Contribution of the EU-Funded Coffee improvement Projects _CIPs

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Contribution of the EU-Funded Coffee improvement Projects _CIPs Powered By Docstoc

 Coffee is the world's second most valuable commodity after
  petroleum, and it is the most important agricultural
  commodity in the world.

 More than 80 countries, cultivate this crop and more than
  50 countries produce coffee in commercial quantities.

 Ethiopia Africa’s largest producer and exporter supplies
  about 3% of the global coffee market.

 Coffee in Ethiopia is the driving force of the economy,
  ecological, socio-cultural and spiritual life of people.
 It accounts for more than 25% of the GNP, 40% of the total
  export earnings, and 10 % of the total government
 Ethiopia is the primary centre of origin and genetic
  diversity of coffee Arabica.
 This crop spread from this original place to other counties
  like Brazil, Vietnam, and Colombia which are the leading
  producers and suppliers of coffee bean to the world
 However the country did not exploit and benefit from this
  economically important crop to the best of its genetic and
  ecological potential.
Major coffee areas and

 Coffee grows in almost all parts of the country. Coffee
  ecologies have highly variable climates, soils,
  elevations ranging from 550 to 2400m.
 But the major production areas are more concentrated
  in the southwestern, southern, eastern and
  southeastern parts of the country.
 About 90% of the coffee is produced by smallholder
  farmers; whose average holding size is 0.7 ha and
  average productivity is also about 0.7qtls/ha.
Coffee processing

 Coffee processing systems are sun – dried processing
 and wet processing.

 The dry processing is the traditional method of coffee
 processing in the country, it is widely practiced, and
 the cherry is dried in the sun and sold to the
 merchants for further re- processing and export
Challenges of the coffee industry in
the past years
 The country did not exploit and benefit from this
    economically important crop to the best of its genetic
    and ecological potential.
   coffee yield is low by world standard,
   Diseases such as coffee berry disease(CBD) has been
    causing severe crop losses,
   Agronomic practices and crop husbandry are largely
   Although there have been a some technologies
    generated they are difficult to users.
 Insufficient credit and input distribution mechanisms
  for coffee producing farmers.
 Poor extension services with regard to harvesting,
  drying, processing and storing
 Weak efforts of developing different coffee quality
  profile map of the various flavour and other quality
  characteristics that help production on the basis of
  preference of international consumers.
The coffee Improvement Projects
In order to tackle the mentioned challenges:
 The European Union has been financing the coffee
  industry of Ethiopia for the last 33 years in different
  project phases, since 1977.
 CIP I with a total fund of ECU 14 million, was
  operating in 8 Woredas for 5 years from 1977 to 1982.
 CIP II started in 1982 with a total fund of ECU 39.58
  million and covered 15 Woredas up to 1987.
 CIP III started in 1988 with a total found of ECU 38.1
  million of which ECU 28.5 million was grant and ECU
  9.6 million was loan, and covered 18 Woredas. up to
  2000, with a break in 1992.
 After CIP III evaluation in 2000, CIP IV was
  formulated in 2001, revised and agreed by the
  Government of Ethiopia (GoE) and the EC.
Aim of CIPs
 The primary aim of three first phases of Coffee
    Improvement Programme was ;
   to increase incomes of coffee farmers in 18 coffee
    growing districts (Woredas)
   through coffee extension activities,
   improved on-farm coffee practices,
   supply of CBD (Coffee Berry Disease) resistant
    varieties , and promotion of food crops in the farming
The Major activities under taken
in Phase I and II:1977-1987
 Extension activity by assigning 1 trained DA in each
   nursery establishment in 39 sites,
    12,000 ha, new area coffee planting using CBD
    resistance coffee seedlings,
   9000 ha, old coffee rejuvenation,
   CBD control by spraying 15000 ha,
   established 58 Demonstration sites,
Activates under taken
 organized 1500 primary coffee cooperatives,
 provision of credit service for cooperative members
  about 24 million ETB was distributed.
 The program supported to strengthen the Jimma
  research center, and the construction of 200 km feder
  roads in the project woredas to the washing stations
 About 80 Different types of vehicles, 15 tractors with
  trailers and plow have been purchased and distributed
  in these project periods for the 15 project woredas.
The major activities under the
Phase III project
 Construction of project offices in each wereda (18
  woredas), 2 zonal offices, 65 DA offices and houses,
  road and bridge construction,
 purchased and distributed 33 vehicles, 500 pedal
  bicycles, 36 motor cycles for extension service in
  project woredas,
 supplied 100 moisture testers for coffee quality
  inspectors and different types of farm tools for each
  nursery sites.
The Phase IV (CIP IV) :-

 CIP IV commenced on 1 July 2002. With a grant of EUR 15
  million financed from the 8th EDF and a total coverage of
  83 Woredas.
 CIP IV continues the progress made by previous phases,
  emphasizing on the quality aspects, including selection of
  landrace varieties under the research component.
 CIP IV also introduces the important aspect of
  conservation (in-situ and ex-situ) of the considerable coffee
  Arabica bio-diversity that exists only in Ethiopia.

 CIP IV provides continuity to the aim of the earlier phases
  and also places greater emphasis on quality according to
  market demands and landrace characteristics.
 CIP IV differs from the first 3 phases of the EU program on
  coffee sector in that the components and the activities are
 covering extension, research, conservation, marketing,
  nursery and program management components.
 It covers much larger geographic area (83 wereda)
  compared with only 8 in the first phase, 15 under phase ii,
  and 18 under phase iii.
 CIP IV has been operating under difficult organizational
  structure and most of the time using civil servants of the
  ministry who are assigned in addition to their regular
  duties and responsibilities,
Overall objective of CIP IV

 The overall objective was to improve standards of
 living in coffee growing areas.

 The mentioned objective should be achieved realizing
 the coffee earning potential of coffee farm households.

 Average coffee earnings per coffee farm household
 could be increased comparing with the non coffee
 households over a 10 years period.
Activities by component
Coffee extension:
 Increased number of Development Agents (DAs) in
  the coffee growing Woredas, and provides intensive
 provision of equipment (transport & equipment: 4x4
  wheel drive vehicles, motorcycles, bicycles and office
  equipment, farming tools)
 Extension manuals on coffee field practices, seedlings
  and processing were produced.
 Construction of 625 local houses for DAs and FTC
 Besides the 18 nurseries created under previus CIPs, 59
  additional were supported i.e. a total of 77 ( 42 for
  Oromiya, 29 for SNNP and 6 for other regions).
 Each nursery       produce 300,000 seedlings/year,
  Provided with the necessary tools and materials:
 On the other hand supervisors, guards and daily
  laborers were financed
Coffee Research:
Five Research sub programmes were supported by the
 Coffee Landrace Development
 Collection and Classification indigenous coffee types
 Overseas training for coffee liquorers
 Investigations on use and value of coffee processing
 Evaluation and statistical assessment of accumulated
  field trial results
Conservation of Wild Forest Coffee:
 in situ conservation were conducted in three important
  forest coffee areas.
 Ex situ conservation activities are conducted in 2 sites

 The provision of equipment (computers and software) for
  the installation of a data base specific to coffee markets and
  coffee sales.
 The supply of Ochratoxin A analysis equipment
 The international promotion of Ethiopia’s coffee.
Beneficiaries and parties involved

 Coffee farmers , cooperatives, laborers and workers
 Coffee buyers , processors and exporters
 The coffee quality control and liquoring centre
 The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development
 The National Bank of Ethiopia
 The European Commission
 The Ministry of Finance and Economic Development /
  National authorized Officer
 Others such as transport companies, forwarders,
  traders, etc.
Contribution of the Projects to the
coffee Industry
 Identification of coffee berry disease (CBD) resistant
  varieties was one of the outstanding success stories
  that we have been benefited.
 The release of 26 high yielding, CBD resistant and
  good cup quality varieties is the direct reflection of the
 Small holder farmers have learned how to select from
  their own landrace stock gene pool for CBD resistant
  strains that have good quality and better yields.
 This has supported nurseries on the multiplication of
 suitable varieties on sustainable bases.

 This also helped farmers to provide capital and the
 desire to invest in nurseries as a business,

 More than 70% of the millions of seedlings are now
 produced by the farmers’ own nurseries
 The overall coffee land coverage due to new
  plantings and volume of coffee production
  has increased.
 Currently over 700,000 hectares of land is
  occupied by coffee plantation.
 Annual production is estimated at about
  350,000 tons of which 40 – 45 percent of
  the total production is consumed
 productivity per plant and per unit area has
 This has improved the overall land use efficiency and
  productivity of the land with other crops as well.
 Over a million coffee farming households and about
  25% of the total population of the country are
  dependent on production, processing, distribution,
  and export of coffee.
 Achieving quality by picking red ripe fruit, is practiced
  in most growing areas.

 drying the cherries or the pulped parchment on raised
  platforms to avoid contact with the bare earth and any
  farm animals; is accepted

 proper storage and transport is practiced in most areas.
 Coffee is produced mainly in 5 regions ,30 zones , and
 172 weredas . out of which 125 weredas are the major
 and medium producers for the international market .

 over 708 wet-processing units (pulperies), more than
 100 hand pulpers mainly for preparation of semi
 washed (pulped) coffee. And about 600 coffee
 huleries, are constructed in the production areas .
 Washed coffee production incresed , sundried coffee
  accounts for about 65% and washed 35 % .
 57 export coffee processing industries are found in
  Addis Ababa and Dire dawa. (51 in Addis Ababa & 6 in
  Dire Dawa)
 most of these processing industries (90 %) are built by
  private investors
 Preserved the disappearing forest coffees biodiversity
  for future research and selection of varieties suitable
  for new conditions.
 Provision of marketing links to farmer groups helped
  improve understanding and farm gate prices.
 Good extension training for farm activities and post-
  harvest processing reached the farmers and helped to
  produce better qualities.
 The Installation of equipment for Ochratoxin A (OTA) for
  the coffee Inspection will reduce quality problems.
 Provision of moisture meter can help checks for moisture
  at many stages in the marketing chain.
 Training in liquoring for research and CLU personnel for
  marketing, has improved knowledge about quality
 The provision of equipment and transport vehicles at all
  level facilitated implementation of components and help
  serve farmers.
Conclusion and opportunities
 Over all Coffee Area expansion and production has
  been regularly growing in Ethiopia specifically for the
  last eight years.
 According to the trend of projections foreseen in the
  coffee development and marketing plan , Ethiopian
  coffee production is expected to reach 580,255 tons in
 Considering that the level of internal consumption
  will remain high, 406,338 tons will be exported, in
  2014: out of this 104,691 tons will be washed coffee, and
  301,646 tons dried coffee.

 Ethiopia has a richest gene pool of coffee Arabica and
  several coffee growing agro ecological zones.
 Because of these natural resources, the country
  produces different coffee types with vast range of
  inherent characteristics ,
 Most of which are uniquely distinctive that have
  potential of fetching the highest premium in
  international market.
 Therefore We have tremendous opportunity to
  improve the production, productivity, and quality of
  the crop.
We can sustainably produce and supply the world finest
  specialty coffee ,
 If we wisely conserve the enormous coffee genetic
  resources including land races,
 If we are committed to undertake consumer driven
  and market oriented research,
 If we promote the technology to farmers,
 If we build producers, processers and exporters
  capacity along with value addition.

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