Responding to Diversity by gyvwpsjkko


									Its (I’m) not good
            Cheryl Brown
 One aspect of PhD research currently being
 If you ask students if they think ICTs are
  important for learning, they all say YES it will
  improve learning experiences, provide
  valuable support, help them do things more
 Research aim: how to REALLY understand
  how students’ meanings (eg perceptions and
  attitudes) of ICTs impact on the object or
  purpose of their engagement with ICT for

The study
   Outline
    ◦ Theoretical and methodological approach
    ◦ Dominant Discourses that emerged from
      students overall
    ◦ Examine in more detail what this tells us about
      especially focusing on students with mobile
       learning opportunities
    ◦ Examine how better understanding of
      Discourses can help us improve T&L

Focus of this paper
   Gee’s notion of big D/little d D(d)iscourse
    - Why this approach?
      - Tool of inquiry that enables identification of aspects of
        identity through text
      - Not just about content but also about larger national and
        historical issues
      - Not meant to be about achieving abstract theoretical
        understandings but to help deal with practical issues
    ◦ What is it?
      - examination of writing (texts) (little d discourses) to identify
        evidence of certain ways of acting, interacting, feeling
        believing and valuing ICTs that when put together become a
        socially meaningful ICT identity (Big D Discourse) that enable
        recognition of particular “kinds of people”

Theoretical approach
 Open ended survey data from two time periods
  (2004 and 2007)
 Critical Discourse Analysis of texts (this paper
  focus primarily on the ideological level)
    ◦ other aspects of my research combines this with analysis
      of expressive and relational values such as modality and
   Mixed method: uses open ended questions and
    quantitative data about access and use to
    understand how this impacts on different social
    groups and different ICT practices

   Demographics
    ◦ Multilingual (English only account for 17%), even
      gender split, largely young but 35% over 22
   Access to ICTs
    ◦ 17% no off campus access. 23% high access eg
      laptop, internet off campus, completely mobile
   Computer literacy
    ◦ 17% used a computer for less than 2 years 8% for
      more than 10 years
   Personal use
    ◦ 36% use ICTs often for personal purpose 11% do
      not at all

Student context: diversity
Discourse           2004     2007

Disembodied space

Dominant discourses in the
literature & the data
       Liberating for development
       Part of the new world order/ economy/ workplace, makes
        people feel part of the world beyond where they live
       People with access to ICTs advantaged and other
        disadvantaged so includes notions of digital divide
     it increases your knowledge of things, you get to know what’s happening
                          around campus & around the world
                               older male low SEG

icts are very much helpful especially in this day and age, for communication
            to the rest of the world. it makes me to be knowledgeable
                           older female average SEG

    it's expensive, pay more money for few minutes, end up not accomplishing
             what i was supposed to accomplish. i think icts sometimes create
          digital divide, especially for students who find it hard to access internet
                                   older male high SEG

    Helps gets things done better, faster, easier
    In terms of learning there were two themes. ICTs making learning
     easier and ICTs making learning better (ie offering some pedagogical
    i am more likely to remember information from ict's than from studying from a
                             textbook, older male high SEG

     it make things easy for you to study because information most of the time is
         straight and forward/ it makes life easy and things go smoothly than you
                                     male low SEG

    if i don’t attend a class i go to internet and find easily the information and also
                   practice the programs that i get problem to understand
                                   young female low SEG

       ict is like a personal tutor/mentor because you can get clarity an almost
                            everything you need, male high SEG

Efficiency/ effectiveness
 Limitless faith in technology – kind of a “religious
 Privileges ICTs, seeing them as a force to which all things
  must adapt
 Validation of technology approach over non-technology one
 People who use computers are smarter

    they are very important and they improve computer literacy and
                they are associated with latest technology
                        older male average SEG
     i think ICTs should be a compulsory course because nowadays
            wherever a person is working, a computer is needed
                          young male low SEG
     we have the privilege of having access to and using these new
      technologies, which are very helpful to us. our greatest debt,
    which it is a joy to acknowledge is to those who put this system in
                           place for this university
                           younger male low SEG

    People who use technology are better and smarter
    ICT ability/ aptitude advances students, whilst lack of
     ability disadvantages
    Knowing how to use ICTs makes you smarter

    i would if it were possible ask to be taught firstly some basics that
            will lead me into knowing computer as i know myself
                            young male low SEG

actually i don't know because i am not well versed with the system,
  i think by being orientated in the ICT field, i can be able to use it
             and be part of the beneficiaries of the system
                       older female high SEG

Determinism: potential
 Knowledge is power
 Information limitless, “world is your oyster”
 Information = Knowledge

      you have the whole wide world in the small screen you are looking at,
                     google makes the small a smaller place
                             young male high SEG

    the sites with information tend to contradict each other, and that confuses
                                young male high SEG

      i honestly want to trust icts and i hope that people should stop putting
             rubbish in then, i just only wish that facts could be reliable
                                   female low SEG

    Technology makes things easier, reduces workload and stress
    However the converse is also true that it creates new
     workload and stress
    sometimes it makes it more difficult when youre not very proficient at
       using icts, but you have to use them never the less, save time,
                   makes work easier, communication faster
                          young female high SEG

when i search for answers, the computer display too much of web pages
  to search on , which is time consuming & sometimes not valuable or
                   irrelevant at all, young male low SEG

     the labs get really full so you have to wait in line, that takes up too
         much time. so you have to search for a lab that has a free pc.
                             young female high SEG

Productivity and lack of
   Disconnection with the body be it face to face or pen and

    after finding and reading updated notices, you still have a few
                questions and you cannot ask the computer
                       young female average SEG

when you use computers for mathematical problems you are always
   far from practicing as it pulls you away from the pen and paper
                       Young female high SEG

    you don’t always have to confront your lectures as you can get
                      most answers online [882]

Discourse           n 2004   %     n 2007   %

Efficiency          163      42%   247      27%
Globalisation       58       15%   322      36%
Deterministic       126      32%   134      15%
Liberation          23       6%    118      13%
Productivity        15       4%    73       8%
Disembodied space   5        1%    12       1%

Dominant discourses in the
literature & the data
   Context
    ◦ More cell phones with greater capability
    ◦ Rise in social software which, although
      comparatively low in our context, still means
      students are increasingly using ICTs socially
    ◦ Increase in community use eg e-government,
      civil organisations

Whats changed from 2004-2007?
   Students: dominant ICT Discourses
    ◦ In 2004
      efficiency of ICTs for learning and students lack of
       ability/ potential to take advantage of opportunities
    ◦ In 2007
      Globalisation was the dominant ICT Discourse in terms
       of students about being part of the world and people
       with access to ICTs being advantaged and other
      Efficiency of learning Discourse is lower (although still
       important) and Liberation Discourse of the power of
       information is more dominant.

Whats changed from 2004-2007?
   Efficiency learning: Easier
    ◦ Culture of laziness with books and writing
      being hard but internet and typing being easy
    ◦ Helps you do things on time
    ◦ Backup if you lose things, don’t go to lectures
    ◦ Convenience
    ◦ Makes you look good ie professional
    ◦ Blame it on the computer syndrome

What this says about students
   Efficiency learning: Better
    ◦ Improves, uplifts
    ◦ New opportunities
    ◦ Opens up communication with lecturer outside
      of classroom
    ◦ Supportive ie helps students remember, check
      spelling, get definitions
    ◦ Makes class work easier (as they can listen and
      not worry about taking notes)
    ◦ More enjoyable – makes learning feel easier
    ◦ Better marks

What this says about students
   Efficiency discourse
   Higher
    ◦   amongst students with NO off campus access
    ◦   for students with high experience and high self efficacy
    ◦   amongst female students (13% more women than men)
    ◦   for students with above average use

   Lower
    ◦ when students are having to accessing the internet via
      cell phone
    ◦ for male students
    ◦ for students with poor self efficacy and low experience

Group differences
   Globalisation – digital divide
    ◦ Limited options, choices need to be made in
      relation to cost, time, security, favours etc
    ◦ Having money and knowing people empower
    ◦ Having access is a luxury, suffering through
      lack of access
    ◦ Made to feel like a criminal eg chased out of
      labs you’re not supposed to be in, security
      checking on you after hours when you use labs
    ◦ Perpetuates disadvantage (rural, ESL)
    ◦ Not equipped to be competent ICT users

What this says about students
   Globalisation – disadvantages
   Several issues
    ◦ Issues of disadvantage in terms of cost and
      other factors are highest amongst students
      whose primary source of off campus access is
      their cell phone.
    ◦ Disadvantage in terms of cost is dominant
      (23%) as well as general disadvantage (14%)

Group differences
   Globalisation – view of the world
    ◦ Provides information about the world – global
      information more highly valued than local
    ◦ Links you with people throughout country
    ◦ Enables you to be effective in field of work
    ◦ Feel like you are in contact globally
    ◦ Reduces geographical distance and makes you
      feel less isolated
    ◦ Makes you more employable and gives you an

What this says about students
   Globalisation – view of the world
    ◦ higher amongst students from low SEGs
    ◦ Stronger discourse of students with no off-
      campus access and amongst those with low or
      average experience, students from low SEGs

    ◦ Students from these groups are to some extent
      limited in their ICT use, feel excluded and want to
      be part of something they are not

Group differences
   Liberation discourse – knowledge is power
   Information
    ◦   gives you knowledge
    ◦   helps you reach your goals
    ◦   is a benefit, is at your finger tips
    ◦   gives you access to the world, infinite possibilities
    ◦   gives you different perspectives, different sources
    ◦   lack of critical literacy too trusting
   Negative or converse view is
    ◦ irrelevant, unnecessary, search forever

What this says about students
   Liberation discourse
    ◦ Slightly higher amongst students who also
      mention mobility of access in terms of cell
      phones, laptops, PDA’s etc
    ◦ Higher amongst young students, those from
      high SEGs, and men
    ◦ Higher amongst students with above average
      social use

Group differences
   Deterministic
    ◦   Use of ICTs a must for courses, vital
    ◦   Lack of ICT use/ knowledge will lead to failure
    ◦   Use makes world a better place
    ◦   Computer literacy and essential requirement
    ◦   Addiction, essential
    ◦   Use ICTs as first choice whenever they can

         To small an issue to see difference between diff
          groups of students

What this says about students
   Individual potential
    ◦ A want to learn more
    ◦ Wish for access to practice without pressure
    ◦ Low tolerance for non essential use eg games, porn,
    ◦ Lack of time, lack of money means lack of skills so
      choices have to be made about use
    ◦ Learning to ask for help, awkwardness, valuing of
      support as critical
    ◦ Frustration, confusion

      Ability only really features strongly for students with low self
       efficacy where 22% spoke with this type of Discourse

What this says about students
   Productivity
    ◦ Saves time
    ◦ Easier to be organsied
    ◦ Converse
       Wastes time, ques, slow, waiting
       Frustrating irritating
       New workloads

   Contradiction in that lack of productivity often
    mentioned in tandem with easy of learning. So
    students spend time to save time

What this says about students
   Productivity Discourse
    ◦ Higher when students have high access off
      campus although much relates to lack of
      productivity (could it be the more you use it
      the more you know what the problems are?)
    ◦ Higher for young people (perhaps part of

Group Differences
   Disembodied
    ◦   takes you away from pen and paper
    ◦   can’t ask a computer questions
    ◦   impersonal
    ◦   no explanation given

         To small an issue to see difference between diff
          groups of students

What this says about students
   Are there distinct Discourses amongst cell
    phone users?
    ◦ These students feel disadvantaged, they see
      cell phone access as “lesser” (less worthy?)
    ◦ They do not see ICTs as creating efficiencies of
    ◦ When students have multiple forms of access
      (including cell phones), they consider ICTs

Meanings for mobility
 Examination of Discourses gives us a
  better insight into students’ different
  purposes and motivation for using ICTs
  for learning
 Discourses
    ◦ do effect use
    ◦ are located within particular demographic
      groupings of students (amplify some divides)
    ◦ contradicts researcher assumptions
      mobility is considered empowering for students,
       but they find it constraining and see themselves
       as disadvantaged

What does this mean?
   Students
    ◦ Appear to pit themselves against ICTs in two ways
    ◦ Its not good enough
      Can make learning easier BUT not always
      Causes new problems
      Responsible for problems
    ◦ I’m not good enough
      Feelings of self doubt about ability, potential to keep up
       and make the most of opportunities
      Theme seems to have shifted from a Deterministic
       Discourse of “ICT ability a must” to a Globalisation
       Discourse “disadvantaged by not having individual

What does this mean?
   What does this mean for teaching and
    ◦ We need to find a way to encourage students to
      empower themselves (stop blaming ICTs for
      problems and take some responsibility themselves)
    ◦ We need to capitalise on the agency students do
      have in terms of their immense desire to learn and
      engage with ICTs at the right time (before they
      become disillusioned)
    ◦ Design learning activities that speak to their
      Discourses as that is the way to draw them into the
      e-learning process

Where to from here?

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