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					  Research Methodology.


The structure of a Report or Thesis.




    ISM20 – Project management and Research Methods
         Contents of a typical Report.
   Title page : abstract, contents
   Introduction
   Literature Review
   Description of work done and methods.
   Results and Discussion.
   Conclusions and Recommendations.
   References and Bibliography.
   Appendices.
             ISM20 – Project Management and Research Methods
             Report Foundations.



                     Results/discussion.


Research
                                                      Conclusions
question.




            ISM20 – Project Management and Research Methods
                      Title page.

 The initial impact is
  important.
 The front page tries to
  grab the reader’s
  attention.
 The layout may be
  prescribed.
 The most important
  information should be at
  the golden section.

           ISM20 – Project Management and Research Methods
Fibonacci Rectangles




ISM20 – Project Management and Research Methods
ISM20 – Project Management and Research Methods
ISM20 – Project Management and Research Methods
        The potential reader asks..


 What is the report about?
 Is it relevant to me?
 Does it contain useful and important
  information?
 Should I spend time reading it now?



           ISM20 – Project Management and Research Methods
      The initial impact is important.
    The title page must win the attention of the
                       reader.

Prominence is achieved by
 the position on the page.
 the allocated to the information;
 the font and size of the type.


            ISM20 – Project Management and Research Methods
   Titles should be short but instructive,
    distinguishing between documents.


 Construction and instrumentation of an experimental
concrete road on the trunk road D7 Uxbridge by-pass to
   determine the effects of omitting expansion joints.

        Rapid measurement of carbon in steel.

   An investigation into the suitability of CSPFA as
                   a base material.
             ISM20 – Project Management and Research Methods
    Order of report in descending order of
          importance for the reader.

Increasing
                                                     Most readers
 detail


                                                    Few readers


             ISM20 – Project Management and Research Methods
 Contents pages should be informative.
1 Introduction                   1 Introduction
2 Method                         2 Method of treatment
3 Results                         2.1 Survey of reducing
4 Discussion                        agents
5 Conclusions                     2.2 Survey of
6 Recommendations                   precipitating agents
7 References                     3 Plant requirements.
                                  3.1 Pre-treatment storage
                                  3.2 ………..

           ISM20 – Project Management and Research Methods
                    Introduction
 Define what the problem is
 The questions you are addressing
 Outline personal/specific considerations that
  lead to this investigation
 How it differs from previous work
 What the report will contain
 Perhaps some (hint) of the conclusions


           ISM20 – Project Management and Research Methods
                    Conclusions
 Conclusions are those things that have been
  discovered as a result of having done the work.
 What do I know now that I didn’t know before.
 A common mistake is to provide a summary of
  the work.
 Conclusions is a short section.
 When the conclusions can be written down, it is
  time to write the thesis or report.

           ISM20 – Project Management and Research Methods
          Conclusions - example 1

Accidents in fog totalled 192 in the three year period
1969-71, making up 4% of the total: 129 of these
occurred during daylight hours. Accidents were on
average more serious, with more casualties per
accident, than those occurring in other weather
conditions. About 45% of the fog accidents and 22%
of the non-fog accidents occurred on about one-
seventh (160km) of the motorway network.
            ISM20 – Project Management and Research Methods
                Conclusions - example 2

1. If an oil-cooling system is caught at the 'incipient failure' stage but
does not show gross contamination, the oil should be changed without
flushing (section 3.4).

2. Sludge bound oil coolers should be cleaned by a flushing procedure
(described in section 3.5)

3. Systems that are grossly contaminated after component failure
should be stripped and cleaned on site (section 3.7)

4. Metal-contaminated oil coolers should be returned to the
manufacturer for complete stripping and cleaning (section 3.8)
                  ISM20 – Project Management and Research Methods
       Results                            Discussion
 Do not swamp the                  What is implied by the
  argument.                          data?
 Place the details in              Do not simply repeat the
  Appendices.                        results.
 Decrease the detail from          Compare with the results
  reports to theses to               of other work.
  papers.                           Conclusions are drawn
 Give sufficient results to         and justified during the
  support the argument.              discussion.


             ISM20 – Project Management and Research Methods
             Presentation of results.
 Use the format that
  illustrates the point to                                  2D Graph with error bars

  be made.                                60


 Tables.                                 50               Y1data
                                                           Y2data

 Graphs.                                 40



 Drawings.                               30




                                 Y Data
                                          20

 Schematic diagrams.
                                          10


                                           0



                                               0   1   2            3     4      5     6   7   8

                                                                        X Data



              ISM20 – Project Management and Research Methods
                           Method
 Describe the method or            Link with the research
  approach.                          question.
 Justify that it is                Motivate the work -
  appropriate.                       what is its importance?
 Establish constraints or          Establish approaches
  assumptions.                       used in previous research
 Enable others to repeat            - the literature search.
  the work and check the
  conclusions.


             ISM20 – Project Management and Research Methods
                   The abstract.
The abstract is a summary of the project outlining
 the aims
 the methods
 the results and
 the conclusions.
     Informative abstracts are best; give hard
    information rather than vague generalities.


           ISM20 – Project Management and Research Methods
           References and Citations
 [28] Umar, A, (1997), Object-oriented
  Client/server internet environments, Prentice-
  Hall: Upper Saddle River, NJ.

  •   Umar [28] states that …
  •   Client/server environments [28] are important ….
  •   Umar (1997) suggests that …...
  •   …had significant results (Umar et al. 1998).


             ISM20 – Project Management and Research Methods
         References and Citations
 Lam, K Y, Hung, S L, (1995), Concurrency
  control for time constrained transactions,
  Computer Journal, 38, 704-715.
 Lam, K, Lee, V C S, (1996), Distributed real-
  time concurrency control protocol, in Proc, 4th
  International Workshop on Parallel and
  Distributed Real-time Systems, pp122-125,
  IEEE Computer Society Press, Hawaii.


           ISM20 – Project Management and Research Methods
Research Methodology


      Literature Surveys.




ISM20 – Project management and Research Methods
              The hierarchy of information.



                                         Information


                      Primary sources                                Secondary sources


Experiments     Interviews     Questionnaires   Conversations   Publications     Lectures




                    ISM20 – Project Management and Research Methods
         The purpose of publication.
   Expand the body of knowledge.
   Prevent replication of effort.
   Enable independent checks on results.
   Disseminate opinions.
   Provoke discussion.
   Gain wider recognition for our work.



             ISM20 – Project Management and Research Methods
          Why survey the literature?


   Discover the state-of-the-art.
   Identify gaps in the body of knowledge.
   Identify relevant work.
   Locate useful expertise.
   Keep abreast of developments.



             ISM20 – Project Management and Research Methods
            The world of literature.
   Textbooks.
   Learned Journals.
   Conference proceedings.
   World wide web.
   Trade papers.
   Newspapers.



            ISM20 – Project Management and Research Methods
       Types of academic publication.
   Original paper.
   Review of a research topic.
   Bibliography.
   Thesis.
   Dissertation.
   Technical Report.



             ISM20 – Project Management and Research Methods
Presentation of the literature survey : 1.
         The project context.



   What related work is being undertaken?
   What is the motivation for the work?
   How does it help me/science?
   Why am I studying this aspect of the problem?


            ISM20 – Project Management and Research Methods
Presentation of the literature survey : 2.
      The area of investigation.



   What techniques are in use?
   What are the findings of other people?
   What are the views of other people?
   How do they compare with my views?
    Literature surveys are a critical appraisal
        rather than a simple list of papers.
             ISM20 – Project Management and Research Methods
A literature survey demonstrates:




                               an awareness of an
                                adequate body of
                                knowledge, and
                               the ability to apply that
                                knowledge to the
                                project.

     ISM20 – Project Management and Research Methods
                     Conclusions
 Think of the report holistically
 Initial impression is very important
  • Title page
  • Contents
  • Abstract
 Two very important parts of any report
  • Introduction
  • Conclusions


            ISM20 – Project Management and Research Methods
            Tutorial 2




Literature Search



ISM20 – Project Management and Research Methods

				
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