VIEWS: 4 PAGES: 35 POSTED ON: 4/12/2011
Its (I’m) not good enough Cheryl Brown One aspect of PhD research currently being undertaken If you ask students if they think ICTs are important for learning, they all say YES it will improve learning experiences, provide valuable support, help them do things more easily Research aim: how to REALLY understand how students’ meanings (eg perceptions and attitudes) of ICTs impact on the object or purpose of their engagement with ICT for learning The study Outline ◦ Theoretical and methodological approach ◦ Dominant Discourses that emerged from students overall ◦ Examine in more detail what this tells us about students especially focusing on students with mobile learning opportunities ◦ Examine how better understanding of Discourses can help us improve T&L Focus of this paper Gee’s notion of big D/little d D(d)iscourse - Why this approach? - Tool of inquiry that enables identification of aspects of identity through text - Not just about content but also about larger national and historical issues - Not meant to be about achieving abstract theoretical understandings but to help deal with practical issues ◦ What is it? - examination of writing (texts) (little d discourses) to identify evidence of certain ways of acting, interacting, feeling believing and valuing ICTs that when put together become a socially meaningful ICT identity (Big D Discourse) that enable recognition of particular “kinds of people” Theoretical approach Open ended survey data from two time periods (2004 and 2007) Critical Discourse Analysis of texts (this paper focus primarily on the ideological level) ◦ other aspects of my research combines this with analysis of expressive and relational values such as modality and agency Mixed method: uses open ended questions and quantitative data about access and use to understand how this impacts on different social groups and different ICT practices Methodology Demographics ◦ Multilingual (English only account for 17%), even gender split, largely young but 35% over 22 Access to ICTs ◦ 17% no off campus access. 23% high access eg laptop, internet off campus, completely mobile Computer literacy ◦ 17% used a computer for less than 2 years 8% for more than 10 years Personal use ◦ 36% use ICTs often for personal purpose 11% do not at all Student context: diversity Discourse 2004 2007 Efficiency Globalisation Deterministic Potential Liberation Productivity Disembodied space Dominant discourses in the literature & the data Liberating for development Part of the new world order/ economy/ workplace, makes people feel part of the world beyond where they live People with access to ICTs advantaged and other disadvantaged so includes notions of digital divide it increases your knowledge of things, you get to know what’s happening around campus & around the world older male low SEG icts are very much helpful especially in this day and age, for communication to the rest of the world. it makes me to be knowledgeable older female average SEG it's expensive, pay more money for few minutes, end up not accomplishing what i was supposed to accomplish. i think icts sometimes create digital divide, especially for students who find it hard to access internet older male high SEG Globalisation Helps gets things done better, faster, easier In terms of learning there were two themes. ICTs making learning easier and ICTs making learning better (ie offering some pedagogical advantage) i am more likely to remember information from ict's than from studying from a textbook, older male high SEG it make things easy for you to study because information most of the time is straight and forward/ it makes life easy and things go smoothly than you expected male low SEG if i don’t attend a class i go to internet and find easily the information and also practice the programs that i get problem to understand young female low SEG ict is like a personal tutor/mentor because you can get clarity an almost everything you need, male high SEG Efficiency/ effectiveness Limitless faith in technology – kind of a “religious transcendence” Privileges ICTs, seeing them as a force to which all things must adapt Validation of technology approach over non-technology one People who use computers are smarter they are very important and they improve computer literacy and they are associated with latest technology older male average SEG i think ICTs should be a compulsory course because nowadays wherever a person is working, a computer is needed young male low SEG we have the privilege of having access to and using these new technologies, which are very helpful to us. our greatest debt, which it is a joy to acknowledge is to those who put this system in place for this university younger male low SEG Determinism People who use technology are better and smarter ICT ability/ aptitude advances students, whilst lack of ability disadvantages Knowing how to use ICTs makes you smarter i would if it were possible ask to be taught firstly some basics that will lead me into knowing computer as i know myself young male low SEG actually i don't know because i am not well versed with the system, i think by being orientated in the ICT field, i can be able to use it and be part of the beneficiaries of the system older female high SEG Determinism: potential Knowledge is power Information limitless, “world is your oyster” Information = Knowledge you have the whole wide world in the small screen you are looking at, google makes the small a smaller place young male high SEG the sites with information tend to contradict each other, and that confuses me young male high SEG i honestly want to trust icts and i hope that people should stop putting rubbish in then, i just only wish that facts could be reliable female low SEG Liberation Technology makes things easier, reduces workload and stress However the converse is also true that it creates new workload and stress sometimes it makes it more difficult when youre not very proficient at using icts, but you have to use them never the less, save time, makes work easier, communication faster young female high SEG when i search for answers, the computer display too much of web pages to search on , which is time consuming & sometimes not valuable or irrelevant at all, young male low SEG the labs get really full so you have to wait in line, that takes up too much time. so you have to search for a lab that has a free pc. young female high SEG Productivity and lack of Disconnection with the body be it face to face or pen and paper after finding and reading updated notices, you still have a few questions and you cannot ask the computer young female average SEG when you use computers for mathematical problems you are always far from practicing as it pulls you away from the pen and paper Young female high SEG you don’t always have to confront your lectures as you can get most answers online  Disembodiment Discourse n 2004 % n 2007 % Efficiency 163 42% 247 27% Globalisation 58 15% 322 36% Deterministic 126 32% 134 15% Liberation 23 6% 118 13% Productivity 15 4% 73 8% Disembodied space 5 1% 12 1% Dominant discourses in the literature & the data Context ◦ More cell phones with greater capability ◦ Rise in social software which, although comparatively low in our context, still means students are increasingly using ICTs socially ◦ Increase in community use eg e-government, civil organisations Whats changed from 2004-2007? Students: dominant ICT Discourses ◦ In 2004 efficiency of ICTs for learning and students lack of ability/ potential to take advantage of opportunities ◦ In 2007 Globalisation was the dominant ICT Discourse in terms of students about being part of the world and people with access to ICTs being advantaged and other disadvantaged Efficiency of learning Discourse is lower (although still important) and Liberation Discourse of the power of information is more dominant. Whats changed from 2004-2007? Efficiency learning: Easier ◦ Culture of laziness with books and writing being hard but internet and typing being easy ◦ Helps you do things on time ◦ Backup if you lose things, don’t go to lectures etc ◦ Convenience ◦ Makes you look good ie professional presentations ◦ Blame it on the computer syndrome What this says about students Efficiency learning: Better ◦ Improves, uplifts ◦ New opportunities ◦ Opens up communication with lecturer outside of classroom ◦ Supportive ie helps students remember, check spelling, get definitions ◦ Makes class work easier (as they can listen and not worry about taking notes) ◦ More enjoyable – makes learning feel easier ◦ Better marks What this says about students Efficiency discourse Higher ◦ amongst students with NO off campus access ◦ for students with high experience and high self efficacy ◦ amongst female students (13% more women than men) ◦ for students with above average use Lower ◦ when students are having to accessing the internet via cell phone ◦ for male students ◦ for students with poor self efficacy and low experience Group differences Globalisation – digital divide ◦ Limited options, choices need to be made in relation to cost, time, security, favours etc ◦ Having money and knowing people empower ◦ Having access is a luxury, suffering through lack of access ◦ Made to feel like a criminal eg chased out of labs you’re not supposed to be in, security checking on you after hours when you use labs ◦ Perpetuates disadvantage (rural, ESL) ◦ Not equipped to be competent ICT users What this says about students Globalisation – disadvantages Several issues ◦ Issues of disadvantage in terms of cost and other factors are highest amongst students whose primary source of off campus access is their cell phone. ◦ Disadvantage in terms of cost is dominant (23%) as well as general disadvantage (14%) Group differences Globalisation – view of the world ◦ Provides information about the world – global information more highly valued than local ◦ Links you with people throughout country ◦ Enables you to be effective in field of work ◦ Feel like you are in contact globally ◦ Reduces geographical distance and makes you feel less isolated ◦ Makes you more employable and gives you an edge What this says about students Globalisation – view of the world ◦ higher amongst students from low SEGs ◦ Stronger discourse of students with no off- campus access and amongst those with low or average experience, students from low SEGs ◦ Students from these groups are to some extent limited in their ICT use, feel excluded and want to be part of something they are not Group differences Liberation discourse – knowledge is power Information ◦ gives you knowledge ◦ helps you reach your goals ◦ is a benefit, is at your finger tips ◦ gives you access to the world, infinite possibilities ◦ gives you different perspectives, different sources ◦ lack of critical literacy too trusting Negative or converse view is ◦ irrelevant, unnecessary, search forever What this says about students Liberation discourse ◦ Slightly higher amongst students who also mention mobility of access in terms of cell phones, laptops, PDA’s etc ◦ Higher amongst young students, those from high SEGs, and men ◦ Higher amongst students with above average social use Group differences Deterministic ◦ Use of ICTs a must for courses, vital ◦ Lack of ICT use/ knowledge will lead to failure ◦ Use makes world a better place ◦ Computer literacy and essential requirement ◦ Addiction, essential ◦ Use ICTs as first choice whenever they can To small an issue to see difference between diff groups of students What this says about students Individual potential ◦ A want to learn more ◦ Wish for access to practice without pressure ◦ Low tolerance for non essential use eg games, porn, chatting ◦ Lack of time, lack of money means lack of skills so choices have to be made about use ◦ Learning to ask for help, awkwardness, valuing of support as critical ◦ Frustration, confusion Ability only really features strongly for students with low self efficacy where 22% spoke with this type of Discourse What this says about students Productivity ◦ Saves time ◦ Easier to be organsied ◦ Converse Wastes time, ques, slow, waiting Frustrating irritating New workloads Contradiction in that lack of productivity often mentioned in tandem with easy of learning. So students spend time to save time What this says about students Productivity Discourse ◦ Higher when students have high access off campus although much relates to lack of productivity (could it be the more you use it the more you know what the problems are?) ◦ Higher for young people (perhaps part of culture?) Group Differences Disembodied ◦ takes you away from pen and paper ◦ can’t ask a computer questions ◦ impersonal ◦ no explanation given To small an issue to see difference between diff groups of students What this says about students Are there distinct Discourses amongst cell phone users? ◦ These students feel disadvantaged, they see cell phone access as “lesser” (less worthy?) ◦ They do not see ICTs as creating efficiencies of learning ◦ When students have multiple forms of access (including cell phones), they consider ICTs liberating Meanings for mobility Examination of Discourses gives us a better insight into students’ different purposes and motivation for using ICTs for learning Discourses ◦ do effect use ◦ are located within particular demographic groupings of students (amplify some divides) ◦ contradicts researcher assumptions mobility is considered empowering for students, but they find it constraining and see themselves as disadvantaged What does this mean? Students ◦ Appear to pit themselves against ICTs in two ways ◦ Its not good enough Can make learning easier BUT not always Causes new problems Responsible for problems ◦ I’m not good enough Feelings of self doubt about ability, potential to keep up and make the most of opportunities Theme seems to have shifted from a Deterministic Discourse of “ICT ability a must” to a Globalisation Discourse “disadvantaged by not having individual potential”. What does this mean? What does this mean for teaching and learning? ◦ We need to find a way to encourage students to empower themselves (stop blaming ICTs for problems and take some responsibility themselves) ◦ We need to capitalise on the agency students do have in terms of their immense desire to learn and engage with ICTs at the right time (before they become disillusioned) ◦ Design learning activities that speak to their Discourses as that is the way to draw them into the e-learning process Where to from here?
Pages to are hidden for
"Responding to Diversity"Please download to view full document