1 is --O--CH.sub.2-phenyl-COOH.


 5.  The compound of claim 1, wherein X and X' are both H, and wherein R.sub.1 is --CH.sub.2-phenyl-COOH.


 6.  The compound of claim 1, wherein X is F, wherein X' is H, and wherein R.sub.1 is --CH.sub.2-phenyl-COOH.


 7.  The compound of claim 1, wherein X is F, wherein X' is H, and wherein R.sub.1 is --CH.sub.2-phenyl-CO.sub.2-methyl.


 8.  The compound of claim 1, wherein X' and X are H, and wherein R.sub.1 is --O--CH.sub.2--C(.dbd.O)--OH.


 9.  The compound of claim 1, wherein X and X' are both fluoro.


 10.  The compound of claim 1, wherein X and X' are both H.


 11.  The compound of claim 1, wherein X is two fluoro atoms and X' is H.  Description  

FIELD OF THE INVENTION


The invention relates generally to covalent modification of molecules useful in, for example, modification of surfaces (including cell surfaces), and modification of molecules under physiological conditions (e.g., in a cellular environment).


BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION


Selective chemical reactions that are orthogonal to the diverse functionality of biological systems are now recognized as important tools in chemical biology.  As relative newcomers to the repertoire of synthetic chemistry, these bioorthogonal
reactions have inspired new strategies for compound library synthesis, protein engineering, functional proteomics, and chemical remodeling of cell surfaces.  The azide has secured a prominent role as a unique chemical handle for bioconjugation.  The
Staudinger ligation has been used with phosphines to tag azidosugars metabolically introduced into cellular glycoconjugates.  The Staudinger ligation can be performed in living animals without physiological harm; nevertheless, the Staudinger reaction is
not without liabilities.  The requisite phosphines are susceptible to air oxidation and their optimization for improved water solubility and increased reaction rate has proven to be synthetically challenging.


The azide group has an alternative mode of bioorthogonal reactivity: the [3+2] cycloaddition with alkynes described by Huisgen.  In its classic form, this reaction has limited applicability in biological systems due to the requirement of elevated
temperatures (or pressures) for reasonable reaction rates.  Sharpless and coworkers surmounted this obstacle with the development of a copper(I)-catalyzed version, termed "click chemistry," that proceeds readily at physiological temperatures and in
richly functionalized biological environs.  This discovery has enabled the selective modification of virus particles, nucleic acids, and proteins from complex tissue lysates.  Unfortunately, the mandatory copper catalyst is toxic to both bacterial and
mammalian cells, thus precluding applications wherein the cells must remain viable.  Catalyst-free Huisgen cycloadditions of alkynes activated by electron-withdrawing substituents have been reported to occur at ambient temperatures.  However, these
compounds undergo Michael reaction with biological nucleophiles.


There is a need in the field for additional mechanisms to modify biological molecules through a biocompatible reaction, particularly in a biological environment.  The present invention addresses this need.


Literature


Huisgen (1963) Angew.  Chem. Int.  Ed.  2:565-598; Shea and Kim.  J. Am.  Chem. Soc.  1992, 114, 4846-4855; Reese and Shaw (1970) Chem. Comm.  1172-1173; Wilbur et al. Bioconj.  Chem. 1996, 7, 689-702; Bistrup et al. J. Cell Biol.  1999, 145,
899-910; Saxon et al. J. Am.  Chem. Soc.  2002, 124, 14893-14902; Hang and Bertozzi.  Acc.  Chem. Res.  2001, 34, 727-736; Link et al. Curr.  Opin.  Biotechnol.  2003, 14, 603-609; Lee et al. J. Am.  Chem. Soc.  2003, 125, 9588-9589; Wang et al. J. Am. 
Chem. Soc, 2003, 125, 3192-3193; Kiick et al. Proc.  Natl.  Acad.  Sci.  U.S.A.  2002, 99, 19-24; Speers and Cravatt.  Chem. Biol.  2004, 11, 535-546; Saxon and Bertozzi Science 2000, 287, 2007-2010; Link, A. J.; Tirrell, D. A. J. Am.  Chem. Soc.  2003,
125, 1164-1165; Dube and Bertozzi.  Curr.  Opin.  Chem. Biol.  2003, 7, 616-625; Vocadlo et al. Proc.  Natl.  Acad.  Sci.  U.S.A.  2003, 100, 9116-9121; Prescher et al. Nature 2004, 430, 873-877; Seo et al. J. Org. Chem. 2003, 68, 609-612; Li et al.
Tetrahedron Lett.  2004, 45, 3143-3146; Wittig and Krebs.  Chem. Ber.  1961, 94, 3260-3275; Meier et al. Chem. Ber.  1980, 113, 2398-2409; Turner et al. J. Am.  Chem. Soc.  1972, 95, 790-792.


SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION


The present invention provides modified cycloalkyne compounds; and method of use of such compounds in modifying biomolecules.  The present invention features a cycloaddition reaction that can be carried out under physiological conditions.  In
general, the invention involves reacting a modified cycloalkyne with an azide moiety on a target biomolecule, generating a covalently modified biomolecule.  The selectivity of the reaction and its compatibility with aqueous environments provide for its
application in vivo (e.g., on the cell surface or intracellularly) and in vitro (e.g., synthesis of peptides and other polymers, production of modified (e.g., labeled) amino acids). 

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS


FIGS. 1A and 1B depict cycloaddition reactions.  FIG. 1A depicts Cu(I)-catalyzed Huisgen cycloaddition ("click chemistry").  FIG. 1B depicts strain-promoted [3+2] cycloaddition of azides and cyclooctynes.


FIG. 2 depicts labeling of azide-modified GlyCAM-Ig with alkyne probes.


FIGS. 3A-C depict cell surface labeling with a modified cyclooctyne compound.


FIG. 4A schematically depicts labeling of cell-surface azides with cyclooctyne probes.  FIG. 4B depicts cyclooctyne probe labeling of Jurkat cells that contain cell-surface azides.


FIG. 5 depicts labeling of splenocytes with cyclooctyne-FLAG.


FIG. 6 depicts in vivo labeling of mice with cyclooctyne-FLAG compounds.


DEFINITIONS


By "reactive partner" is meant a molecule or molecular moiety that specifically reacts with another reactive partner.  Exemplary reactive partners are those of the reaction of the invention, i.e., an azide group of an azide-modified target
molecule and the cycloalkyne group of a modified cycloalkyne moiety.


As used herein the term "isolated" is meant to describe a compound of interest that is in an environment different from that in which the compound naturally occurs.  "Isolated" is meant to include compounds that are within samples that are
substantially enriched for the compound of interest and/or in which the compound of interest is partially or substantially purified.


As used herein, the term "substantially purified" refers to a compound that is removed from its natural environment or its synthetic environment and is at least 60% free, at least 75% free, at least 90% free, at least 95% free, at least 98% free,
or at least 99% free from other components with which it is naturally associated, or is at least 60% free, at least 75% free, at least 90% free, at least 95% free, at least 98% free, or at least 99% free from contaminants associated with synthesis of the
compound.


As used herein, the term "cell" in the context of the in vivo applications of the invention is meant to encompass eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells of any genus or species, with mammalian cells being of particular interest.  "Cell" is also meant
to encompass both normal cells and diseased cells, e.g., cancerous cells.  In many embodiments, the cells are living cells.


The terms "polypeptide" and "protein," used interchangeably herein, refer to a polymeric form of amino acids of any length, which can include coded and non-coded amino acids, chemically or biochemically modified or derivatized amino acids, and
polypeptides having modified peptide backbones.  The term includes fusion proteins, including, but not limited to, fusion proteins with a heterologous amino acid sequence, fusions with heterologous and homologous leader sequences, with or without
N-terminal methionine residues; immunologically tagged proteins; and the like.


The term "physiological conditions" is meant to encompass those conditions compatible with living cells, e.g., predominantly aqueous conditions of a temperature, pH, salinity, etc. that are compatible with living cells.


The term "aryl" as used herein means 5- and 6-membered single-aromatic radicals which may include from zero to four heteroatoms.  Representative aryls include phenyl, thienyl, furanyl, pyridinyl, (is)oxazoyl and the like.


The term "lower alkyl", alone or in combination, generally means an acyclic alkyl radical containing from 1 to about 10, e.g., from 1 to about 8 carbon atoms, or from 1 to about 6 carbon atoms.  Examples of such radicals include methyl, ethyl,
n-propyl, isopropyl, n-butyl, isobutyl, sec-butyl, tert-butyl, pentyl, iso-amyl, hexyl, octyl and the like.


The term "aliphatic group" means a saturated or unsaturated linear or branched hydrocarbon group and encompasses alkyl, alkenyl, and alkynyl groups, for example.  The term "alkyl group" means a substituted or unsubstituted, saturated linear or
branched hydrocarbon group or chain (e.g., C.sub.1 to C.sub.8) including, for example, methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, tert-butyl, heptyl, iso-propyl, n-octyl, dodecyl, octadecyl, amyl, 2-ethylhexyl, and the like.  Suitable substituents include carboxy,
protected carboxy, amino, protected amino, halo, hydroxy, protected hydroxy, nitro, cyano, monosubstituted amino, protected monosubstituted amino, disubstituted amino, C.sub.1 to C.sub.7 alkoxy, C.sub.1 to C.sub.7 acyl, C.sub.1 to C.sub.7 acyloxy, and
the like.  The term "substituted alkyl" means the above defined alkyl group substituted from one to three times by a hydroxy, protected hydroxy, amino, protected amino, cyano, halo, trifloromethyl, mono-substituted amino, di-substituted amino, lower
alkoxy, lower alkylthio, carboxy, protected carboxy, or a carboxy, amino, and/or hydroxy salt.  As used in conjunction with the substituents for the heteroaryl rings, the terms "substituted (cycloalkyl)alkyl" and "substituted cycloalkyl" are as defined
below substituted with the same groups as listed for a "substituted alkyl" group.  The term "alkenyl group" means an unsaturated, linear or branched hydrocarbon group with one or more carbon-carbon double bonds, such as a vinyl group.  The term "alkynyl
group" means an unsaturated, linear or branched hydrocarbon group with one or more carbon-carbon triple bonds.  The term "cyclic group" means a closed ring hydrocarbon group that is classified as an alicyclic group, aromatic group, or heterocyclic group. The term "alicyclic group" means a cyclic hydrocarbon group having properties resembling those of aliphatic groups.  The term "aromatic group" or "aryl group" means a mono- or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon group, and may include one or more
heteroatoms, and which are further defined below.  The term "heterocyclic group" means a closed ring hydrocarbon in which one or more of the atoms in the ring are an element other than carbon (e.g., nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur, etc.), and are further
defined below.


The terms "halo" and "halogen" refer to the fluoro, chloro, bromo or iodo groups.  There can be one or more halogen, which are the same or different.


The term "haloalkyl" refers to an alkyl group as defined above that is substituted by one or more halogen atoms.  The halogen atoms may be the same or different.  The term "dihaloalkyl" refers to an alkyl group as described above that is
substituted by two halo groups, which may be the same or different.  The term "trihaloalkyl" refers to an alkyl group as describe above that is substituted by three halo groups, which may be the same or different.  The term "perhaloalkyl" refers to a
haloalkyl group as defined above wherein each hydrogen atom in the alkyl group has been replaced by a halogen atom.  The term "perfluoroalkyl" refers to a haloalkyl group as defined above wherein each hydrogen atom in the alkyl group has been replaced by
a fluoro group.


The term "cycloalkyl" means a mono-, bi-, or tricyclic saturated ring that is fully saturated or partially unsaturated.  Examples of such a group included cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, cyclopentyl, cyclohexyl, cycloheptyl, adamantyl, cyclooctyl, cis-
or trans decalin, bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-ene, cyclohex-1-enyl, cyclopent-1-enyl, 1,4-cyclooctadienyl, and the like.


The term "(cycloalkyl)alkyl" means the above-defined alkyl group substituted for one of the above cycloalkyl rings.  Examples of such a group include (cyclohexyl)methyl, 3-(cyclopropyl)-n-propyl, 5-(cyclopentyl)hexyl, 6-(adamantyl)hexyl, and the
like.


The term "substituted phenyl" specifies a phenyl group substituted with one or more moieties, and in some instances one, two, or three moieties, chosen from the groups consisting of halogen, hydroxy, protected hydroxy, cyano, nitro,
trifluoromethyl, C.sub.1 to C.sub.7 alkyl, C.sub.1 to C.sub.7 alkoxy, C.sub.1 to C.sub.7 acyl, C.sub.1 to C.sub.7 acyloxy, carboxy, oxycarboxy, protected carboxy, carboxymethyl, protected carboxymethyl, hydroxymethyl, protected hydroxymethyl, amino,
protected amino, (monosubstituted)amino, protected (monosubstituted)amino, (disubstituted)amino, carboxamide, protected carboxamide, N--(C.sub.1 to C.sub.6 alkyl)carboxamide, protected N--(C.sub.1 to C.sub.6 alkyl)carboxamide, N,N-di(C.sub.1 to C.sub.6
alkyl)carboxamide, trifluoromethyl, N--((C.sub.1 to C.sub.6 alkyl)sulfonyl)amino, N-(phenylsulfonyl)amino or phenyl, substituted or unsubstituted, such that, for example, a biphenyl or naphthyl group results.


Examples of the term "substituted phenyl" includes a mono- or di(halo)phenyl group such as 2, 3 or 4-chlorophenyl, 2,6-dichlorophenyl, 2,5-dichlorophenyl, 3,4-dichlorophenyl, 2, 3 or 4-bromophenyl, 3,4-dibromophenyl, 3-chloro-4-fluorophenyl, 2, 3
or 4-fluorophenyl and the like; a mono or di(hydroxy)phenyl group such as 2, 3, or 4-hydroxyphenyl, 2,4-dihydroxyphenyl, the protected-hydroxy derivatives thereof and the like; a nitrophenyl group such as 2, 3, or 4-nitrophenyl; a cyanophenyl group, for
example, 2, 3 or 4-cyanophenyl; a mono- or di(alkyl)phenyl group such as 2, 3, or 4-methylphenyl, 2,4-dimethylphenyl, 2, 3 or 4-(iso-propyl)phenyl, 2, 3, or 4-ethylphenyl, 2, 3 or 4-(n-propyl)phenyl and the like; a mono or di(alkoxy)phenyl group, for
example, 2,6-dimethoxyphenyl, 2, 3 or 4-(isopropoxy)phenyl, 2, 3 or 4-(t-butoxy)phenyl, 3-ethoxy-4-methoxyphenyl and the like; 2, 3 or 4-trifluoromethylphenyl; a mono- or dicarboxyphenyl or (protected carboxy)phenyl group such as 2, 3 or 4-carboxyphenyl
or 2,4-di(protected carboxy)phenyl; a mono- or di(hydroxymethyl)phenyl or (protected hydroxymethyl)phenyl such as 2, 3 or 4-(protected hydroxymethyl)phenyl or 3,4-di(hydroxymethyl)phenyl; a mono- or di(aminomethyl)phenyl or (protected aminomethyl)phenyl
such as 2, 3 or 4-(aminomethyl)phenyl or 2,4-(protected aminomethyl)phenyl; or a mono- or di(N-(methylsulfonylamino))phenyl such as 2, 3 or 4-(N-(methylsulfonylamino))phenyl.  Also, the term "substituted phenyl" represents disubstituted phenyl groups
wherein the substituents are different, for example, 3-methyl-4-hydroxyphenyl, 3-chloro-4-hydroxyphenyl, 2-methoxy-4-bromophenyl, 4-ethyl-2-hydroxyphenyl, 3-hydroxy-4-nitrophenyl, 2-hydroxy-4-chlorophenyl and the like.


The term "(substituted phenyl)alkyl" means one of the above substituted phenyl groups attached to one of the above-described alkyl groups.  Examples of include such groups as 2-phenyl-1-chloroethyl, 2-(4'-methoxyphenyl)ethyl, 4-(2',6'-dihydroxy
phenyl)n-hexyl, 2-(5'-cyano-3'-methoxyphenyl)n-pentyl, 3-(2',6'-dimethylphenyl)n-propyl, 4-chloro-3-aminobenzyl, 6-(4'-methoxyphenyl)-3-carboxy(n-hexyl), 5-(4'-aminomethylphenyl)-3-(aminomethyl)n-pentyl, 5-phenyl-3-oxo-n-pent-1-yl,
(4-hydroxynapth-2-yl)methyl and the like.


As noted above, the term "aromatic" or "aryl" refers to six membered carbocyclic rings.  Also as noted above, the term "heteroaryl" denotes optionally substituted five-membered or six-membered rings that have 1 to 4 heteroatoms, such as oxygen,
sulfur and/or nitrogen atoms, in particular nitrogen, either alone or in conjunction with sulfur or oxygen ring atoms.


Furthermore, the above optionally substituted five-membered or six-membered rings can optionally be fused to an aromatic 5-membered or 6-membered ring system.  For example, the rings can be optionally fused to an aromatic 5-membered or 6-membered
ring system such as a pyridine or a triazole system, e.g., to a benzene ring.


The following ring systems are examples of the heterocyclic (whether substituted or unsubstituted) radicals denoted by the term "heteroaryl": thienyl, furyl, pyrrolyl, pyrrolidinyl, imidazolyl, isoxazolyl, triazolyl, thiadiazolyl, oxadiazolyl,
tetrazolyl, thiatriazolyl, oxatriazolyl, pyridyl, pyrimidyl, pyrazinyl, pyridazinyl, oxazinyl, triazinyl, thiadiazinyl tetrazolo, 1,5-[b]pyridazinyl and purinyl, as well as benzo-fused derivatives, for example, benzoxazolyl, benzthiazolyl, benzimidazolyl
and indolyl.


Substituents for the above optionally substituted heteroaryl rings are from one to three halo, trihalomethyl, amino, protected amino, amino salts, mono-substituted amino, di-substituted amino, carboxy, protected carboxy, carboxylate salts,
hydroxy, protected hydroxy, salts of a hydroxy group, lower alkoxy, lower alkylthio, alkyl, substituted alkyl, cycloalkyl, substituted cycloalkyl, (cycloalkyl)alkyl, substituted (cycloalkyl)alkyl, phenyl, substituted phenyl, phenylalkyl, and (substituted
phenyl)alkyl.  Substituents for the heteroaryl group are as heretofore defined, or in the case of trihalomethyl, can be trifluoromethyl, trichloromethyl, tribromomethyl, or triiodomethyl.  As used in conjunction with the above substituents for heteroaryl
rings, "lower alkoxy" means a C.sub.1 to C.sub.4 alkoxy group, similarly, "lower alkylthio" means a C.sub.1 to C.sub.4 alkylthio group.


The term "(monosubstituted)amino" refers to an amino group with one substituent chosen from the group consisting of phenyl, substituted phenyl, alkyl, substituted alkyl, C.sub.1 to C.sub.4 acyl, C.sub.2 to C.sub.7 alkenyl, C.sub.2 to C.sub.7
substituted alkenyl, C.sub.2 to C.sub.7 alkynyl, C.sub.7 to C.sub.16 alkylaryl, C.sub.7 to C.sub.16 substituted alkylaryl and heteroaryl group.  The (monosubstituted) amino can additionally have an amino-protecting group as encompassed by the term
"protected (monosubstituted)amino." The term "(disubstituted)amino" refers to amino groups with two substituents chosen from the group consisting of phenyl, substituted phenyl, alkyl, substituted alkyl, C.sub.1 to C.sub.7 acyl, C.sub.2 to C.sub.7
alkenyl, C.sub.2 to C.sub.7 alkynyl, C.sub.7 to C.sub.16 alkylaryl, C.sub.7 to C.sub.16 substituted alkylaryl and heteroaryl.  The two substituents can be the same or different.


The term "heteroaryl(alkyl)" denotes an alkyl group as defined above, substituted at any position by a heteroaryl group, as above defined.


"Optional" or "optionally" means that the subsequently described event, circumstance, feature, or element may, but need not, occur, and that the description includes instances where the event or circumstance occurs and instances in which it does
not.  For example, "heterocyclo group optionally mono- or di-substituted with an alkyl group" means that the alkyl may, but need not, be present, and the description includes situations where the heterocyclo group is mono- or disubstituted with an alkyl
group and situations where the heterocyclo group is not substituted with the alkyl group.


Compounds that have the same molecular formula but differ in the nature or sequence of bonding of their atoms or the arrangement of their atoms in space are termed "isomers." Isomers that differ in the arrangement of their atoms in space are
termed "stereoisomers." Stereoisomers that are not mirror images of one another are termed "diastereomers" and those that are non-superimposable mirror images of each other are termed "enantiomers." When a compound has an asymmetric center, for example,
it is bonded to four different groups, a pair of enantiomers is possible.  An enantiomer can be characterized by the absolute configuration of its asymmetric center and is described by the R- and S-sequencing rules of Cahn and Prelog, or by the manner in
which the molecule rotates the plane of polarized light and designated as dextrorotatory or levorotatory (i.e., as (+) or (-)-isomers respectively).  A chiral compound can exist as either individual enantiomer or as a mixture thereof.  A mixture
containing equal proportions of the enantiomers is called a "racemic mixture."


The compounds of this invention may possess one or more asymmetric centers; such compounds can therefore be produced as individual (R)-- or (S)-stereoisomers or as mixtures thereof.  Unless indicated otherwise, the description or naming of a
particular compound in the specification and claims is intended to include both individual enantiomers and mixtures, racemic or otherwise, thereof.  The methods for the determination of stereochemistry and the separation of stereoisomers are well-known
in the art (see, e.g., the discussion in Chapter 4 of "Advanced Organic Chemistry", 4th edition J. March, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1992).


Before the present invention is further described, it is to be understood that this invention is not limited to particular embodiments described, as such may, of course, vary.  It is also to be understood that the terminology used herein is for
the purpose of describing particular embodiments only, and is not intended to be limiting, since the scope of the present invention will be limited only by the appended claims.


Where a range of values is provided, it is understood that each intervening value, to the tenth of the unit of the lower limit unless the context clearly dictates otherwise, between the upper and lower limit of that range and any other stated or
intervening value in that stated range, is encompassed within the invention.  The upper and lower limits of these smaller ranges may independently be included in the smaller ranges, and are also encompassed within the invention, subject to any
specifically excluded limit in the stated range.  Where the stated range includes one or both of the limits, ranges excluding either or both of those included limits are also included in the invention.


Unless defined otherwise, all technical and scientific terms used herein have the same meaning as commonly understood by one of ordinary skill in the art to which this invention belongs.  Although any methods and materials similar or equivalent
to those described herein can also be used in the practice or testing of the present invention, the preferred methods and materials are now described.  All publications mentioned herein are incorporated herein by reference to disclose and describe the
methods and/or materials in connection with which the publications are cited.


It must be noted that as used herein and in the appended claims, the singular forms "a," "and," and "the" include plural referents unless the context clearly dictates otherwise.  Thus, for example, reference to "a modified cycloalkyne" includes a
plurality of such modified cycloalkynes and reference to "the target molecule" includes reference to one or more target molecules and equivalents thereof known to those skilled in the art, and so forth.  It is further noted that the claims may be drafted
to exclude any optional element.  As such, this statement is intended to serve as antecedent basis for use of such exclusive terminology as "solely," "only" and the like in connection with the recitation of claim elements, or use of a "negative"
limitation.


The publications discussed herein are provided solely for their disclosure prior to the filing date of the present application.  Nothing herein is to be construed as an admission that the present invention is not entitled to antedate such
publication by virtue of prior invention.  Further, the dates of publication provided may be different from the actual publication dates which may need to be independently confirmed.


DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION


The present invention features a strain-promoted [3+2] cycloaddition reaction that can be carried out under physiological conditions.  In general, the invention involves reacting a modified cycloalkyne with an azide moiety on a biomolecule,
generating a covalently modified biomolecule.  The selectivity of the reaction and its compatibility with aqueous environments provides for its application in vivo (e.g., on the cell surface or intracellularly) and in vitro (e.g., synthesis of peptides
and other polymers, production of modified (e.g., labeled) amino acids).  The reaction is compatible with modification of living cells.


The invention provides methods and compositions for specifically and efficiently synthetically modifying cellular components in an aqueous environment, thus providing for modification of such cellular components on or in living cells.  The
invention uses reactive partners that are completely abiotic and are chemically orthogonal to native cellular components, thus providing for extreme selectivity of the reaction.  Furthermore, the reaction can be carried out under physiological
conditions, e.g., a pH of about 7 within an aqueous environment, and at about 37.degree.  C.


The invention is based in part on the discovery of a means for carrying out a modified Huisgen reaction that can be carried out in an aqueous, physiological environment.  Because the reaction of the invention is highly selective and functions in
aqueous solvents, the reaction can be used in a variety of applications both in vitro and in vivo.  The reaction is accomplished through use of a first molecule comprising a strained cycloalkyne moiety, and second molecule comprising an azide moiety. 
The azide moiety on the second molecule reacts, in the absence of a catalyst, with the strained cycloalkyne moiety on the first molecule, forming a final conjugate product comprising fused azide/cycloalkyne ring.  The first molecule comprising the
strained cycloalkyne moiety can further comprise a moiety that allows for subsequent reactions and/or which provides for detectable labeling of the product of the final reaction.  The reaction proceeds without the need for a catalyst.  Instead,
activation energy for the reaction is provided by azide group and the strained cycloalkyne group.  The invention takes advantage of the massive bond angle deformation of the acetylene group in the cycloalkyne moiety, which provides for ring strain.  For
example, the bond angle deformation of the acetylene group of cyclooctyne to 163.degree.  accounts for nearly 18 kcal/mol of ring strain.  This destabilization of the ground state versus the transition state of the reaction provides a dramatic rate
acceleration compared to unstrained alkynes.


Modified Cycloalkyne Compounds


The present invention provides modified cycloalkyne compounds; and compositions comprising the compounds.  A subject modified cycloalkyne is a compound of the formula: Y--R.sub.1--X


where:


X is a strained cycloalkyne group, or a heterocycloalkyne group, substituted with R.sub.1, and in some embodiments one or more additional groups;


Y is H; a moiety that comprises a reactive group that facilitates covalent attachment of a molecule of interest; or a molecule of interest; and


R.sub.1 is selected from a carboxylic acid, an alkyl ester, an aryl ester, a substituted aryl ester, an aldehyde, an amide, an aryl amide, an alkyl halide, a thioester, a sulfonyl ester, an alkyl ketone, an aryl ketone, a substituted aryl ketone,
a halosulfonyl, a nitrile, and a nitro.  In some embodiments, R.sub.1 is a substituted or unsubstituted aliphatic group, e.g., a substituted or unsubstituted alkyl; a substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl; or a substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl.  In
some embodiments, R.sub.1 is a substituted or unsubstituted phenyl.


In some embodiments, Y is a reactive group.  Suitable reactive groups include, but are not necessarily limited to, carboxyl, amine, (e.g., alkyl amine (e.g., lower alkyl amine), aryl amine), ester (e.g., alkyl ester (e.g., lower alkyl ester,
benzyl ester), aryl ester, substituted aryl ester), thioester, sulfonyl halide, alcohol, thiol, succinimidyl ester, isothiocyanate, iodoacetamide, maleimide, hydrazine, and the like.  In some embodiments, Y is a reactive group selected from a carboxyl,
an amine, an ester, a thioester, a sulfonyl halide, an alcohol, a thiol, a succinimidyl ester, an isothiocyanate, an iodoacetamide, a maleimide, and a hydrazine.


In some embodiments, Y is a molecule of interest, where suitable molecules of interest include, but are not limited to, a detectable label; a toxin (including cytotoxins); a linker; a peptide; a drug; a member of a specific binding pair; an
epitope tag; and the like.  Where Y is a molecule of interest other than a linker, the molecule of interest is attached directly to R.sub.1, or is attached through a linker.


The cycloalkyne is a strained cycloalkyne, e.g., the cycloalkyne increases the rate of reaction from about 2-fold to about 1000-fold, e.g., the cycloalkyne increases the rate of reaction at least about 2-fold, at least about 5-fold, at least
about 10-fold, at least about 50-fold, at least about 100-fold, at least about 500-fold, or at least about 1000-fold, compared to the rate of reaction between an azide and a linear alkyne having the same number of carbon atoms as the cycloalkyne.  The
strained cycloalkyne will in some embodiments be a heterocycloalkyne, e.g., the cycloalkyne will in some embodiments comprise atoms other than carbon.  In some embodiments, the cycloalkyne or heterocycloalkyne will be a 7-membered ring.  In other
embodiments, the cycloalkyne or heterocycloalkyne will be an 8-membered ring.  In other embodiments, the cycloalkyne or heterocycloalkyne will be a 9-membered ring.  The strain on the cycloalkyne can be increased in a variety of ways, e.g., through the
use of heteroatoms; the degree of unsaturation, or torsional strain; the use of electron-withdrawing groups, etc. In some embodiments of particular interest, the cycloalkyne is a cyclooctyne.  In some embodiments, the strained cycloalkyne is a compound
in which one or more of the carbon atoms in the cycloalkyne ring, other than the two carbon atoms joined by a triple bond, is substituted with one or more electron-withdrawing groups, e.g., a halo (bromo, chloro, fluoro, iodo), a nitro group, a cyano
group, or a sulfone group.  Where the electron-withdrawing group is a nitro group, a cyano group, or a sulfone group, the electron-withdrawing group is not directly linked to the cycloalkyne ring.


In some embodiments, a subject modified cycloalkyne is of Formula I:


 ##STR00001##


where:


Y is H; a moiety that comprises a reactive group that facilitates covalent attachment of a molecule of interest; or a molecule of interest; and


R.sub.1 is selected from a carboxylic acid, an alkyl ester, an aryl ester, a substituted aryl ester, an aldehyde, an amide, an aryl amide, an alkyl halide, a thioester, a sulfonyl ester, an alkyl ketone, an aryl ketone, a substituted aryl ketone,
a halosulfonyl, a nitrile, and a nitro.  R.sub.1 can be at any position on the cyclooctyne group other than at the two carbons joined by the triple bond.


In some embodiments, the modified cycloalkyne is of Formula I, wherein one or more of the carbon atoms in the cyclooctyne ring, other than the two carbon atoms joined by a triple bond, is substituted with one or more electron-withdrawing groups,
e.g., a halo (bromo, chloro, fluoro, iodo), a nitro group, a cyano group, a sulfone group, or a sulfonic acid group.  Thus, e.g., in some embodiments, a subject modified cycloalkyne is of Formula II:


 ##STR00002##


where:


each of X and X' is independently: (a) H; (b) one or two halogen atoms (e.g., bromo, chloro, fluoro, iodo); (c) --W--(CH.sub.2).sub.n--Z (where: n is an integer from 1-4 (e.g., n=1, 2, 3, or 4); W, if present, is O, N, or S; and Z is nitro,
cyano, sulfonic acid, or a halogen); (d) --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--W--(CH.sub.2).sub.m--Z (where: n and m are each independently 1 or 2; W is O, N, S, or sulfonyl; if W is O, N, or S, then Z is nitro, cyano, or halogen; and if W is sulfonyl, then Z is H); or
(e) --CH.sub.2).sub.n--Z (where: n is an integer from 1-4 (e.g., n=1, 2, 3, or 4); and Z is nitro, cyano, sulfonic acid, or a halogen);


Y is H; a moiety that comprises a reactive group that facilitates covalent attachment of a molecule of interest; or a molecule of interest; and


R.sub.1 is selected from a carboxylic acid, an alkyl ester, an aryl ester, a substituted aryl ester, an aldehyde, an amide, an aryl amide, an alkyl halide, a thioester, a sulfonyl ester, an alkyl ketone, an aryl ketone, a substituted aryl ketone,
a halosulfonyl, a nitrile, and a nitro.  R.sub.1 can be at any position on the cyclooctyne group other than at the two carbons linked by the triple bond.


In some embodiments, a subject modified cycloalkyne is of Formula III:


 ##STR00003##


where:


Y is H; a moiety that comprises a reactive group that facilitates covalent attachment of a molecule of interest; or a molecule of interest; and


R.sub.1 is selected from a carboxylic acid, an alkyl ester, an aryl ester, a substituted aryl ester, an aldehyde, an amide, an aryl amide, an alkyl halide, a thioester, a sulfonyl ester, an alkyl ketone, an aryl ketone, a substituted aryl ketone,
a halosulfonyl, a nitrile, and a nitro.  R.sub.1 can be at any position on the cyclooctyne group other than at the two carbons linked by the triple bond.


In some embodiments, a subject modified cycloalkyne is of Formula IV:


 ##STR00004##


where:


Y is H; a moiety that comprises a reactive group that facilitates covalent attachment of a molecule of interest; or a molecule of interest; and


R.sub.1 is selected from a carboxylic acid, an alkyl ester, an aryl ester, a substituted aryl ester, an aldehyde, an amide, an aryl amide, an alkyl halide, a thioester, a sulfonyl ester, an alkyl ketone, an aryl ketone, a substituted aryl ketone,
a halosulfonyl, a nitrile, and a nitro.  R.sub.1 can be at any position on the cyclooctyne group other than at the two carbons linked by the triple bond.


Exemplary, non-limiting examples of a subject halogenated cyclooctyne compound include:


 ##STR00005## Molecules of Interest


In some embodiments, Y is a molecule of interest.  Suitable molecules of interest include, but are not limited to, a detectable label; a toxin (including cytotoxins); a linker; a peptide; a drug; a member of a specific binding pair; an epitope
tag; and the like.  Where Y is a molecule of interest other than a linker, the molecule of interest is attached directly to R.sub.1, or is attached through a linker.


Where Y is a molecule of interest, the modified cycloalkyne comprises a molecule desired for delivery and conjugation to the azido-target substrate (azide-containing target molecule), which target substrate may be displayed on the cell surface,
may reside within the cell membrane, or may be intracellular.  Molecules that may be desirable for delivery include, but are not necessarily limited to, detectable labels (e.g., spin labels, fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-type dyes, e.g.,
for studying structure of biomolecules in vivo), small molecule drugs, cytotoxic molecules (e.g. drugs), ligands for binding by a target receptor (e.g., to facilitate viral attachment, attachment of a targeting protein present on a liposome, etc.), tags
to aid in purification by, for example, affinity chromatography (e.g., attachment of a FLAG epitope), and molecules to facilitate selective attachment of the polypeptide to a surface, and the like.  Specific, non-limiting examples are provided below.


Detectable Labels


The compositions and methods of the invention can be used to deliver a detectable label to a target molecule having an azide.  Thus, in some embodiments, a subject modified cycloalkyne comprises a detectable label, covalently bound to the
modified cycloalkyne either directly or through a linker.


Exemplary detectable labels include, but are not necessarily limited to, fluorescent molecules (e.g., autofluorescent molecules, molecules that fluoresce upon contact with a reagent, etc.), radioactive labels (e.g., .sup.111In, .sup.125I,
.sup.131I, .sup.212B, .sup.90Y, .sup.186Rh, and the like); biotin (e.g., to be detected through reaction of biotin and avidin); fluorescent tags; imaging reagents (e.g., those described in U.S.  Pat.  No. 4,741,900 and U.S.  Pat.  No. 5,326,856), and the
like.  Detectable labels also include peptides or polypeptides that can be detected by antibody binding, e.g., by binding of a detectably labeled antibody or by detection of bound antibody through a sandwich-type assay.  Also suitable for use are quantum
dots (e.g., detectably labeled semiconductor nanocrystals, such as fluorescently labeled quantum dots, antibody-conjugated quantum dots, and the like).  See, e.g., Dubertret et al. 2002 Science 298:759-1762; Chan et al. (1998) Science 281:2016-2018; U.S. Pat.  No. 6,855,551; Bruchez et al. (1998) Science 281:2013-2016


Suitable fluorescent molecules (fluorophores) include, but are not limited to, fluorescein, fluorescein isothiocyanate, succinimidyl esters of carboxyfluorescein, succinimidyl esters of fluorescein, 5-isomer of fluorescein dichlorotriazine, caged
carboxyfluorescein-alanine-carboxamide, Oregon Green 488, Oregon Green 514; Lucifer Yellow, acridine Orange, rhodamine, tetramethylrhodamine, Texas Red, propidium iodide, JC-1 (5,5',6,6'-tetrachloro-1,1',3,3'-tetraethylbenzimidazoylcarbocyanine iodide),
tetrabromorhodamine 123, rhodamine 6G, TMRM (tetramethylrhodamine-, methyl ester), TMRE (tetramethylrhodamine, ethyl ester), tetramethylrosamine, rhodamine B and 4-dimethylaminotetramethylrosamine, green fluorescent protein, blue-shifted green
fluorescent protein, cyan-shifted green fluorescent protein, red-shifted green fluorescent protein, yellow-shifted green fluorescent protein, 4-acetamido-4'-isothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'disulfonic acid; acridine and derivatives: acridine, acridine
isothiocyanate; 5-(2'-aminoethyl)aminonaphthalene-1-sulfonic acid (EDANS); 4-amino-N-[3-vinylsulfonyl)phenyl]naphth-alimide-3,5 disulfonate; N-(4-anilino-1-naphthyl)maleimide; anthranilamide; 4,4-difluoro-5-(2-thienyl)-4-bora-3a,4a
diaza-5-indacene-3-propioni-c acid BODIPY; cascade blue; Brilliant Yellow; coumarin and derivatives: coumarin, 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin (AMC, Coumarin 120),7-amino-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin (Coumarin 151); cyanine dyes; cyanosine;
4',6-diaminidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI); 5',5''-dibromopyrogallol-sulfonaphthalein (Bromopyrogallol Red); 7-diethylamino-3-(4'-isothiocyanatophenyl)-4-methylcoumarin; diethylenetriaamine pentaacetate; 4,4'-diisothiocyanatodihydro-stilbene-2-,2'-disulfonic
acid; 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid; 5-(dimethylamino]naphthalene-1-sulfonyl chloride (DNS, dansylchloride); 4-dimethylaminophenylazophenyl-4'-isothiocyanate (DABITC); eosin and derivatives: eosin, eosin isothiocyanate, erythrosin
and derivatives: erythrosin B, erythrosin, isothiocyanate; ethidium; fluorescein and derivatives: 5-carboxyfluorescein (FAM),5-(4,6-dichlorotriazin-2-yl)amino-fluorescein (DTAF), 2',7'dimethoxy-4'5'-dichloro-6-carboxyfluorescein (JOE), fluorescein,
fluorescein isothiocyanate, QFITC, (XRITC); fluorescamine; IR144; IR1446; Malachite Green isothiocyanate; 4-methylumbelli-feroneortho cresolphthalein; nitrotyrosine; pararosaniline; Phenol Red; B-phycoerythrin;  o-phthaldialdehyde; pyrene and
derivatives: pyrene, pyrene butyrate, succinimidyl 1-pyrene; butyrate quantum dots; Reactive Red 4 (Cibacron.TM.  Brilliant Red 3B-A) rhodamine and derivatives: 6-carboxy-X-rhodamine (ROX), 6-carboxyrhodamine (R6G), lissamine rhodamine B sulfonyl
chloride rhodamine (Rhod), rhodamine B, rhodamine 123, rhodamine X isothiocyanate, sulforhodamine B, sulforhodamine 101, sulfonyl chloride derivative of sulforhodamine 101 (Texas Red); N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-6-carboxyrhodamine (TAMRA); tetramethyl
rhodamine; tetramethyl hodamine isothiocyanate (TRITC); riboflavin; 5-(2'-aminoethyl) aminonaphthalene-1-sulfonic acid (EDANS), 4-(4'-dimethylaminophenylazo)benzoic acid (DABCYL), rosolic acid; CAL Fluor Orange 560; terbium chelate derivatives; Cy 3; Cy
5; Cy 5.5; Cy 7; IRD 700; IRD 800; La Jolla Blue; phthalo cyanine; and naphthalo cyanine, coumarins and related dyes, xanthene dyes such as rhodols, resorufins, bimanes, acridines, isoindoles, dansyl dyes, aminophthalic hydrazides such as luminol, and
isoluminol derivatives, aminophthalimides, aminonaphthalimides, aminobenzofurans, aminoquinolines, dicyanohydroquinones, and fluorescent europium and terbium complexes; and the like.  Fluorophores of interest are farther described in WO 01/42505 and WO
01/86001.


Suitable fluorescent proteins and chromogenic proteins include, but are not limited to, a green fluorescent protein (GFP), including, but not limited to, a GFP derived from Aequoria victoria or a derivative thereof, e.g., a "humanized" derivative
such as Enhanced GFP, which is available commercially, e.g., from Clontech, Inc.; a GFP from another species such as Renilla reniformis, Renilla mulleri, or Ptilosarcus guernyi, as described in, e.g., WO 99/49019 and Peelle et al. (2001) J. Protein Chem.
20:507-519; "humanized" recombinant GFP (hrGFP) (Stratagene); any of a variety of fluorescent and colored proteins from Anthozoan species, as described in, e.g., Matz et al. (1999) Nature Biotechnol.  17:969-973; and the like.


Suitable epitope tags include, but are not limited to, hemagglutinin (HA; e.g., CYPYDVPDYA; SEQ ID NO:1), FLAG (e.g., DYKDDDDK; SEQ ID NO:2), FLAG-C (e.g., DYKDDDDKC; SEQ ID NO:3, c-myc (e.g., CEQKLISEEDL; SEQ ID NO:4), a metal ion affinity tag
such as a polyhistidine tag (e.g., His.sub.6), and the like.


Suitable imaging agents include positive contrast agents and negative contrast agents.  Suitable positive contrast agents include, but are not limited to, gadolinium tetraazacyclododecanetetraacetic acid (Gd-DOTA);
Gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA); Gadolinium-1,4,7-tris(carbonylmethyl)-10-(2'-hydroxypropyl)-1,4,7,10-tetr- aazacyclododecane (Gd-HP-DO3A); Manganese(II)-dipyridoxal diphosphate (Mn-DPDP);
Gd-diethylenetriaminepentaacetate-bis(methylamide) (Gd-DTPA-BMA); and the like.  Suitable negative contrast agents include, but are not limited to, a superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) imaging agent; and a perfluorocarbon, where suitable
perfluorocarbons include, but are not limited to, fluoroheptanes, fluorocycloheptanes, fluoromethylcycloheptanes, fluorohexanes, fluorocyclohexanes, fluoropentanes, fluorocyclopentanes, fluoromethylcyclopentanes, fluorodimethylcyclopentanes,
fluoromethylcyclobutanes, fluorodimethylcyclobutanes, fluorotrimethylcyclobutanes, fluorobutanes, fluorocyclobutanse, fluoropropanes, fluoroethers, fluoropolyethers, fluorotriethylamines, perfluorohexanes, perfluoropentanes, perfluorobutanes,
perfluoropropanes, sulfur hexafluoride, and the like.


Specific Binding Partners


In another embodiment, a subject modified cycloalkyne comprises a member of a pair of binding partners A member of a pair of binding partners is referred to herein as a "specific binding partner."


Suitable specific binding partners include, but are not limited to, a member of a receptor/ligand pair; a member of an antibody/antigen pair; a member of a lectin/carbohydrate pair; a member of an enzyme/substrate pair; biotin/avidin;
biotin/streptavidin; digoxin/antidigoxin; and the like.  Suitable specific binding partners include, but are not limited to a receptor ligand; a receptor for a ligand; a ligand-binding portion of a receptor; an antibody; an antigen-binding fragment of an
antibody; an antigen; a hapten; a lectin; a lectin-binding carbohydrate; an enzyme substrate; an irreversible inhibitor of an enzyme (e.g., an irreversible inhibitor that binds a substrate binding site of an enzyme, e.g., a "suicide" substrate); and the
like.


Suitable ligand members of receptor/ligand pairs include, but are not limited to, neurotransmitters such as opioid compounds, acetylcholine, and the like; viral proteins that bind to a cell surface receptor, e.g., human immunodeficiency virus
gp120, and the like; hormones; and the like.


Suitable antigen-binding antibody fragments include F(ab').sub.2, F(ab).sub.2, Fab', Fab, Fv, scFv, and Fd fragments, single-chain antibodies, and fusion proteins comprising an antigen-binding portion of an antibody and a non-antibody protein
(e.g., an antigen-binding fragment of an antibody fused to an immunoglobulin constant region).


Suitable haptens include, but are not limited to, (4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl) acetyl; diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) or one of its metal complexes; paranitrophenyl; biotin; fluorescein isothiocyanate; and the like.


Drugs


Suitable drugs that can be attached to a modified cycloalkyne moiety include, but are not limited to, cytotoxic compounds (e.g., cancer chemotherapeutic compounds); antiviral compounds; biological response modifiers (e.g., hormones, chemokines,
cytokines, interleukins, etc.); microtubule affecting agents; hormone modulators; steroidal compounds; and the like.


Suitable cancer chemotherapeutic compounds include, but are not limited to, non-peptidic (i.e., non-proteinaceous) compounds that reduce proliferation of cancer cells; peptidic compounds that reduce proliferation of cancer cells; anti-metabolite
agents; cytotoxic agents; and cytostatic agents.  Non-limiting examples of chemotherapeutic agents include alkylating agents, nitrosoureas, antimetabolites, antitumor antibiotics, plant (vinca) alkaloids, and steroid hormones.


Suitable agents that act to reduce cellular proliferation include, but are not limited to, alkylating agents, such as nitrogen mustards, nitrosoureas, ethylenimine derivatives, alkyl sulfonates, and triazenes, including, but not limited to,
mechlorethamine, cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan.TM.), melphalan (L-sarcolysin), carmustine (BCNU), lomustine (CCNU), semustine (methyl-CCNU), streptozocin, chlorozotocin, uracil mustard, chlormethine, ifosfamide, chlorambucil, pipobroman, triethylenemelamine,
triethylenethiophosphoramine, busulfan, dacarbazine, and temozolomide.


Suitable antimetabolite agents include folic acid analogs, pyrimidine analogs, purine analogs, and adenosine deaminase inhibitors, including, but not limited to, cytarabine (CYTOSAR-U), cytosine arabinoside, fluorouracil (5-FU), floxuridine
(FudR), 6-thioguanine, 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP), pentostatin, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), methotrexate, 10-propargyl-5,8-dideazafolate (PDDF, CB3717), 5,8-dideazatetrahydrofolic acid (DDATHF), leucovorin, fludarabine phosphate, pentostatine, and gemcitabine.


Suitable anti-proliferative natural products and their derivatives, (e.g., vinca alkaloids, antitumor antibiotics, enzymes, lymphokines, and epipodophyllotoxins), include, but are not limited to, Ara-C, paclitaxel (Taxol.RTM.), docetaxel
(Taxotere.RTM.), deoxycoformycin, mitomycin-C, L-asparaginase, azathioprine; brequinar; alkaloids, e.g. vincristine, vinblastine, vinorelbine, vindesine, etc.; podophyllotoxins, e.g. etoposide, teniposide, etc.; antibiotics, e.g. anthracycline,
daunorubicin hydrochloride (daunomycin, rubidomycin, cerubidine), idarubicin, doxorubicin, epirubicin and morpholino derivatives, etc.; phenoxizone biscyclopeptides, e.g. dactinomycin; basic glycopeptides, e.g. bleomycin; anthraquinone glycosides, e.g.
plicamycin (mithramycin); anthracenediones, e.g. mitoxantrone; azirinopyrrolo indolediones, e.g. mitomycin; macrocyclic immunosuppressants, e.g. cyclosporine, FK-506 (tacrolimus, prograf), rapamycin, etc.; and the like.


Other suitable anti-proliferative cytotoxic agents are navelbene, CPT-11, anastrazole, letrazole, capecitabine, reloxafine, cyclophosphamide, ifosamide, and droloxafine.


Suitable microtubule affecting agents that have antiproliferative activity include, but are not limited to, allocolchicine (NSC 406042), Halichondrin B (NSC 609395), colchicine (NSC 757), colchicine derivatives (e.g., NSC 33410), dolstatin 10
(NSC 376128), maytansine (NSC 153858), rhizoxin (NSC 332598), paclitaxel (Taxol.RTM.), Taxol.RTM.  derivatives, docetaxel (Taxotere.RTM.), thiocolchicine (NSC 361792), trityl cysterin, vinblastine sulfate, vincristine sulfate, natural and synthetic
epothilones including but not limited to, eopthilone A, epothilone B, discodermolide; estramustine, nocodazole, and the like.


Suitable hormone modulators and steroids (including synthetic analogs) include, but are not limited to, adrenocorticosteroids, e.g. prednisone, dexamethasone, etc.; estrogens and pregestins, e.g. hydroxyprogesterone caproate, medroxyprogesterone
acetate, megestrol acetate, estradiol, clomiphene, tamoxifen; etc.; and adrenocortical suppressants, e.g. aminoglutethimide; 17.alpha.-ethinylestradiol; diethylstilbestrol, testosterone, fluoxymesterone, dromostanolone propionate, testolactone,
methylprednisolone, methyl-testosterone, prednisolone, triamcinolone, chlorotrianisene, hydroxyprogesterone, aminoglutethimide, estramustine, medroxyprogesterone acetate, leuprolide, Flutamide (Drogenil), Toremifene (Fareston), and Zoladex.RTM.. 
Estrogens stimulate proliferation and differentiation, therefore compounds that bind to the estrogen receptor are used to block this activity.  Corticosteroids may inhibit T cell proliferation.


Other suitable chemotherapeutic agents include metal complexes, e.g. cisplatin (cis-DDP), carboplatin, etc.; ureas, e.g. hydroxyurea; and hydrazines, e.g. N-methylhydrazine; epidophyllotoxin; a topoisomerase inhibitor; procarbazine; mitoxantrone;
leucovorin; tegafur; etc. Other anti-proliferative agents of interest include immunosuppressants, e.g. mycophenolic acid, thalidomide, desoxyspergualin, azasporine, leflunomide, mizoribine, azaspirane (SKF 105685); Iressa.RTM.  (ZD 1839,
4-(3-chloro-4-fluorophenylamino)-7-methoxy-6-(3-(4-morpholinyl)propoxy)qu- inazoline); etc.


Taxanes are also suitable for attachment to a cycloalkyne moiety.  "Taxanes" include paclitaxel, as well as any active taxane derivative or pro-drug.  "Paclitaxel" (which should be understood herein to include analogues, formulations, and
derivatives such as, for example, docetaxel, TAXOL.TM., TAXOTERE.TM.  (a formulation of docetaxel), 10-desacetyl analogs of paclitaxel and 3'N-desbenzoyl-3N-t-butoxycarbonyl analogs of paclitaxel) may be readily prepared utilizing techniques known to
those skilled in the art (see also WO 94/07882, WO 94/07881, WO 94/07880, WO 94/07876, WO 93/23555, WO 93/10076; U.S.  Pat.  Nos.  5,294,637; 5,283,253; 5,279,949; 5,274,137; 5,202,448; 5,200,534; 5,229,529; and EP 590,267), or obtained from a variety of
commercial sources, including for example, Sigma Chemical Co., St.  Louis, Mo.  (T7402 from Taxus brevifolia; or T-1912 from Taxus yannanensis).


Paclitaxel should be understood to refer to not only the common chemically available form of paclitaxel, but analogs and derivatives (e.g., Taxotere.TM.  docetaxel, as noted above) and paclitaxel conjugates (e.g., paclitaxel-PEG,
paclitaxel-dextran, or paclitaxel-xylose).


Also included within the term "taxane" are a variety of known derivatives, including both hydrophilic derivatives, and hydrophobic derivatives.  Taxane derivatives include, but not limited to, galactose and mannose derivatives described in
International Patent Application No. WO 99/18113; piperazino and other derivatives described in WO 99/14209; taxane derivatives described in WO 99/09021, WO 98/22451, and U.S.  Pat.  No. 5,869,680; 6-thio derivatives described in WO 98/28288; sulfenamide
derivatives described in U.S.  Pat.  No. 5,821,263; and taxol derivative described in U.S.  Pat.  No. 5,415,869.  It further includes prodrugs of paclitaxel including, but not limited to, those described in WO 98/58927; WO 98/13059; and U.S.  Pat.  No.
5,824,701.


Biological response modifiers that are suitable for attachment to a cycloalkyne moiety include, but are not limited to, (1) inhibitors of tyrosine kinase (RTK) activity; (2) inhibitors of serine/threonine kinase activity; (3) tumor-associated
antigen antagonists, such as antibodies that bind specifically to a tumor antigen; (4) apoptosis receptor agonists; (5) interleukin-2; (6) IFN-.alpha.; (7) IFN-.gamma.  (8) colony-stimulating factors; and (9) inhibitors of angiogenesis.


Linkers


Suitable linkers include, but are not limited to, a carboxylic acid, an alkyl ester, an aryl ester, a substituted aryl ester, an aldehyde, an amide, an aryl amide, an alkyl halide, a thioester, a sulfonyl ester, an alkyl ketone, an aryl ketone, a
substituted aryl ketone, a halosulfonyl, a nitrile, a nitro, and a peptide linker.


Exemplary peptide linkers for use in linking a molecule of interest to a modified cycloalkyne will in some embodiments have a combination of glycine, alanine, proline and methionine residues, where suitable peptide linkers include, but are not
limited to AAAGGM (SEQ ID NO:5); AAAGGMPPAAAGGM (SEQ ID NO:6); AAAGGM (SEQ ID NO:7); and PPAAAGGMM (SEQ ID NO:8).  Any flexible linker, generally having a length of from about 6 amino acids and about 40 amino acids is suitable for use.  Linkers may have
virtually any sequence that results in a generally flexible peptide, including alanine-proline rich sequences.


Compositions


The present invention further provides compositions, including pharmaceutical compositions, comprising a subject modified cycloalkyne compound.  A subject composition generally comprises a subject modified cycloalkyne compound; and at least one
additional compound.  Suitable additional compounds include, but are not limited to: a salt, such as a magnesium salt, a sodium salt, etc., e.g., NaCl, MgCl, KCl, MgSO.sub.4, etc.; a buffering agent, e.g., a Tris buffer,
N-(2-Hydroxyethyl)piperazine-N'-(2-ethanesulfonic acid) (HEPES), 2-(N-Morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid (MES), 2-(N-Morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid sodium salt (MES), 3-(N-Morpholino)propanesulfonic acid (MOPS),
N-tris[Hydroxymethyl]methyl-3-aminopropanesulfonic acid (TAPS), etc.; a solubilizing agent; a detergent, e.g., a non-ionic detergent such as Tween-20, etc.; a protease inhibitor; and the like.


In some embodiments, a subject composition comprises a subject modified cycloalkyne compound; and a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient.  A wide variety of pharmaceutically acceptable excipients are known in the art and need not be discussed in
detail herein.  Pharmaceutically acceptable excipients have been amply described in a variety of publications, including, for example, A. Gennaro (2000) "Remington: The Science and Practice of Pharmacy," 20.sup.th edition, Lippincott, Williams, &
Wilkins; Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms and Drug Delivery Systems (1999) H. C. Ansel et al., eds., 7.sup.th ed., Lippincott, Williams, & Wilkins; and Handbook of Pharmaceutical Excipients (2000) A. H. Kibbe et al., eds., 3.sup.rd ed.  Amer.  Pharmaceutical
Assoc.


The pharmaceutically acceptable excipients, such as vehicles, adjuvants, carriers or diluents, are readily available to the public.  Moreover, pharmaceutically acceptable auxiliary substances, such as pH adjusting and buffering agents, tonicity
adjusting agents, stabilizers, wetting agents and the like, are readily available to the public.


Methods of Modifying a Target Biomolecule


The present invention provides methods for chemoselective modification of a target molecule comprising an azide.  The methods generally involve reacting an azide in an azide-containing target molecule with a modified cycloalkyne.  The modified
cycloalkyne has a structure as described above.  Thus, in many embodiments, a subject method for synthetically modifying a cellular component generally involves: a) introducing an azide moiety into a cellular component, thereby generating an
azide-modified cellular component; and contacting the cell comprising the azide-modified cellular component with a reactive partner comprising a modified cycloalkyne, the contacting being under physiological conditions.  The contacting step results in
reaction between the azide group of azide-modified cellular component and the cycloalkyne of the reactive partner, thereby synthetically and covalently modifying the cellular component.  In some embodiments, the method is carried out on living cells in
vitro.  In other embodiments, the method is carried out on living cells ex vivo.  In still other embodiments, the method is carried out on living cells in vivo.


In one embodiment, the chemoselective ligation is designed for use in fully aqueous, physiological conditions and involves production of a stable, final product comprising a fused azide/cycloalkyne ring.  In general, this embodiment involves
reacting a first reactant comprising a strained cycloalkyne moiety with a second reactant comprising an azide, such that a covalent bond is formed between the first and second reactants by reaction of the strained cycloalkyne moiety with the azide group.


First Reactant


A first reactant comprises a strained cycloalkyne moiety that provides the energy for the reaction between the first and second reactants.  The first reactant is a modified cycloalkyne compound of the formula: Y--R.sub.1--X


where:


X is a cycloalkyne group substituted with R.sub.1;


Y is H; a moiety that comprises a reactive group that facilitates covalent attachment of a molecule of interest; or a molecule of interest;


R.sub.1 is selected from a carboxylic acid, an alkyl ester, an aryl ester, a substituted aryl ester, an aldehyde, an amide, an aryl amide, an alkyl halide, a thioester, a sulfonyl ester, an alkyl ketone, an aryl ketone, a substituted aryl ketone,
a halosulfonyl, a nitrile, and a nitro.  In some embodiments, the first reactant is a modified cycloalkyne compound of any of Formulas I-IV, as described above.


Exemplary reactive groups include, but are not necessarily limited to, carboxyl, amine, (e.g., alkyl amine (e.g., lower alkyl amine), aryl amine), ester (e.g., alkyl ester (e.g., lower alkyl ester, benzyl ester), aryl ester, substituted aryl
ester), thioester, sulfonyl halide, alcohol, thiol, succinimidyl ester, isothiocyanate, iodoacetamide, maleimide, hydrazine, and the like.  Exemplary molecules of interest further include dyes (e.g., fluorescein or modified fluorescein, and the like),
toxins (including cytotoxins), linkers, peptides, and the like.


The molecule of interest may be reacted directly with the reactive group or through a linker.  Exemplary molecules of interest include, but are not necessarily limited to, a detectable label, a drug, a peptide, a member of a specific binding
pair, and the like.  Such molecules of interest are described in more detail above.


In some embodiments, Y is a reactive group selected from a carboxyl, an amine, an ester, a thioester, a sulfonyl halide, an alcohol, a thiol, a succinimidyl ester, an isothiocyanate, an iodoacetamide, a maleimide, and a hydrazine.


In some embodiments, the cycloalkyne is a cyclooctyne.


In some embodiments, the modified cycloalkyne is of Formula I:


 ##STR00006##


where


Y is H; a moiety that comprises a reactive group that facilitates covalent attachment of a molecule of interest; or a molecule of interest;


R.sub.1 is selected from a carboxylic acid, an alkyl ester, an aryl ester, a substituted aryl ester, an aldehyde, an amide, an aryl amide, an alkyl halide, a thioester, a sulfonyl ester, an alkyl ketone, an aryl ketone, a substituted aryl ketone,
a halosulfonyl, a nitrile, and a nitro.


In other embodiments, the modified cycloalkyne is of any of Formulas II-IV, above.


Second Reactant


The second reactant is a compound that comprises an azide such that a covalent bond is formed between the first and second reactants by reaction of the cycloalkyne moiety with the azide group.  In general, the second reactant is of the formula:
R.sub.2--N.sub.3


where R.sub.2 is a target molecule, e.g., a biomolecule or other target molecule.


Target Molecules


Molecules comprising an azide and suitable for use in the present invention, as well as methods for producing azide-comprising molecules suitable for use in the present invention, are well known in the art.  Target molecules of particular
interest as the second reactant include, but are not necessarily limited to, amino acids and amino acid residues, polypeptides (including peptides and proteins), sugars or sugar residues, and the like, which contain or are modified to contain at least
one azide.


The target molecules can be naturally occurring, or may be synthetically or recombinantly produced, and may be isolated, substantially purified, or present within the native milieu of the unmodified molecule upon which the azide-containing target
molecule is based (e.g., on a cell surface or within a cell, including within a host animal, e.g., a mammalian animal, such as a murine host (e.g., rat, mouse), hamster, canine, feline, bovine, swine, and the like).  In some embodiments, the target
molecule is present in vitro in a cell-free reaction.  In other embodiments, the target molecule is present in a cell and/or displayed on the surface of a cell.  In many embodiments of interest, the target molecule is in a living cell; on the surface of
a living cell; in a living organism, e.g., in a living multicellular organism.  Suitable living cells include cells that are part of a living multicellular organism; cells isolated from a multicellular organism; immortalized cell lines; and the like.


Where the target molecule is a polypeptide, the polypeptide may be composed of D-amino acids, L-amino acids, or both, and may be further modified, either naturally, synthetically, or recombinantly, to include other moieties.  For example, the
target polypeptide may be a lipoprotein, a glycoprotein, or other such modified protein.


In general, the target molecule useful as the second reactant comprises at least one azide for reaction with modified cycloalkyne according to the invention, but may comprise 2 or more, 3 or more, 5 or more, 10 or more azides.  The number of
azides that may be present in a target molecule will vary according to the intended application of the final product of the reaction, the nature of the target molecule itself, and other considerations which will be readily apparent to the ordinarily
skilled artisan in practicing the invention as disclosed herein.


This embodiment of the invention is particularly useful in modification of a target molecule in vivo.  In this embodiment, the target substrate is modified to comprise an azide group at the point at which linkage to the modified cycloalkyne
reactant is desired.  For example, where the target substrate is a polypeptide, the polypeptide is modified to contain an N-terminal azide.  Where the target substrate is a glycoprotein, a sugar residue of the glycoprotein can be modified to contain an
azide.  A target molecule that is unmodified with an azide, but that is to be modified with an azide, is referred to herein as a "target substrate." A target molecule that is modified with an azide is referred to herein as "an azide-modified target
molecule" or "an azide-containing target molecule."


Azide Modification of a Target Molecule


The target substrate can be generated in vitro and then introduced into the cell using any of a variety of methods well known in the art (e.g., microinjection, liposome or lipofectin-mediated delivery, electroporation, etc.), which methods will
vary according to the nature of the substrate to be targeted for modification and can be readily and appropriately selected by the ordinarily skilled artisan.  The final target substrate can also be generated in vivo by exploiting a host cell's natural
biosynthetic machinery.  For example, the cell can be provided with a biocompatible azide-derivative of a substrate for synthesis of the desired target molecule, which substrate is processed by the cell to provide an azide-derivative of the desired final
target substrate.  For example, where the target substrate is a cell surface glycoprotein, the cell can be provided with an azide derivative of a sugar residue found within the glycoprotein, which is subsequently processed by the cell through natural
biosynthetic processes to produce a modified glycoprotein having at least one modified sugar moiety comprising an accessible azide group.


The target substrate can also be produced in vivo using methods well known in the art.  For example, unnatural amino acids having azides can be incorporated into recombinant polypeptides expressed in E. coli (see, e.g., Kiick et al. (2000)
Tetrahedron 56:9487).  Such recombinantly produced polypeptides can be selectively reacted with a modified cycloalkyne reagent according to the invention.


In one example, an azide group is incorporated into the target molecule by providing a cell (e.g., a eukaryotic cell that glycosylates biopolymers such as proteins) with a synthetic building block for the desired biopolymer target substrate.  For
example, the cell can be provided with a sugar molecule comprising an azide group to provide for incorporation of the azide group in a glycoprotein.  In some embodiments, the glycoprotein is expressed on the cell surface.  Alternatively, the azide group
can be incorporated into an amino acid, which is subsequently incorporated into a peptide or polypeptide synthesized by the cell.  Several methods are available for incorporating unnatural building blocks into biopolymers; one need not be restricted to
cell surface oligosaccharides as target molecules.  See, e.g., vanHest et al. (1998) FEBS Lett.  428:68; and Nowak et al.(1995) Science 268:439.


In one embodiment, the target molecule is a carbohydrate-containing molecule (e.g., a glycoprotein; a polysaccharide; etc.), and an azide group is introduced into the target molecule using a synthetic substrate.  In some embodiments, the
synthetic substrate is an azide derivative of a sugar utilized in production of a glycosylated molecule.  In some embodiments, the synthetic substrate is an azide derivative of a sugar utilized in production of a cell surface molecule, e.g., in the
glycoprotein biosynthetic pathway.  For example, the host cell can be provided with a synthetic sialic acid azido-derivative, which is incorporated into the pathway for sialic acid biosynthesis, eventually resulting in the incorporation of the synthetic
sugar residue in glycoproteins.  In some embodiments, the glycoproteins are displayed on the cell surface.


In one example, the synthetic substrate is an azido derivative of mannosamine of the general formula:


 ##STR00007##


where n is from 1 to 6, generally from 1 to 4, more usually 1 to 2, and R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, and R.sub.4 are independently hydrogen or acetyl.  In some embodiments, the substrate is N-azidoacetylmannosamine (n=1) or an acetylated derivative
thereof, or N-azidopropanoylmannosamine (n=2) or an acetylated form thereof.


In another embodiment, the synthetic substrate is an azido sugar derivative of a general formula of, for example:


 ##STR00008##


either of which can be incorporated into the sialic acid biosynthesis pathway, and where n is from 1 to 6, generally from 1 to 4, more usually 1 to 2, and R.sub.2, R.sub.3, and R.sub.4 are independently hydrogen or acetyl.


In another embodiment, the synthetic substrate is an azido sugar derivative of a general formula of, for example:


 ##STR00009##


where R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, and R.sub.4 are independently hydrogen or acetyl, and where the synthetic substrate is incorporated into biosynthetic pathways involving fucose.


In another embodiment, the synthetic substrate is an azido sugar derivative of a general formula of, for example:


 ##STR00010##


where n is from 1 to 6, generally from 1 to 4, more usually 1 to 2, and R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, and R.sub.4 are independently hydrogen or acetyl, and which is incorporated into biosynthetic pathways involving galactose.


Cell Surface Modification


In some embodiments, a subject method is used to modify the surface of a cell.  Thus, in one aspect, the invention features a method of modifying the surface of cell in vitro or in vivo.  The method generally involves reacting an azide group in a
target molecule that comprises an azide group with a modified cycloalkyne to provide for chemoselective ligation at the cell surface.  In many embodiments, the method comprises modifying a target molecule on a cell surface with an azide group; and
reacting the azide group in the target molecule with a modified cycloalkyne.  For example, as described above, an azido sugar is provided to a living cell, which azido sugar is incorporated into a glycoprotein that is displayed on the cell surface.


Modification of an Azide-Modified Target Molecule with Detectable Labels, Drugs, and Other Molecules


In some embodiments, the present invention provides for attachment of a molecule of interest, e.g., a functional molecule, to an azide-modified target molecule.  The methods generally involve reacting an azide-modified target molecule with a
subject modified cycloalkyne, where the modified cycloalkyne comprises a molecule of interest, as described above.  As described above, molecules of interest include, but are not limited to, a detectable label; a toxin (including cytotoxins); a linker; a
peptide; a drug; a member of a specific binding pair; an epitope tag; and the like.


Attachment of Target Molecules to a Support


The modified cycloalkyne can also comprise one or more hydrocarbon linkers (e.g., an alkyl group or derivative thereof such as an alkyl ester) conjugated to a moiety providing for attachment to a solid substratum (e.g., to facilitate assays), or
to a moiety providing for easy separation (e.g., a hapten recognized by an antibody bound to a magnetic bead).  In one embodiment, the methods of the invention are used to provide for attachment of a protein (or other molecule that contains or can be
modified to contain an azide) to a chip in a defined orientation.  For example, a polypeptide having an azide at a selected site (e.g., at or near the N-terminus) can be generated, and the methods and compositions of the invention used to deliver a tag
or other moiety to the azide of the polypeptide.  The tag or other moiety can then be used as the attachment site for affixing the polypeptide to a support (e.g., solid or semi-solid support, particular a support suitable for use as a microchip in
high-throughput assays).


Attachment of Molecules for Delivery to a Target Site


The modified cycloalkyne will in some embodiments comprise a small molecule drug, toxin, or other molecule for delivery to a cell.  The small molecule drug, toxin, or other molecule will in some embodiments provide for a pharmacological activity. The small molecule drug, toxin, or other molecule will in some embodiments serve as a target for delivery of other molecules.


Small molecule drugs may be small organic or inorganic compounds having a molecular weight of more than 50 and less than about 2,500 daltons.  Small molecule drugs may comprise functional groups necessary for structural interaction with proteins,
particularly hydrogen bonding, and may include at least an amine, carbonyl, hydroxyl or carboxyl group, and may contain at least two of the functional chemical groups.  The drugs may comprise cyclical carbon or heterocyclic structures and/or aromatic or
polyaromatic structures substituted with one or more of the above functional groups.  Small molecule drugs are also found among biomolecules including peptides, saccharides, fatty acids, steroids, purines, pyrimidines, derivatives, structural analogs or
combinations thereof.


In another embodiment, a subject modified cycloalkyne comprises one of a pair of binding partners (e.g., a ligand; a ligand-binding portion of a receptor; an antibody; an antigen-binding fragment of an antibody; an antigen; a hapten; a lectin; a
lectin-binding carbohydrate; etc.).  For example, the modified cycloalkyne can comprise a polypeptide that serves as a viral receptor and, upon binding with a viral envelope protein or viral capsid protein, facilitates attachment of virus to the cell
surface on which the modified cycloalkyne is displayed.  Alternatively, the modified cycloalkyne comprises an antigen that is specifically bound by an antibody (e.g., monoclonal antibody), to facilitate detection and/or separation of host cells
displaying the antigen on the cell surface.  In another example, the modified cycloalkyne comprises a ligand binding portion of a receptor, or a receptor-binding portion of a ligand.


Utility


Subject modified cycloalkyne compounds, and subject modification methods, are useful in a variety of applications, including research applications and diagnostic applications.


Research Applications


In some embodiments, subject modified cycloalkyne compounds, and subject modification methods, are useful in research applications.  Applications of interest include research applications, e.g., exploring functional and physical characteristics
of a receptor; proteomics; metabolomics; and the like.  Research applications also include drug discovery or other screening applications.


Proteomics aims to detect, identify, and quantify proteins to obtain biologically relevant information.  Metabolomics is the detection, identification, and quantification of metabolites and other small molecules such as lipids and carbohydrates. 
Fiehn (2001) Comparative and Functional Genomics 2:155-168; and U.S.  Pat.  No. 6,873,914.


Drug discovery applications include, but are not limited to, identifying agents that inhibit cancer cell viability and/or growth.  Thus, in some embodiments, the instant invention provides methods of identifying an agent that inhibits cancer cell
viability and/or growth.  The methods generally involve modifying a component of the cell to comprise a first reactive partner comprising an azide; contacting the cell, in the presence of a test agent, with a second reactive partner comprising a modified
cycloalkyne, the contacting being under physiological conditions; where the contacting results in reaction between the azide group of the first reactive partner and the cycloalkyne of the second reactive partner, thereby synthetically and covalently
modifying the cellular component; and determining the effect, if any, of the test agent on the level of modification of the cell with the second reactive partner.


Where the cancer cell is one that produces a higher amount of a carbohydrate than a normal (non-cancerous) cell of the same cell type, the method provides for identifying an agent that reduces growth and/or viability of the cancerous cell.


Diagnostic and Therapeutic Applications


Applications of interest also include diagnostic applications, e.g., for detection of cancer; and the like, where a subject modified cycloalkyne comprising a detectable label is used to label an azide-modified target molecule, e.g., an
azide-labeled target molecule present on a cancer cell.  Applications of interest also include therapeutic applications, where a drug or other therapeutic agent is delivered to an azide-modified target molecule, using a subject modified cycloalkyne that
comprises a covalently linked drug or other therapeutic agent.


In some embodiments, the present invention is used for in vivo imaging, e.g., to determine the metabolic or other state of a cell in an organism, e.g., an individual.  As one non-limiting example, a subject method can be applied to in vivo
imaging of cancer cells in an individual (e.g., a mammal, including rodents, lagomorphs, felines, canines, equines, bovines, ovines, caprines, non-human primates, and humans).


One exemplary, non-limiting application of a subject azide-alkyne cycloaddition is in the detection of metabolic change in cells that occur as they alter their phenotype.  As one example, altered glycosylation patterns are a hallmark of the tumor
phenotype, consisting of both the under- and over-expression of naturally-occurring glycans as well as the presentation of glycans normally restricted to expression during embryonic development.  Examples of common antigens associated with transformed
cells are sialyl Lewis a, sialyl Lewis x, sialyl T, sialyl Tn, and polysialic acid (PSA).  Jorgensen et al. (1995) Cancer Res.  55, 1817-1819; Sell (1990) Hum.  Pathology 21, 1003-1019; Taki et al. (1988) J. Biochem.  103, 998-1003; Gabius (1988) Angew. 
Chem. Int.  Ed.  Engl.  27, 1267-1276; Feizi (1991) Trends Biochem.  Sci.  16, 84-86; Taylor-Papadimitriou and Epenetos (1994) Trends Biotech.  12, 227-233; Hakomori and Zhang (1997) Chem. Biol.  4, 97-104; Dohi et al. (1994) Cancer 73, 1552.  These
antigens share an important feature--they each contain terminal sialic acid.  PSA is a homopolymer of sialic acid residues up to 50 units in length.  Elevated levels of sialic acid are highly correlated with the transformed phenotype in many cancers,
including gastric (Dohi et al. (1994) Cancer 73, 1552; and Yamashita et al. (1995) J. Natl.  Cancer Inst.  87, 441-446), colon (Yamashita et al. (1995) J. Natl.  Cancer Inst.  87, 441-446; Hanski et al. (1995) Cancer Res.  55, 928-933; Hanski et al.
(1993) Cancer Res.  53, 4082-4088; Yang et al. (1994) Glycobiology 4, 873-884; Saitoh et al. (1992) J. Biol.  Chem. 267, 5700-5711), pancreatic (Sawada et al. (1994) Int.  J. Cancer 57, 901-907), liver (Sawada et al.(1994) J. Biol.  Chem. 269,
1425-1431), lung (Weibel et al. (1988) Cancer Res.  48, 4318-4323), prostate (Jorgensen et al. (1995) Cancer Res.  55, 1817-1819), kidney (Roth et al. (1988) Proc.  Natl.  Acad.  Sci.  USA 85, 2999-3000), and breast cancers (Cho et al. (1994) Cancer Res. 54, 6302-6305), as well as several types of leukemia (Joshi et al. (1987) Cancer Res.  47, 3551-3557; Altevogt et al. (1983) Cancer Res.  43, 5138-5144; Okada et al. (1994) Cancer 73, 1811-1816).  A strong correlation between the level of cell surface
sialic acid and metastatic potential has also been observed in several different tumor types (Kakeji et al. (1995) Brit.  J. Cancer 71, 191-195; Takano et al. (1994) Glycobiology 4, 665-674).  The collective display of multiple sialylated antigens on a
single cancer cell can account for the fact that so many different tumor types share the high sialic acid phenotype without necessarily expressing an identical complement of antigens (Roth et al. (1988) supra).  Consequently, diagnostic or therapeutic
strategies that target cells on the basis of sialic acid levels have broad applicability to many cancers.


Introduction and incorporation of unnatural azidosugars (ManNAz, GalNAz) into living animals provides for detection of changes in metabolic state.  Via the attachment of the appropriate epitope tag, the modified cyclooctyne labels these cells in
a living organism, and consequently detects changes in metabolic state.  Early detection of tumorigenic cells and subsequent intervention reduces the severity and increases survival rates for cancer patients.


EXAMPLES


The following examples are put forth so as to provide those of ordinary skill in the art with a complete disclosure and description of how to make and use the present invention, and are not intended to limit the scope of what the inventors regard
as their invention nor are they intended to represent that the experiments below are all or the only experiments performed.  Efforts have been made to ensure accuracy with respect to numbers used (e.g. amounts, temperature, etc.) but some experimental
errors and deviations should be accounted for.  Unless indicated otherwise, parts are parts by weight, molecular weight is weight average molecular weight, temperature is in degrees Celsius, and pressure is at or near atmospheric.  Standard abbreviations
may be used, e.g., bp, base pair(s); kb, kilobase(s); pl, picoliter(s); s or sec, second(s); min, minute(s); h or hr, hour(s); aa, amino acid(s); kb, kilobase(s); bp, base pair(s); nt, nucleotide(s); i.m., intramuscular(ly); i.p., intraperitoneal(ly);
s.c., subcutaneous(ly); and the like.


Example 1


Modification of Biomolecules using a Modified Cyclooctyne


Materials and Methods


All chemical reagents were purchased from Aldrich and used without further purification.  All solvents were distilled under a N.sub.2 atmosphere.  CH.sub.2Cl.sub.2, toluene, and pyridine were dried over CaH.sub.2.  Thin layer chromatography was
carried out on Analtech Uniplate.RTM.  silica gel plates.  Flash chromatography was performed using Merck 60 .ANG.  230-400 mesh silica gel.  All .sup.1H and .sup.13C NMR spectra were acquired on Bruker AVB-400.RTM.  or DRX-500.RTM.  as noted.  .sup.1H
chemical shifts are reported as .delta.  referenced to solvent and coupling constants (J) are reported in Hz.  Compounds 1 and 4 have been previously reported.  Skattebol and Solomon (1973) Organic Syntheses 5/Coll.  Volumes:306-310; and Wilbur et al.
(1996) Bioconj.  Chem. 7:689-702.


RPMI 1640 media and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) were purchased from Invitrogen Life Technologies.  Fetal calf serum (FCS) was from Hyclone.  FITC-conjugated avidin and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were purchased from Sigma, and
peroxidase-conjugated mouse anti-biotin (HRP-.alpha.-biotin) and peroxidase-conjugated donkey anti-human Ig (HRP-.alpha.-Ig) were from Jackson ImmunoResearch Laboratories, Inc.  Precast Tris.HCl 4-15% polyacrylamide gels, nitrocellulose, and Tween 20
(non-ionic detergent) were purchased from BioRad.  Restore.TM.  Western blot stripping buffer and enhanced chemiluminescent substrate were obtained from Pierce.  For cell-labeling experiments, a Coulter Z2 cell counter was used to determine cell
densities.  Flow cytometry data were acquired on a BD Biosciences FACSCalibur flow cytometer equipped with a 488-nm argon laser, and live cells were analyzed as determined by granularity and size.  For all flow cytometry experiments, data points were
collected in triplicate.


Synthesis of Compounds:


 ##STR00011##


Compound 2.  AgClO.sub.4 (1.16 g, 5.61 mmol) was added to a solution of compound 1 (500 mg, 1.87 mmol) and methyl 4-hydroxymethylbenzoate (4.66 g, 28.1 mmol) dissolved in toluene (8 mL) in a flame-dried, aluminum-foil-wrapped flask.  The reaction
was stirred for 2 h, diluted with pentane (20 mL), and filtered to remove insoluble silver salts.  The solution was concentrated and purified by silica gel chromatography (4-8% EtOAc:pet ether; R.sub.f(8% EtOAc:pet ether)=0.32) to yield 2 as a colorless
oil (660 mg 1.86 mmol, 99%).  .sup.1H NMR (500 MHz, CDCl.sub.3) .delta.  8.02 (d, 2H, J=8.0 Hz), 7.47 (d, 2H, J=8.0 Hz), 6.21 (dd, 1H, J=4.0, 11.5 Hz), 4.72 (d, 1H, J=12.5 Hz), 4.39 (d, 1H, J=12.5 Hz), 3.95-3.91 (m, 4H), 2.81 (app dq, 1H, J=5.5, 12.0),
2.32 (m, 1H), 2.05-1.88 (m, 4H), 1.75 (m, 1H), 1.49 (app dq, 1H, J=5.0, 8.0), 1.35 (m, 1H), 0.79 (m, 1H); .sup.13C NMR (125 MHz, CDCl.sub.3) .delta.  166.93, 143.20, 132.60, 132.09, 129.66, 129.34, 127.65, 84.22, 69.61, 52.04, 39.48, 36.46, 33.31, 28.09,
26.29; IR (cm.sup.-1) 2931, 2856, 1724, 1614, 1434,1279, 1109; FAB HRMS calcd. for C.sub.17H.sub.23O.sub.3Br [M+H].sup.+ 353.0752, found 353.0744.


 ##STR00012##


Compound 3.  A suspension of NaOMe (119 mg, 2.20 mmol) in anhydrous DMSO (8 mL) was added to compound 2 (650 mg, 1.84 mmol) dissolved in anhydrous DMSO (16 mL).  The reaction was stirred 20 min and additional NaOMe (110 mg, 1.10 mmol in 1.5 mL of
DMSO) was added.  The reaction was stirred until the starting material was completely consumed as determined by TLC (20 min).  The reaction was acidified with 1 M HC, (100 mL) and extracted twice with EtOAc (40 mL).  The combined organic layers were
washed with brine (40 mL) and concentrated.  The resulting film was dissolved in 20% H.sub.2O/dioxane (15 mL), LiOH (220 mg, 9.0 mmol) was added, and the reaction was stirred for 24 h. The reaction was acidified with 1 M HCl (100 mL) and extracted twice
with EtOAc (40 mL).  The combined organic extracts were dried over MgSO.sub.4, filtered, and purified by silica gel chromatography (10:90:1 EtOAc:pet ether:AcOH--25:75:1 EtOAc:pet ether:AcOH; R.sub.f(25:75:1)=0.38) to yield 3 (350 mg, 1.36 mmol, 74%) as
a white solid.  .sup.1H NMR (500 MHz, CDCl.sub.3) .delta.  8.09 (d, 1H, J=8.50 Hz), 7.47 (d, 1H, J=8.0 Hz), 4.77 (d, 1H, J=12.5 Hz), 4.49 (d, 1H, J=13 Hz), 4.26 (m, 1H), 2.32-2.26 (m, 1H), 2.22-2.13 (m, 2H), 2.08-2.03 (m, 1H), 1.97-1.92 (m, 1H),
1.89-1.83 (m, 2H), 1.73-1.62 (m, 2H) 1.52-1.44 (m, 1H); .sup.13C NMR (125 MHz, CDCl.sub.3) .delta.  171.52, 144.50, 130.27, 128.29, 127.46, 100.69, 92.40, 72.11, 70.39, 42.31, 34.26, 29.68, 26.31, 20.70; IR (cm.sup.-1) 2924, 2852, 2672, 2561, 1685, 1429,
1323, 1294, 1086; FAB HRMS calcd. for C.sub.16H.sub.18O.sub.3Li [M+Li].sup.+265.1416, found 265.1422.


 ##STR00013##


Compound 5.  Pentafluorophenyl trifluoroacetate (Pfp-TFA) (40 .mu.L, 0.23 mmol) was added to compound 3 in anhydrous pyridine (1 mL).  The reaction was stirred for 4 h, diluted with CH.sub.2Cl.sub.2 (30 mL), and extracted with 1 M HC, (3.times.20
mL) and sat. NaHCO.sub.3 solution (2.times.20 mL).  The organic layer was dried over MgSO.sub.4, filtered, and concentrated.  The crude ester was dissolved in CH.sub.2Cl.sub.2 (2 mL).  Triethylamine (67 .mu.L, 0.46 mmol) and compound 4 (104 mg 0.23 mmol)
were added and the solution was stirred for 1 h. The solution was concentrated and crude product purified by silica gel chromatography (80:15:5 EtOAc:MeOH:H.sub.2O, R.sub.f=0.40) to yield 5 (68 mg, 0.099 mmol, 51%) as a clear oil.  .sup.1H NMR (400 MHz,
CD.sub.3CN) .delta.  7.80 (d, 2H, J=8.4 Hz), 7.42 (m, 3H), 6.62 (br s, 1H), 5.51 (s, 1H), 5.19 (s, 1H), 4.66 (d, 1H, J=12.0 Hz), 4.45-4.40 (m, 2H), 4.29-4.26 (m, 2H), 3.62-3.56 (m, 8H), 3.52-3.49 (m, 2 H), 3.47-3.42 (m, 4H), 3.22-3.13 (m, 3H), 2.91-2.87
(m, 2H), 2.66 (d, 1 H, J=12.8 Hz), 2.32-2.19 (m, 6H), 1.89-1.79 (m, 4H), 1.75-1.34 (m, 10H); .sup.13C NMR (125 MHz, CD.sub.3CN) .delta.  172.64, 166.56, 162.93, 141.82, 134.15, 127.47, 127.05, 100.31, 92.63, 71.94, 70.12, 69.94, 69.83, 69.16, 68.75,
61.37, 59.80, 55.36, 42.14, 40.18, 37.53, 36.56, 35.45, 34.12, 29.56, 29.32, 29.26, 28.02, 27.98, 26.18, 25.46, 20.13; FAB HRMS calcd. for C.sub.36H.sub.55N.sub.4O.sub.7S [M+H].sup.+ 687.3791, found 687.3798.


 ##STR00014##


Compound 6.  Compound 4 (46 mg, 0.10 mmol), pentynoic acid (15 mg, 0.15 mmol) and HATU (59 mg, 0.15 mmol) were dissolved in anhydrous DMF (1 mL).  Triethyl amine (22 .mu.L, 0.15 mmol) was added to the solution and the reaction was stirred for 14
h. Purification by silica gel chromatography (15:2:1 EtOAc:MeOH:H.sub.2O to 9:2:1 EtOAc:MeOH:H.sub.2O R.sub.f(9:2:1)=0.30) yielded 6 (25 mg, 0.047 mmol, 46%) as a yellow oil.  .sup.1H NMR (400 MHz, CD.sub.3CN) .delta.  6.77 (br s, 2H), 5.74 (s, 1H), 5.38
(s, 1H), 4.44 (app t, 1H, J=7.6 Hz), 4.27 (m, 1H), 3.61-3.54 (m, 8H), 3.51 (t, 4H, J=6.4 Hz), 3.25-3.16 (m, 5H), 2.91 (dd, 1H, J=4.8, 12.4 Hz), 2.68 (d, 1H, J=12.8 Hz), 2.47 (m, 2H), 2.35-2.30 (m, 6H), 2.22 (t, 1H, J=2.8 Hz), 2.17 (t, 2H, J=7.2 Hz),
1.75-1.53 (m, 8H), 1.44-1.37 (m, 2H); .sup.13C NMR (100 MHz, CD.sub.3CN) .delta.  172.79, 170.74, 163.21, 83.53, 70.10, 69.82, 69.10, 68.71, 68.60, 61.46, 59.87, 55.41, 40.18, 36.49, 35.47, 34.69, 29.32, 29.29, 28.07, 28.01, 25.48, 14.32; FAB LRMS calcd.
for C.sub.25H.sub.43N.sub.4O.sub.6S [M+H].sup.+ 527.4, found 527.4.


Western Blot Analysis of an Azide-Labeled GlyCAM-Ig


For Western blot analysis of azide-labeled and unlabeled GlyCAM-Ig, samples were incubated with 5 (250 .mu.M final concentration in PBS, pH 7.4 containing 0.7% DMF), 6 (250 .mu.M final concentration in PBS, pH 7.4 containing either 0.7% DMF) or
left untreated for 12 h. To verify that 6 could react with azide-labeled GlyCAM-Ig via copper-mediated [3+2] cycloaddition, we employed a modified version of the method reported by Speers and Cravatt.  Speers and Cravatt (2004) Chem. Biol.  11:535-46. 
Briefly, GlyCAM-Ig samples (in PBS, pH 7.4 containing 0.7% DMF) were incubated with 250 .mu.M 6, 2.5 mM TCEP, 250 .mu.M tris-triazolyl ligand (from a 1.7 mM stock in 1:4 DMSO:tert-butanol), and 2.5 mM CuSO.sub.4.  Samples were vortexed and allowed to
react at rt for 12 h. Prior to electrophoresis, samples were incubated with an equal volume of 100 mM 2-azidoethanol in 2.times.SDS-PAGE loading buffer for 8 h at rt (to quench unreacted 5 or 6).  The quenched samples were boiled for 3 min and loaded
onto pre-cast polyacrylamide gels.  After electrophoresis, the samples were electroblotted to nitrocellulose membrane.  The membrane was blocked using 5% BSA in PBS (pH 7.4, containing 0.05% Tween 20 (blocking buffer A) for 1 h at rt, then incubated with
a solution of blocking buffer A containing HRP-.alpha.-biotin (1:250,000 dilution, 1 h at rt).  The membrane was washed, and detection of membrane-bound anti-biotin-HRP was accomplished by chemiluminescence.  Following detection, the membrane was rinsed
with PBS (pH 7.4) containing 0.05% Tween (PBS-T) and placed in stripping buffer (15 min at RT) to remove bound anti-biotin Ig.  The membrane was thoroughly rinsed with PBS-T and probed for residual anti-biotin signal by chemiluminescence.


The membrane was washed and re-blocked with 5% low-fat dry powdered milk (blocking buffer B) for 1 h at rt.  The membrane was then incubated with HRP-.alpha.-Ig (1:5000 in blocking buffer B) for 1 h at rt.  The membrane was washed again with
PBS-T, and detection of membrane bound anti-human Ig was accomplished as for peroxidase-conjugated anti-biotin.  Control samples were treated in an identical manner, except that specific reagents were replaced by buffer where appropriate.


Cell Culture Conditions


Jurkat cells (human T-cell lymphoma) were maintained in a 5% CO.sub.2, water-saturated atmosphere and grown in RPMI-1640 media supplemented with 10% FCS, penicillin (100 units/mL) and streptomycin (0.1 mg/mL).  Cell densities were maintained
between 1.times.10.sup.5 and 1.6.times.10.sup.6 cells/mL for all experiments.


Cell Surface Azide Labeling and Detection


Jurkat cells were seeded at a density of 1.5-2.0.times.10.sup.5 cells/mL and incubated for 3 d in untreated media or media containing various concentrations of Ac.sub.4ManNAz.  After growth in the presence of Ac.sub.4ManNAz, cells were
distributed into a 96-well V-bottom tissue culture plate.  The cells were pelleted (3500 rpm, 3 min) and washed twice with 200 .mu.L of labeling buffer (PBS, pH 7.4 containing 1% FCS).  Cells were then incubated with 5 or a biotinylated phosphine probe
(Vocadlo et al. (2003) Proc.  Natl.  Acad.  Sci.  U.S.A.  100:9116-21) in labeling buffer containing 2.8% DMF or labeling buffer plus 2.8% DMF alone.  After incubation, cells were pelleted, washed twice with labeling buffer and resuspended in the same
buffer containing FITC-avidin (1:500 dilution of the Sigma stock).  Following a 10-min incubation on ice (in the dark), cells were washed with 200 .mu.L of cold labeling buffer and the FITC-avidin staining procedure was repeated.  The cells were washed
twice with cold labeling buffer, then diluted to a volume of 400 .mu.L for flow cytometry analysis.


Results


Biotinylated cyclooctyne 5 as synthesized as shown in Scheme 1.


 ##STR00015##


Construction of the substituted cyclooctyne core was achieved essentially as described by Reese and Shaw.  Reese and Shaw (1970) Chem. Comm.  1172-1173.  Briefly, compound 1 (Skattebol and Solomon, supra) was treated with silver perchlorate to
effect electrocyclic ring opening to the trans-allylic cation, which was captured with methyl hydroxymethylbenzoate to afford bromo-trans-cyclooctene 2.  Base-mediated elimination of the vinyl bromide followed by saponification yielded versatile
intermediate 3, to which any biological probe can be attached.  Finally, compound 3 was coupled to biotin analog 4 (Wilbur et al. (1996) Bioconj.  Chem. 7:689-702) bearing a PEG linker, providing target 5.  Cyclooctyne 3 was stable to mild acid (0.5 N
HCl for 30 min), base (0.8 M NaOMe for 30 min), and prolonged exposure to biological nucleophiles such as thiols (120 mM 2-mercaptoethanol for 12 h).


Model reactions were performed with compound 3 and 2-azidoethanol, benzylazide or N-butyl .alpha.-azidoacetamide.  In all cases, the only products observed were the two regioisomeric triazoles formed in approximately equal amounts.  The reaction
was then applied for covalent labeling of biomolecules.  The recombinant glycoprotein GlyCAM-Ig (Bistrup et al. (1999) J. Cell Biol.  145:899-910) was expressed in CHO cells in the presence of peracetylated N-azidoacetylmannosamine (Ac.sub.4ManNAz),
leading to metabolic incorporation of the corresponding N-azidoacetyl sialic acid (SiaNAz) into its glycans.  Control samples of GlyCAM-Ig were expressed in the absence of azido sugar.  The purified GlyCAM-Ig samples were incubated with 250 .mu.M 5
overnight, the unreacted cyclooctyne was quenched with excess 2-azidoethanol, and the samples were analyzed by Western blot probing with HRP-.alpha.-biotin (FIG. 2).  Robust biotinylation was observed for GlyCAM-Ig modified with SiaNAz.  Native GlyCAM-Ig
lacking azides showed no background labeling, underscoring the exquisite selectivity of the strain-promoted cycloaddition.


As a point of comparison, similar reactions were performed with biotin-modified terminal alkyne 6 (Scheme 1).  In the absence of reagents for copper catalysis, no glycoprotein labeling was observed (FIG. 2).  As expected based on previous reports
(Sharpless and Finn (2003) J. Am.  Chem. Soc.  125:3192-3193; and Speers and Cravatt ((2004) Chem. Biol.  11:535-546), addition of CuSO.sub.4, TCEP and a triazolyl ligand resulted in facile labeling of the azide-modified glycoprotein.  The blot was
stripped and reprobed with HRP-labeled anti-IgG antibody (HRP-.alpha.-IgG) to confirm equal protein loading.  Interestingly, consistently diminished anti-IgG immunoreactivity was observed for azide-modified GlyCAM-Ig labeled with 6 in the presence of
copper.  It is possible that the combination of triazole products and copper damages the epitope recognized by HRP-.alpha.-IgG.


Finally, the utility of the strain-promoted reaction for live cell labeling was investigated.  Jurkat cells were incubated with 25 .mu.M Ac.sub.4ManNAz for 3 d in order to introduce SiaNAz residues into their cell surface glycoproteins.  Saxon
and Bertozzi (2000) Science 287:2007-2010; and Saxon et al. 92002) J. Am.  Chem. Soc.  124:14893-14902.  The cells were reacted with various concentrations of 5 for 1.5 h at rt, then stained with FITC-avidin and analyzed by flow cytometry.  As shown in
FIG. 3A, cells displaying azides showed a dose-dependent increase in fluorescence upon treatment with the cyclooctyne probe.  No detectable labeling of cells lacking azides was observed.  The cell surface reaction was also dependent on duration of
incubation with 5 (FIG. 3B) and the density of cell-surface azides.  No negative effects on cell viability were observed.


FIG. 2.  Labeling of azide-modified GlyCAM-Ig with alkyne probes.  Purified GlyCAM-Ig was treated with buffer (-), 250 .mu.M 5, or 250 .mu.M 6 alone or in the presence (cat) of CuSO.sub.4, TCEP, and a triazolyl ligand, overnight at rt.  Reaction
mixtures were quenched with 2-azidoethanol and analyzed by Western blot probing with HRP-.alpha.-biotin (upper panel).  The blot was then stripped and reprobed with HRP-.alpha.-Ig (lower panel).


FIGS. 3A and 3B.  Cell surface labeling with compound 5.  Jurkat cells were incubated in the presence (+Az) or absence (-Az) of 25 .mu.M Ac.sub.4ManNAz for 3 d. FIG. 3A.  The cells were reacted with various concentrations of 5 for 1 h at rt and
treated with FITC-avidin; mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) was determined by flow cytometry.  FIG. 3B.  The cells were incubated with 250 .mu.M 5 for various durations at rt and analyzed as in A. C. The cells were incubated with 100 .mu.M probe for 1 h
at rt and analyzed as in A. Error bars represent the standard deviation from three replicates.  AU=arbitrary fluorescence units.


The above example demonstrates that [3+2] cycloaddition of azides and cyclooctyne derivatives (modified cyclooctynes) according to a subject method occurs readily under physiological conditions in the absence of auxiliary reagents; and that the
selective chemical modification of living cells using a subject method occurs without any apparent toxicity.


Example 2


Synthesis of Additional Cyclooctyne Compounds and their Use in Labeling of Living Cells


This example presents the synthesis of compounds 3a and 3b (shown below), the evaluation of their kinetic parameters in reactions with small organic azides, and their use in bioorthogonal labeling of living cells.


 ##STR00016## Materials and Methods


All chemical reagents were of analytical grade, obtained from commercial suppliers, and used without further purification unless otherwise noted.  With the exception of reactions performed in aqueous media, all reaction vessels were flame-dried
prior to use.  Reactions were performed in a N.sub.2 atmosphere, except in the case of reactions performed in aqueous media, and liquid reagents were added with a syringe unless otherwise noted.  Tetrahydrofuran (THF) was distilled under N.sub.2 from
Na/benzophenone immediately prior to use, and CH.sub.2Cl.sub.2 was distilled from CaH.sub.2 immediately prior to use.  Chromatography was carried out with Merck 60 230-400 mesh silica gel according to the procedure described by Still.  J. Org. Chem.
(1978) 43:2923-2925.  Reactions and chromatography fractions were analyzed with Analtech 250 micron silica gel G plates, and visualized by staining with ceric ammonium molybdate or by absorbance of UV light at 245 nm.  When an R.sub.f is reported for a
compound, the solvent that was used was the chromatography solvent unless otherwise noted.  Organic extracts were dried over MgSO.sub.4 and solvents were removed with a rotary evaporator at reduced pressure (20 torr), unless otherwise noted.  IR spectra
were of thin films on NaCl plates.  Unless otherwise noted, .sup.1H, .sup.13C, and .sup.19F NMR spectra were obtained with 300 MHz or 400 MHz Bruker spectrometers.  Chemical shifts are reported in .delta.  ppm referenced to the solvent peak for .sup.1H
and .sup.13C and relative to CFCl.sub.3 for .sup.19F.  Coupling constants (J) are reported in Hz.  Low- and high-resolution fast atom bombardment (FAB) and electron impact (EI) mass spectra were obtained at the UC Berkeley Mass Spectrometry Facility, and
elemental analyses were obtained at the UC Berkeley Micro-Mass Facility.  Melting points were determined using a Mel-Temp 3.0 melting point apparatus and are uncorrected.


Synthetic Procedures


 ##STR00017##


(Cyclooct-1-enyloxy)-trimethylsilane (6).  To a solution of cyclooctanone (40.0 g, 316 mmol) in 200 mL of anhydrous DMF were added triethylamine (TEA, 93.0 mL, 666 mmol) and chlorotrimethylsilane (84.0 mL, 666 mmol).  The reaction was heated to
reflux.  After 15 h, the reaction was quenched with 20 mL of H.sub.2O and the DMF was removed on a rotary evaporator.  The residue was diluted with hexanes (300 mL), washed with H.sub.2O (3.times.100 mL) and brine (1.times.50 mL), and dried over
MgSO.sub.4.  Distillation under reduced pressure (20 torr) yielded 58.1 g (93%) of the desired product as a colorless oil, bp 108.degree.  C. (20 torr) (lit.  106.degree.  C. at 25 torr).  Nakamura, et al. J. Am.  Chem. Soc.  (1976) 98, 2346-2348.  IR:
2926, 2851, 1661 cm.sup.-1.  .sup.1H NMR (CDCl.sub.3, 300 MHz): .delta.  0.20 (s, 9H), 1.39-1.58 (m, 8H), 2.02 (m, 2H), 2.19 (m, 2H), 4.75 (t, 1H, J=9.0 Hz).  (Lit: .sup.1H NMR (CDCl.sub.3, 600 MHz): .delta.  0.16 (s, 9H), 1.46 (m, 4H), 1.49 (m, 2H),
1.55 (m, 2H), 1.97 (m, 2H), 2.14 (m, 2H), 4.70 (t, 1H, J=8.0 Hz) (Frimer et al. J. Org. Chem. (2000) 65, 1807-1817.) .sup.13C NMR (CDCl.sub.3, 75 MHz): .delta.  0.4, 25.5, 26.3, 26.4, 27.8, 30.9, 31.0, 105.41, 152.99.  (Lit: .sup.13C NMR (CDCl.sub.3, 150
MHz): .delta.  0.45, 25.52, 26.36, 26.40, 27.83, 30.98, 31.05, 105.45, 153.05) Frimer et al. (2000) supra) FAB--HRMS: Calcd. for C.sub.11H.sub.23OSi.sup.+[M+H].sup.+: 199.1518, found 199.1520.


 ##STR00018##


2-Fluorocyclooctanone (5b).  To a solution of silyl enol ether 6 (57.8 g, 291 mmol) in DMF (350 mL) was added a solution of Selectfluor (124 g, 349 mmol) in DMF (150 mL) over 1 h at rt.  The solution was allowed to stir for 12 h. The reaction was
quenched with 30 mL of H.sub.2O, and the DMF was removed on a rotary evaporator.  The residue was diluted with hexanes (500 mL), washed with H.sub.2O (3.times.200 mL) and brine (1.times.50 mL), and dried over MgSO.sub.4.  Following column chromatography
(30:1 to 15:1 pentane/ether), a white solid was isolated (38.4 g, 91%, R.sub.f=0.30 in 9:1 pentane/ether), mp 48.1-49.8.degree.  C. IR: 3429, 2932, 2859, 1721, 1709 cm.sup.-1.  (Lit: 1710 cm.sup.-1) (Rozen and Menahem.  J. Fluorine Chem. (1980), 16,
19-31).  .sup.1H NMR (CDCl.sub.3, 400 MHz): .delta.  1.25 (m, 1H), 1.38-1.55 (m, 4H), 1.61 (m, 1H), 1.73 (m, 1H), 2.05 (m, 3H), 2.30 (m, 1H), 2.55 (m, 1H), 4.86 (ddd, 1H, J=49.6, 6.4, 2.8 Hz).  (Lit: .sup.1H NMR (CDCl.sub.3, 250 MHz): .delta.  1.36-2.7
(m, 12H), 4.9 (dm, 1H, J=49.5 Hz) (Chambers and Hutchinson J. Fluorine Chem. (1998) 89, 229-232) .sup.13C NMR (CDCl.sub.3, 100 MHz): .delta.  20.3 (d, J=4.0 Hz), 24.4 (d, J=6.0 Hz), 24.5, 26.9, 32.2 (d, J=11.0 Hz), 39.3, 94.7 (d, J=185.0 Hz), 213.4 (d,
J=21.0 Hz).  (Lit: .sup.13C NMR (CDCl.sub.3, 50 MHz): .delta.  20.5 (d, J=3.6 Hz), 24.6 (d, J=3.7 Hz), 24.7, 27.2, 32.7 (d, J=21.0 Hz), 39.6, 91.5 (d, J=184.7 Hz), 213.9 (d, J=20.9 Hz) (Chambers and Hutchinson (1998) supra) .sup.19F NMR (CDCl.sub.3, 376
MHz): 8-190.7 (m).  (Lit: .sup.19F NMR (CDCl.sub.3, 235 MHz): .delta.-191.6 (m) (Chambers and Hutchinson (1998) supra)


 ##STR00019##


4-(1-Fluoro-2-oxo-cyclooctylmethyl)benzoic acid methyl ester (4b).  To a solution of LDA (34 mL, 61 mmol, 1.8 M solution in heptane/THF/ethylbenzene) in THF (50 mL) at -78.degree.  C. was added a solution of 2-fluorocyclooctanone (5b) (7.38 g,
51.2 mmol) in THF (50 mL) over 2 h using a syringe pump.  After 1 h, a solution of methyl 4-bromomethylbenzoate (17.6 g, 76.8 mmol) in THF (50 mL) was added and the reaction was allowed to warm to rt.  After 1 h, the reaction mixture was quenched with
H.sub.2O (50 mL) and the THF was removed on a rotary evaporator.  The residue was diluted with EtOAc (200 mL), washed with H.sub.2O (3.times.100 mL) and brine (1.times.50 mL), and dried over MgSO.sub.4.  Following column chromatography (50:1 to 15:1
hexanes/EtOAc), a white solid was isolated (6.45 g, 43%, R.sub.f=0.35 in 9:1 hexanes/EtOAc), mp 53.5-55.2.degree.  C. IR: 2931, 2858, 1721 cm.sup.-1.  .sup.1H NMR (CDCl.sub.3, 400 MHz): .delta.  1.08 (m, 1H), 1.35-1.65 (m, 7H), 1.86 (m, 2H), 2.04 (app d,
2H, J=9.0 Hz), 2.90 (dd, 1H, J=20.1, 14.1 Hz), 3.14 (dd, 1H, J=28.2, 14.1 Hz), 3.78 (s, 3H), 7.15 (d, 2H, J=7.8 Hz), 7.83 (d, 2H, J=8.4 Hz).  .sup.13C NMR (CDCl.sub.3, 100 MHz): .delta.  21.1, 24.7, 25.3, 27.6, 38.7 (d, J=22.0 Hz), 40.0, 43.4 (d, J=21.0
Hz), 51.9, 102.3 (d, J=189.0 Hz), 128.7, 129.3, 130.5, 140.3, 166.8, 216.0 (d, J=26.0 Hz).  .sup.19F NMR (CDCl.sub.3, 376 MHz): .delta.  -166.0 (m).  FAB--HRMS: Calcd. for C.sub.17H.sub.22O.sub.3F.sup.+ [M+H].sup.+: 293.1553, found: 293.1560.


 ##STR00020##


4-(1-Fluoro-2-trifluoromethanesulfonyloxy-cyclooct-2-enylmethyl)-benzoic acid methyl ester (7b).  To a solution of ketone 4b (4.62 g, 15.8 mmol) in THF (50 mL) at -78.degree.  C. was added Potassium hexamethyldisilazide (KHMDS, 35.0 mL, 17.5
mmol, 0.50 M solution in toluene).  After 1 h, a solution of N-Phenylbistrifluoromethanesulfonimide (Tf.sub.2NPh, 6.18 g, 17.3 mmol) in THF (25 mL) was added and the reaction was allowed to warm to rt.  After 30 min, the reaction mixture was concentrated
on a rotary evaporator and the product was purified by column chromatography (20:1 to 12:1 hexanes/EtOAc) to yield the desired product (4.90 g, 73%, R.sub.f=0.30 in 9:1 hexanes/EtOAc) as a colorless oil.  IR: 3424, 2952, 1723, 1646 cm.sup.-1.  .sup.1H
NMR (CDCl.sub.3, 400 MHz): .delta.  1.38-1.67 (m, 4H), 1.74-1.97 (m, 4H), 1.97-2.18 (m, 2H), 3.16 (app d, 1H, J=3.2 Hz), 3.20 (s, 1H), 3.91 (s, 3H), 5.86 (t, 1H, J=9.6 Hz), 7.26 (d, 2H, J=8.0 Hz), 7.96 (d, 2H, J=8.4 Hz).  .sup.13C NMR (CDCl.sub.3, 100
MHz): .delta.  22.0, 22.1, 23.1, 25.2, 35.1 (d, J=22.0 Hz), 44.3 (d, J=26.0 Hz), 52.0, 95.7 (d, J=177.0 Hz), 118.4 (q, J=317.0 Hz), 123.8, 129.1, 129.4, 130.5, 139.7 (d, J=8.0 Hz), 148.2 (d, J=21.0 Hz), 166.8.  .sup.19F NMR (CDCl.sub.3, 376 MHz): .delta. -73.7 (app d, 3H, J=3.8 Hz), -144.3 (app d, 1H, J=3.8 Hz).  FAB--HRMS: Calcd. for C.sub.18H.sub.21O.sub.5F.sub.4S.sup.+ [M+H].sup.+: 425.1046, found: 425.1046.


 ##STR00021##


4-(1-Fluoro-cyclooct-2-ynylmethyl)benzoic acid methyl ester (8b).  To a solution of vinyl triflate 7b (14.3 g, 33.5 mmol) in THF (100 mL) at 0.degree.  C. was added LDA (23.5 mL, 35.2 mmol, 1.8M in heptane/THF/ethyl benzene) dropwise, using a
syringe pump, over 3 h. LDA was added until the starting material was consumed.  The reaction was quenched with 20 mL of H.sub.2O and the THF was removed on a rotary evaporator.  The residue was diluted with EtOAc (300 mL), washed with H.sub.2O
(3.times.100 mL) and brine (1.times.50 mL), and dried over MgSO.sub.4.  After silica gel chromatography (50:1 to 25:1 hexanes/EtOAc), a colorless oil was isolated (5.41 g, 59%, R.sub.f=0.40 in 9:1 hexanes/EtOAc).  IR: 3421, 2930, 2854, 2223, 1721, 1613
cm.sup.-1.  .sup.1H NMR (CDCl.sub.3, 300 MHz): .delta.  1.35 (m, 1H), 1.66-1.76 (m, 2H), 1.76-2.07 (m, 4H), 2.07-2.33 (m, 3H), 3.03 (app d, 1H, J=2.1 Hz), 3.10 (s, 1H), 3.90 (s, 3H), 7.37 (d, 2H, J=8.1 Hz), 7.98 (d, 2H, J=8.1 Hz).  .sup.13C NMR
(CDCl.sub.3, 75 MHz): .delta.  20.5, 26.0 (d, J=1.5 Hz), 29.4, 34.0, 44.7 (d, J=26.0 Hz), 48.8 (d, J=25.0 Hz), 51.9, 90.5 (d, J=32.0 Hz), 95.2 (d, J=175.0 Hz), 104.5 (d, J=11.0 Hz), 128.6, 129.3, 130.3, 141.2, 167.0.  .sup.19F NMR (CDCl.sub.3, 376 MHz):
.delta.  -139.0 (m).  FAB--HRMS: Calcd. for C.sub.17H.sub.20O.sub.2F.sup.+ [M+H].sup.+: 275.1447, found: 275.1442.


 ##STR00022##


4-(1-Fluoro-cyclooct-2-ynylmethyl)benzoic acid (3b).  To a solution of cyclooctyne 8b (1.8 g, 6.6 mmol) in dioxane (30 mL) and H.sub.2O (7.5 mL) was added finely crushed LiOH (3.1 g, 130 mmol).  The suspension was heated to 50.degree.  C. and
stirred for 3 h. The dioxane was removed on a rotary evaporator and the reaction mixture was diluted with CH.sub.2Cl.sub.2 (100 mL).  The organic layer was washed with 1 N HC, (2.times.100 mL), H.sub.2O (3.times.100 mL), and brine (1.times.25 mL), and
dried over MgSO.sub.4, yielding a white solid (1.7 g, 98%, R.sub.f=0.30 in 27:3:1 hexane/EtOAc/AcOH), mp 132.0-132.5.degree.  C. (dec).  IR: 3442, 2926, 2851, 2674, 2557, 2224, 1686, 1611 cm.sup.-1.  .sup.1H NMR (DMSO-d.sub.6, 400 MHz): .delta.  1.39
(app quintet, 1H, J=7.6 Hz), 1.64 (m, 2H), 1.76 (m, 2H), 2.10 (m, 5H), 3.07 (s, 1H), 3.11 (d, 1H, J=8.0 Hz), 7.38 (d, 2H, J=8.0 Hz), 7.87 (d, 2H, J=8.4 Hz), 12.9 (br s, 1H).  .sup.13C NMR (DMSO-d.sub.6, 100 MHz): .delta.  19.8, 25.7, 29.0, 33.7, 43.7 (d,
J=25.0 Hz), 47.6 (d, J=25.0 Hz), 90.7 (d, J=32.0 Hz), 95.4 (d, J=173.0 Hz), 104.5 (d, J=10.0 Hz), 129.0, 129.2, 130.4, 141.2, 167.2.  .sup.19F NMR (CD.sub.3CN, 376 MHz): .delta.  -139.4 (m).  FAB--HRMS: Calcd. for C.sub.16H.sub.18O.sub.2F.sup.+
[M+H].sup.+: 261.1291, found: 261.1291.  Anal. calcd. for C.sub.16H.sub.17O.sub.2F: C, 79.31; H, 7.49.  Found: C, 79.07; H, 7.26.


 ##STR00023##


3-(2,5-Dioxo-2,5-dihydro-pyrrol-1-yl)-propylammonium trifluoroacetate (13).  To a solution of maleimide (3.12 g, 32.2 mmol) and PPh.sub.3 (8.29 g, 31.6 mmol) in THF (150 mL) was added N-(t-butoxycarbonyl)propanolamine (5.00 mL, 29.3 mmol) and
then diisopropyl azodicarboxylate (6.80 mL, 35.1 mmol).  The solution was stirred at rt for 48 h, concentrated on a rotary evaporator, and purified by column chromatography (4:1 to 2:1 hexanes/EtOAc) to yield 10.3 g of a mixture of the N-Boc protected
product and diisopropyl hydrazinedicarboxylate.  The mixture was dissolved in a solution of CH.sub.2Cl.sub.2 (60 mL) and H.sub.2O (5 mL), and then trifluoroacetic acid (TFA, 35 mL) was added.  The reaction was stirred for 5 h at rt and then diluted with
CH.sub.2Cl.sub.2 (50 mL) and H.sub.2O (50 mL).  The aqueous layer was washed with CH.sub.2Cl.sub.2 (3.times.50 mL) and then concentrated to yield the desired product as a yellow oil (7.51 g, 96%).  IR: 3435, 2959, 2917, 2849, 1707, 1683 cm.sup.-1. 
.sup.1H NMR (DMSO-d.sub.6, 400 MHz): .delta.  1.76 (app q, 2H, J=7.2 Hz), 2.78 (m, 2H), 3.45 (t, 2H, J=6.8 Hz), 7.02 (s, 2H), 7.79 (br s, 3H).  .sup.13C NMR (DMSO-d.sub.6, 100 MHz): .delta.  26.7, 34.6, 37.0, 116.0 (q, 289.0 Hz), 134.7, 158.9 (q, J=36.0
Hz), 171.3.  .sup.19F NMR (DMSO-d.sub.6, 376 MHz): .delta.  -72.9 (s).  FAB--HRMS: Calcd. for C.sub.7H.sub.11N.sub.2O.sub.2.sup.+ [M+H].sup.+: 155.0821, found: 155.0824.


 ##STR00024##


N-[3-(2,5-Dioxo-2,5-dihydro-pyrrol-1-yl)-propyl]-4-(1-fluorocyclooct-2-yny- lmethyl)benzamide (12b).  TEA (0.508 mL, 3.65 mmol) was added to a solution of cyclooctyne 3b (0.200 g, 0.768 mmol), amine 13 (0.235 g, 0.875 mmol),
O-(7-Azabenzotriazol-1-yl)-N,N,N',N-tetramethyluronium hexafluorophosphate (HATU, 0.305 g, 0.802 mmol), and 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (HOBT, 0.123 g, 0.802 mmol) in CH.sub.2Cl.sub.2 (3 mL) at rt.  The reaction was stirred for 15 min at rt, quenched with
H.sub.2O (10 mL), and diluted with CH.sub.2Cl.sub.2 (50 mL).  The organic layer was washed with 1 N HC, (3.times.50 mL), saturated NaHCO.sub.3 (3.times.50 mL), and brine (2.times.25 mL) and dried over MgSO.sub.4.  Chromatography of the crude product (2:1
to 1:1 hexanes/EtOAc) yielded the desired product as a white solid (0.198 g, 65%, R.sub.f=0.30 in 1:1 hexanes/EtOAc), mp 122.0-124.0.degree.  C. (dec).  IR: 3413, 2931, 2854, 2222, 1705, 1640 cm.sup.-1.  .sup.1H NMR (CDCl.sub.3, 400 MHz): .delta.  1.39
(m, 1H), 1.74 (m, 2H), 1.81-2.06 (m, 6H), 2.14-2.32 (m, 3H), 3.05 (d, 1H, J=2.8 Hz), 3.09 (s, 1H), 3.40 (q, 2H, J=6.4 Hz), 3.67 (t, 2H, J=6.0 Hz), 6.75 (s, 2H), 6.93 (m, 1H), 7.41 (d, 2H, J=8.0 Hz), 7.81 (d, 2H, J=8.0 Hz).  .sup.13C NMR (CDCl.sub.3, 100
MHz): .delta.  20.5, 26.0, 28.1, 29.4, 34.0, 34.8, 36.2, 44.6 (d, J=25.0 Hz), 47.8 (d, J=24.0 Hz), 90.7 (d, J=32.0 Hz), 95.3 (d, J=174.0 Hz), 104.5 (d, J=10.0 Hz), 126.7, 130.5, 132.9, 134.2, 139.6, 167.1, 171.1.  .sup.19F NMR (CDCl.sub.3, 376 MHz):
.delta.  -139.0 (m).  FAB--HRMS: Calcd. for C.sub.23H.sub.26N.sub.2O.sub.3F.sup.+ [M+H].sup.+: 397.1927, found: 397.1920.


 ##STR00025##


4-(2-Oxo-cyclooctylmethyl)benzoic acid methyl ester (4a).  To a stirring solution of cyclooctanone (1.76 g, 14.0 mmol) in THF (30 mL) at -78.degree.  C. was added LDA (8.54 mL, 15.4 mmol, 1.8 M in heptane/THF/ethylbenzene).  After 1 h, a solution
of methyl 4-bromomethylbenzoate (3.53 g, 15.4 mmol) in THF (10 mL) was added and the reaction mixture was allowed to warm to rt.  After 30 min, the reaction was quenched with H.sub.2O (10 mL) and the THF was removed on a rotary evaporator.  The residue
was diluted with EtOAc (100 mL), washed with H.sub.2O (3.times.100 mL) and brine (1.times.50 mL), and dried over MgSO.sub.4.  Chromatography of the crude product (50:1 to 9:1 hexanes/EtOAc) yielded the desired product as a colorless oil (3.08 g, 80%,
R.sub.f=0.30, 9:1 hexanes/EtOAc).  IR: 3426, 2929, 2856, 1721, 1700, 1657, 1611 cm.sup.-1.  .sup.1H NMR (CDCl.sub.3, 300 MHz): .delta.  1.10-1.28 (m, 1H), 1.28-1.42 (m, 1H), 1.42-1.80 (m, 6H), 1.80-1.90 (m, 1H), 1.90-2.08 (m, 1H), 2.08-2.18 (m, 1H),
2.22-2.35 (m, 1H), 2.64 (dd, 1H, J=12.6, 6.0 Hz), 3.01 (m, 2H), 3.89 (s, 3H), 7.20 (d, 2H, J=8.1 Hz), 7.93 (d, 2H, J=8.4 Hz).  .sup.13C NMR (CDCl.sub.3, 75 MHz): .delta.  24.5, 24.6, 25.1, 27.7, 32.9, 38.1, 43.2, 51.5, 52.0, 128.1, 129.0, 129.7, 145.6,
167.0, 218.9.  FAB--HRMS: Calcd. for C.sub.17H.sub.23O.sub.3.sup.+ [M+H].sup.+: 275.1647, found: 275.1648.


 ##STR00026##


4-(2-Trifluoromethanesulfonyloxy-cyclooct-2-enylmethyl)-benzoic acid methyl ester (7a).  To a solution of ketone 4a (2.17 g, 7.91 mmol) in THF (50 mL) at -78.degree.  C. was added KHMDS (17.4 mL, 8.70 mmol, 0.50 M solution in toluene).  After 1
h, a solution of Tf.sub.2NPh (3.11 g, 8.70 mmol) in THF (25 mL) was added and the reaction was allowed to warm to rt.  After 30 min, the reaction mixture was concentrated on a rotary evaporator and the product was purified directly by column
chromatography (20:1 to 12:1 hexanes/EtOAc) to yield the desired product (2.19 g, 68%, R.sub.f=0.35 in 9:1 hexanes/EtOAc) as a colorless oil.  The product was isolated as a 9:1 mixture of regioisomers.  IR: 2932, 2856, 1723, 1410 cm.sup.-1.  .sup.1H NMR
(CDCl.sub.3, 400 MHz): .delta.  1.25-1.38 (m, 1H), 1.38-1.52 (m, 1H), 1.52-1.71 (m, 4H), 1.71-1.85 (m, 2H), 1.98-2.11 (m, 1H), 2.15-2.25 (m, 1H), 2.73 (dd, 1H, J=14.0, 6.8 Hz), 2.99 (dd, 1H, J=13.6, 8.0 Hz), 3.13 (m, 1H), 3.73 (s, 3H), 5.76 (t, 1H, J=8.8
Hz), 7.27 (d, 2H, J=8.0 Hz), 7.98 (d, 2H, J=8.0 Hz).  .sup.13C NMR (CDCl.sub.3, 100 MHz): .delta.  25.2, 25.9, 26.5, 29.8, 33.3, 37.4, 39.8, 52.0, 118.5 (q, J=318.0 Hz), 121.3, 128.4, 128.8, 129.8, 144.8, 151.0, 167.0.  .sup.19F NMR (CDCl.sub.3, 376
MHz): .delta.  -73.8 (s).  FAB--HRMS: Calcd. for C.sub.18H.sub.22O.sub.5F.sub.3S.sup.+ [M+H].sup.+: 407.1140, found: 407.1133.


 ##STR00027##


4-Cyclooct-2-ynylmethylbenzoic acid methyl ester (8a).  To a solution of vinyl triflate 7a (2.14 g, 5.28 mmol) in THF (30 mL) at 0.degree.  C. was added LDA (3.52 mL, 5.28 mmol, 1.8 M in heptane/THF/ethyl benzene) dropwise by syringe pump, over 3
h. LDA was added until the starting material was consumed.  The reaction was quenched with H.sub.2O (10 mL) and the THF was removed on a rotary evaporator.  The residue was diluted with EtOAc (100 mL), washed with H.sub.2O (3.times.100 mL) and brine
(1.times.50 mL), and dried over MgSO.sub.4.  After silica gel chromatography (3:1:0 to 30:10:2 hexanes/toluene/EtOAc), a colorless oil was isolated (0.310 g, 23%, R.sub.f=0.20 in 30:10:1 hexanes/toluene/EtOAc).  IR: 2930, 2857, 1720 cm.sup.-1.  .sup.1H
NMR (CDCl.sub.3, 300 MHz): .delta.  1.42 (m, 2H), 1.62 (m, 1H), 1.71-1.88 (m, 3H), 1.88-1.98 (m, 1H), 2.00-2.10 (m, 1H), 2.11-2.23 (m, 2H), 2.63-2.80 (m, 3H), 3.90 (s, 3H), 7.29 (d, 2H, J=8.0 Hz), 7.97 (d, 2H, J=8.4 Hz).  .sup.13C NMR (CDCl.sub.3, 100
MHz): .delta.  20.8, 28.4, 30.0, 34.8, 36.5, 40.3, 41.7, 51.9, 94.9, 96.1, 128.1, 128.9, 129.6, 145.7, 167.1.  FAB--HRMS: Calcd. for C.sub.17H.sub.21O.sub.2.sup.+ [M+H].sup.+: 257.1542, found: 257.1536.


 ##STR00028##


4-Cyclooct-2-ynylmethylbenzoic acid (3a).  To a solution of cyclooctyne 8a (283 mg, 1.11 mmol) in dioxane (12 mL) and H.sub.2O (3 mL) was added finely crushed LiOH (530 mg, 22.1 mmol).  The suspension was heated to 50.degree.  C. and stirred for
3 h. The dioxane was removed on a rotary evaporator.  The residue was diluted with EtOAc (50 mL), washed with 1 N HCl (3.times.50 mL), H.sub.2O (3.times.50 mL), and brine (2.times.50 mL), and dried over MgSO.sub.4 to yield a white solid (254 mg, 95%,
R.sub.f=0.25 in 27:3:1 hexane/EtOAc/AcOH), mp 112.0-113.9.degree.  C. (dec).  IR: 3071, 2922, 2846, 1680 cm.sup.-1.  .sup.1H NMR (CD.sub.3CN, 400 MHz): .delta.  1.35-1.48 (m, 2H), 1.56-1.66 (m, 1H), 1.66-1.95 (m, 4H), 2.01-2.17 (m, 3H), 2.70 (d, 1H,
J=5.2 Hz), 2.71 (d, 1H, J=1.2 Hz), 2.76 (m, 1H), 7.33 (d, 2H, J=8.4 Hz), 7.91 (d, 2H, J=8.4 Hz), 9.40 (br s, 1H).  .sup.13C NMR (CD.sub.3CN, 100 MHz): .delta.  21.2, 29.2, 30.8, 35.6, 37.3, 40.8, 42.5, 95.7, 97.1, 128.9, 130.1, 130.5, 147.4, 167.8. 
EI--HRMS: Calcd. for C.sub.16H.sub.18O.sub.2 M.sup.+: 242.1307, found: 242.1307.  Anal. Calcd. for C.sub.16H.sub.18O.sub.2: C, 79.31; H, 7.49.  Found: C, 79.07; H, 7.26.


 ##STR00029##


4-Cyclooct-2-ynylmethyl)-N-[3-(2,5-dioxo-2,5-dihydro-pyrrol-1-yl)propyl]be- nzamide (12a).  TEA (0.184 mL, 0.396 mmol) was added to a solution of cyclooctyne 3a (64 mg, 0.26 mmol), amine 13 (106 mg, 0.396 mmol), and HATU (111 mg, 0.291 mmol) in
CH.sub.2Cl.sub.2 (2 mL) at rt.  The reaction was stirred for 15 min at rt, quenched with H.sub.2O (10 mL), and diluted with CH.sub.2Cl.sub.2 (50 mL).  The organic layer was washed with 1 N HC, (3.times.50 mL), saturated NaHCO.sub.3 (3.times.50 mL), and
brine (2.times.25 mL), and dried over MgSO.sub.4.  Chromatography of the crude product (2:1 to 1:1 hexanes/EtOAc) yielded the desired product as a colorless oil (69 mg, 69%, R.sub.f=0.30 in 1:1 hexanes/EtOAc).  IR: 3411, 3099, 2925, 2849, 1704, 1639
cm.sup.-1.  .sup.1H NMR (CDCl.sub.3, 400 MHz): .delta.  1.42 (m, 2H), 1.61 (m, 1H), 1.70-1.97 (m, 6H), 2.00-2.09 (m, 1H), 2.09-2.22 (m, 2H), 2.62-2.78 (m, 3H), 3.38 (q, 2H, J=6.4 Hz), 3.65 (t, 2H, J=6.0 Hz), 6.74 (s, 2H), 6.93 (m, 1H), 7.29 (d, 2H, J=8.0
Hz), 7.78 (d, 2H, J=8.0 Hz).  .sup.13C NMR (CDCl.sub.3, 100 MHz): .delta.  20.8, 28.2, 28.4, 29.9, 34.7, 34.8, 36.1, 36.5, 40.0, 41.6, 94.9, 96.2, 126.9, 129.0, 132.2, 134.2, 144.0, 167.1, 171.2.  FAB--HRMS: Calcd. for
C.sub.23H.sub.27N.sub.2O.sub.3.sup.+ [M+H].sup.+: 379.2022, found: 379.2014.


 ##STR00030##


Compounds 11b and 11c.  Cyclooctyne 3b (0.20 g, 0.77 mmol) and 2-azidoethanol (N. J. Agard, unpublished results, 461 .mu.L, 3.84 mmol) were dissolved in CH.sub.3CN (7.2 mL) and Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline (1.times., pH 7.4, 5.9 mL).  The
reaction was stirred at rt for 12 h and concentrated on a rotary evaporator.  Chromatography of the crude product (95:4:1 to 90:9:1 CH.sub.2Cl.sub.2/MeOH/AcOH) afforded a 20:1 mixture of 11b:11a (99 mg, 37%, R.sub.f=0.30 in 90:9:1
CH.sub.2Cl.sub.2/MeOH/AcOH) and 11c (144 mg, 54%, R.sub.f=0.15 in 90:9:1 CH.sub.2Cl.sub.2MeOH/AcOH) as colorless oils.


Compound 11b: mp 175.0-178.0.degree.  C. IR: 3442, 2103, 1644 cm.sup.-1.  .sup.1H NMR (CD.sub.3OD, 400 MHz): .delta.  1.39 (m, 3H), 1.55 (m, 1H), 1.68 (m, 1H), 1.79 (m, 1H), 2.15 (m, 2H), 2.30 (m, 1H), 2.82 (ddd, 1H, J=14.8, 4.4, 4.4 Hz), 3.38
(app t, 1H, J=12.4 Hz), 3.48 (app t, 1H, J=14.4 Hz), 4.02 (m, 1H), 4.09 (m, 1H), 4.46 (dt, 1H, J=14.0, 5.2 Hz), 4.62 (ddd, 1H, J=14.0, 8.0, 5.6 Hz); 7.05 (d, 2H, J=8.4 Hz), 7.86 (d, 2H, J=8.4 Hz).  .sup.13C NMR (CD.sub.3OD, 100 MHz): .delta.  22.9, 25.4,
27.4, 28.4, 38.3 (d, J=22.0 Hz), 48.1 (d, J=26.0 Hz), 53.9 (d, J=7.0 Hz), 62.1, 97.0 (d, J=174.0 Hz), 130.7, 131.2, 132.0, 135.2 (d, J=23.0 Hz), 141.6 (d, J=8.0 Hz), 145.7 (d, J=5.0 Hz), 169.8.  .sup.19F NMR (CD.sub.3OD, 376 MHz): .delta.  -145.7 (m). 
FAB--HRMS: Calcd. for C.sub.18H.sub.23FN.sub.3O.sub.3.sup.+ [M+H].sup.+: 348.1723, found: 348.1722.


Compound 11c: mp 183.0-184.6.degree.  C. IR: 3423, 2068, 1643 cm.sup.-1.  .sup.1H NMR (CD.sub.3OD, 400 MHz): .delta.  1.31 (m, 1H), 1.40-1.68 (m, 4H), 1.74 (m, 1H), 1.92 (m, 2H), 2.39 (m, 1H), 2.95 (m, 1H), 3.32 (app q, 2H, J=12.8 Hz), 3.88 (t,
2H, J=5.6 Hz), 4.34 (m, 2H), 7.05 (d, 2H, J=8.0 Hz), 7.82 (d, 2H, J=8.0 Hz).  .sup.13C NMR (CD.sub.3OD, 100 MHz): .delta.  21.7, 23.8, 25.9, 28.1, 38.9, 51.1, 51.2, 55.0, 62.2, 130.3, 130.9, 132.0, 135.7, 144.2, 149.9, 170.8.  FAB--HRMS: Calcd. for
C.sub.18H.sub.24N.sub.3O.sub.4.sup.+ [M+H].sup.+: 346.1767, found: 346.1764.


Kinetic Evaluation of Cyclooctyne Probes


Stock solutions of cyclooctynes 3a and 3b (50 mM), benzyl azide (500 mM) and 2-azidoethanol (500 mM) were made in either CD.sub.3CN or a 55:45 mixture of CD.sub.3CN and deuterated Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline (pH 7.4, made with D.sub.2O). Gentle heating and/or sonication in a H.sub.2O bath was required to fully dissolve 3a and 3b.  An NMR tube was charged with 450 .mu.L of either 3a or 3b, and 50 .mu.L of either benzyl azide or 2-azidoethanol, and the reaction was monitored over time
using .sup.1H NMR spectroscopy.


In the case of the reactions of 3a and 3b with benzyl azide, the kinetic data were derived by monitoring the change in integration of resonances corresponding to the benzylic protons in benzyl azide (.delta.  .about.4.2 ppm) compared to the
corresponding resonances of the triazole products (.delta.  .about.5.0 to 5.5 ppm).  In the case of the reactions of 3a and 3b with 2-azidoethanol, the kinetic data were derived from integration of the resonances corresponding to the more downfield pair
of aromatic protons (.delta.  .about.7.9 ppm) in the cyclooctyne starting material compared to the corresponding resonances in the triazole products (.delta.  .about.7.7 to 7.8 ppm).


Second-order rate constants for the reaction were determined by plotting 1/[benzyl azide] versus time in the case of the reactions of 3a and 3b with benzyl azide and by plotting 1/[3a] versus time or 1/[3b] versus time in the case of the
reactions of 3a and 3b with 2-azidoethanol, and subsequent analysis by linear regression.  Second-order rate constants correspond to one half of the determined slope (Table 1).  Error bars represent standard deviations from three replicate experiments.


 TABLE-US-00001 TABLE 1 Kinetic comparison of azido-ligations.sup.a.  Labeling reagent Azide Solvent k (.times.10.sup.-3 M.sup.-1s.sup.-1) 3b PhCH.sub.2N.sub.3 CD.sub.3CN 4.2 2 PhCH.sub.2N.sub.3 CD.sub.3CN .sup.  2.4.sup.b 3a PhCH.sub.2N.sub.3
CD.sub.3CN 1.2 1 (R'.dbd.H) PhCH.sub.2N.sub.3 CD.sub.3CN .sup.  1.9.sup.c 3b HOCH.sub.2CH.sub.2N.sub.3 CD.sub.3CN/PBS (55:45) 4.0 2 HOCH.sub.2CH.sub.2N.sub.3 CD.sub.3CN/PBS (55:45) .sup.  2.0.sup.b 3a HOCH.sub.2CH.sub.2N.sub.3 CD.sub.3CN/PBS (55:45) 1.1
.sup.aSecond-order rate constants for the [3 + 2] cycloaddition were determined at 22.degree.  C. using .sup.1H NMR (see experimental section for a full description of the experimental setup).  .sup.bAgard, N. J., Prescher, J. A., Bertozzi, C. R. J. Am. 
Chem. Soc.  2004, 126, 15046-15047.  .sup.cLin, F. L., Hoyt, H. M., van Halbeek, H., Bergman, R. G., Bertozzi, C. R. J. Am.  Chem. Soc.  2005, 127, 2686-95.


 Cell Surface Labeling of Jurkat Cells with 12b-FLAG


Jurkat cells (human T-cell lymphoma) were maintained in a 5% CO.sub.2, water-saturated atmosphere and grown in RPMI-1640 media supplemented with 10% FCS, penicillin (100 units/mL), and streptomycin (0.1 mg/mL).  Cell densities were maintained
between 1.times.10.sup.5 and 1.6.times.10.sup.6 cells/mL.  The cells were incubated for 3 d in untreated media or media containing 25 .mu.M Ac.sub.4ManNAz.  After growth in the presence of Ac.sub.4ManNAz, cells were distributed into a 96-well V-bottom
tissue culture plate.  The cells were pelleted (3500 rpm, 3 min) and washed twice with 200 .mu.L of labeling buffer (PBS, pH 7.4 containing 1% FCS).  Cells were then incubated with 12b-FLAG or 1-FLAG in labeling buffer for 1 h at rt.  After incubation,
cells were pelleted, washed twice with labeling buffer, and resuspended in the same buffer containing FITC-conjugated .alpha.-FLAG (1:3000 dilution of the Sigma stock).  After a 30-min incubation on ice (in the dark), the cells were washed twice with 200
.mu.L of cold labeling buffer and then diluted to a volume of 400 .mu.L for flow cytometry analysis.


Results


To test the specificity of the cycloaddition reaction in a biological context, 3a and 3b were further derivatized with FLAG-C (SEQ ID NO:3), a short peptide epitope for which a fluorescently labeled antibody is commercially available (Scheme 6). 
Maleimide derivatives 12a and 12b were prepared by the HATU-mediated coupling of 3a and 3b with amino-maleimide 13.  Cysteine-terminated FLAG peptides were ligated to maleimides 12a and 12b using standard conditions and the resulting probes (12a-FLAG and
12b-FLAG) were purified by HPLC for use in cell labeling experiments.


 ##STR00031##


Scheme 6: (a) O-(7-Azabenzotriazol-1-yl)-N,N,N',N'-tetramethyluronium hexafluorophosphate (HATU), 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (HOBT), TEA, CH.sub.2Cl.sub.2, 69% (12a), 65% (12b); (b) H.sub.2N-DYKDDDDKC-CO.sub.2H (SEQ ID NO:3), DMF/H.sub.2O.


Azides were installed on the surfaces of Jurkat cells by metabolic labeling of sialic acid residues.sup.10.  Briefly, cells fed peracetylated N-azidoacetylmannosamine (Ac.sub.4ManNAz), an analog of N-acetylmannosamine (ManNAc), convert the azido
sugar to the corresponding azido sialic acid (SiaNAz) within cell surface glycoproteins.  Reaction of the cell-surface azides with phosphine or cyclooctyne probes containing the FLAG epitope was monitored by flow cytometry using visualization with a
FITC-conjugated .alpha.-FLAG antibody (FIG. 4a).


As shown in FIG. 4b, the 12b-FLAG labels Jurkat cells in an azide-dependent fashion, similar to a previously studied FLAG-labeled phosphine probe capable of undergoing the Staudinger ligation (1-FLAG).  Agard et al. (2004).  J. Am.  Chem. Soc. 
126, 15046-15047.  Compound 12b-FLAG labels cells in a dose-dependent manner.  No toxicity was observed in any of these experiments.


FIGS. 4A and 4B.  Labeling of cell-surface azides with cyclooctyne probes.  (a) Jurkat cells were incubated with azido sugars for 3 d and then labeled with various concentrations of 1-FLAG or 12b-FLAG.  Detection of the FLAG peptide was achieved
using a FITC-conjugated .alpha.-FLAG antibody, followed by analysis by flow cytometry.  (b) Dark blue: Cells incubated with 25 .mu.M Ac.sub.4ManNAz for 3 d. Light blue: Cells incubated in the absence of Ac.sub.4ManNAz.  Error bars indicate the standard
deviation of three trials..sup.a Mean fluorescence intensity.


Example 3


Synthesis of an Aryl-Less Cyclooctyne Compound and Its Use in Labeling of Living Cells


This example describes synthesis of an "aryl-less" octyne (ALO; shown below) and the use of a conjugated ALO to label living cells in vivo.  The aryl-less octyne was synthesized; then a maleimide group was introduced.  The maleimide functionality
allows for specific conjugation to the thiol of a cysteine containing peptides.  Described below are the synthesis of the octyne, the octyne-linked maleimides, their conjugation to a FLAG peptide, and the subsequent use of these conjugates on cell
surfaces and in living mice;


 ##STR00032## Materials and Methods Synthesis of ALO


 ##STR00033##


Compound 14.  AgClO.sub.4 (2.40 g, 11.6 mmol) was added to a solution of dibromobicycle 1 (1.00 g, 3.72 mmol) and methyl glycolate (6.0 ml, 78.2 mmol) dissolved in toluene (4 mL) in a flame-dried, aluminum-foil-wrapped flask.  The reaction was
stirred for 2 h, diluted with pentane (20 mL), and filtered to remove insoluble silver salts.  The solution was concentrated and purified by silica gel chromatography (5-10% EtOAc: pet ether; R.sub.f(10% EtOAc: pet ether)=0.32) to yield 2 as a colorless
oil (330 mg 1.19 mmol, 22%).  .sup.1H NMR (300 MHz, CD.sub.3Cl) .delta.  6.20 (dd, 1H, J=3.9, 11.7) 4.23 (d, 1H, J=16.5), 4.11 (m, 1H) 3.96 (d, 1H, J=16.5), 3.73 (s, 1H),2.70 (m, 1H), 2.25 (m, 1H), 0.8-2.1 (m, 8H).  EI LRMS calculated
C.sub.11H.sub.18O.sub.3Br [M+H].sup.+ 278.2 found 278.1.


 ##STR00034##


Compound 15.  A suspension of NaOMe (128 mg, 2.38 mmol) in anhydrous DMSO (2 mL) was added to compound 2 (330 mg, 1.19 mmol) dissolved in anhydrous DMSO (3 mL).  The reaction was stirred 20 min and additional NaOMe (250 mg, 4.8 mmol in 1.5 mL of
DMSO) was added.  The reaction was stirred until the starting material was completely consumed as determined by TLC (20 min).  Water (1 ml) was added to the reaction and it was stirred overnight.  The reaction was acidified with 1 M HCl (75 mL) and
extracted twice with EtOAc (50 mL).  The combined organic extracts were dried over MgSO.sub.4, filtered, and solvent was removed in vacuo.  (The reaction can be purified at this point to yield the free acid, but is most often taken on in crude form to
give the activated pentafluorophenyl ester) The reaction mixture was dissolved in 5 ml CH.sub.2Cl.sub.2, and to this solution was added Et.sub.3N (332 .mu.L, 2.38 mmol) followed by pentafluorophenyltrifluoroacetate (409 .mu.L, 2.38 mmol).  The reaction
was stirred 3 h at rt, solvent was removed in vacuo, and the product was purified by silica gel chromatography (1.5-3% EtOAc: petroleum ethers; R.sub.f(3% EtOAc)=0.30) to yield 3 as a clear oil (274 mg, 0.78 mmol, 66%).  .sup.1H NMR (400 MHz, CD.sub.3Cl)
.delta.  4.42 (m, 1H), 4.25 (d, 1H, J=15.2), 4.13 (d, 1H.  J=15.2), 1.5-2.3 (m, 10H) EI LRMS calcd. for C.sub.16H.sub.14O.sub.3F.sub.5 [M+H].sup.+ 349.3, found 349.0.


Synthesis of Maleimide Octynes


 ##STR00035##


Compounds 16 and 17 were synthesized as follows.  TEA (1.5 eq) was added to a solution of cyclooctyne-PFP (1 eq.), and amine 13 (1.5 eq.), in CH.sub.2Cl.sub.2 at rt.  The reaction was stirred for 2 h at rt, quenched with H.sub.2O, and diluted
with CH.sub.2Cl.sub.2.  The organic layer was washed with 1 N HCl (.times.3) saturated NaHCO.sub.3 (.times.3), and brine (.times.2), and, dried over MgSO.sub.4.  Chromatography of the crude product (hexanes/EtOAc) yielded the desired product as a
colorless oil.


Synthesis of oct-FLAG Conjugates


Octyne-maleimide (1 eq) was added to a solution of FLAG-C (DYKDDDDKC; SEQ ID NO:3) prepared by standard solid-phase peptide synthesis) (1.2 eq) in 1:1 DMF:H.sub.2O and stirred overnight.  The crude reaction mixture was concentrated and purified
via reversed-phase HPLC (Varian Dynamax HPLC system with 254-nm detection, on a Microsorb C-18 preparative column at a flow rate of 20 mL/min).  All HPLC runs used the following gradient: 5-25% acetonitrile in water over 10 min, followed by 35-50%
acetonitrile in water over 30 min.


Mice


B6D2F1 mice were obtained from The Jackson Laboratory (Bar Harbor, Me.).  All animals were housed and monitored at the Northwest Animal Facility (Berkeley, Calif.), and experiments were performed according to guidelines established by the Animal
Care and Use Committee at the University of California, Berkeley (protocol number R234-0504B).


General Protocol for Compound Administration


Mice were administered daily doses of Ac.sub.4ManNAz (0-300 mg/kg in .about.200 .mu.L of 70% DMSO, from a stock solution of 50 mg/mL) intraperitoneally (i.p.) for 7 days.  Twenty-four hours after the final Ac.sub.4ManNAz injection, mice were
injected i.p.  with oct-FLAG (0-40 .mu.mol in 200 .mu.L H.sub.2O), Phos-FLAG (20 .mu.mol in .about.200 .mu.L H.sub.2O), or vehicle alone (H.sub.2O).  After 3 h, the mice were anesthetized with isoflurane and sacrificed, and their splenocytes were
isolated using a standard protocol.


Labeling of Splenocyte Cell Surface Azides ex vivo


Splenocytes from one spleen were suspended in RPMI medium 1640 and distributed among wells of a 96-well V-bottom tissue culture plate (3 wells per treatment, .about.5.times.10.sup.5 cells/well).  The cells were pelleted (3500 rpm, 3 min), rinsed
three times with labeling buffer (1% FBS in PBS, pH 7.4), and incubated with 0-500 .mu.M oct-FLAG in labeling buffer, Phos-FLAG in labeling buffer, or labeling buffer alone.  After incubation at rt for 1 h, the cells were rinsed three times with labeling
buffer, treated with FITC-.alpha.-FLAG (1:900 dilution) or FITC-conjugated mouse IgG.sub.1 isotype control (1:200 dilution) in labeling buffer for 30 min on ice, rinsed, and analyzed by flow cytometry.


Results


Splenocyte Labeling of FLAG conjugates: Splenocytes grown in the presence of Ac.sub.4ManNAz were labeled as described in the procedures.  The results are shown in FIG. 5.  Phosphine-FLAG ("Phos-FLAG") serves as a positive control of ligation, and
the three synthesized octynes all show bioorthogonality as demonstrated by increased labeling in the present of azide bearing cells.  The degree of labeling is consistent with in vitro kinetic data within the octynes.  The more hydrophobic octynes
(F-oct(MOFO) and Oct (the first reported cyclooctyne) show some background.


In vivo labeling of mice: Mice were injected with azide labeled sugars as described in the procedures.  They were subsequently injected with phosphine-FLAG or ALO-FLAG, sacrificed and their cells were analyzed for the presence of FLAG via flow
cytometry.  The results are shown in FIG. 6.  ALO-FLAG, but not F-oct-FLAG or Oct-FLAG, demonstrates the ability to perform this strain-promoted cycloaddition in a living animal.


While the present invention has been described with reference to the specific embodiments thereof, it should be understood by those skilled in the art that various changes may be made and equivalents may be substituted without departing from the
true spirit and scope of the invention.  In addition, many modifications may be made to adapt a particular situation, material, composition of matter, process, process step or steps, to the objective, spirit and scope of the present invention.  All such
modifications are intended to be within the scope of the claims appended hereto. 

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8rtificial SequenceSynthetic epitope r Pro Tyr Asp Val Pro Asp Tyr Ala 8PRTArtificial SequenceSynthetic epitope 2Asp Tyr
Lys Asp Asp Asp Asp Lys TArtificial SequenceSynthetic epitope 3Asp Tyr Lys Asp Asp Asp Asp Lys Cys RTArtificial SequenceSynthetic epitope 4Cys Glu Gln Lys Leu Ile Ser Glu Glu Asp Leu 6PRTArtificial SequenceSynthetic linker 5Ala Ala
Ala Gly Gly Met RTArtificial SequenceSynthetic linker 6Ala Ala Ala Gly Gly Met Pro Pro Ala Ala Ala Gly Gly Met 6PRTArtificial SequenceSynthetic linker 7Ala Ala Ala Gly Gly Met TArtificial SequenceSynthetic linker 8Pro Pro Ala Ala Ala
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* * * * *



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DOCUMENT INFO
Description: The invention relates generally to covalent modification of molecules useful in, for example, modification of surfaces (including cell surfaces), and modification of molecules under physiological conditions (e.g., in a cellular environment).BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTIONSelective chemical reactions that are orthogonal to the diverse functionality of biological systems are now recognized as important tools in chemical biology. As relative newcomers to the repertoire of synthetic chemistry, these bioorthogonalreactions have inspired new strategies for compound library synthesis, protein engineering, functional proteomics, and chemical remodeling of cell surfaces. The azide has secured a prominent role as a unique chemical handle for bioconjugation. TheStaudinger ligation has been used with phosphines to tag azidosugars metabolically introduced into cellular glycoconjugates. The Staudinger ligation can be performed in living animals without physiological harm; nevertheless, the Staudinger reaction isnot without liabilities. The requisite phosphines are susceptible to air oxidation and their optimization for improved water solubility and increased reaction rate has proven to be synthetically challenging.The azide group has an alternative mode of bioorthogonal reactivity: the [3+2] cycloaddition with alkynes described by Huisgen. In its classic form, this reaction has limited applicability in biological systems due to the requirement of elevatedtemperatures (or pressures) for reasonable reaction rates. Sharpless and coworkers surmounted this obstacle with the development of a copper(I)-catalyzed version, termed "click chemistry," that proceeds readily at physiological temperatures and inrichly functionalized biological environs. This discovery has enabled the selective modification of virus particles, nucleic acids, and proteins from complex tissue lysates. Unfortunately, the mandatory copper catalyst is toxic to both bacterial andmammalian cells, thus precluding a