APA Style - MLA Style

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					APA Style Guidelines
     (Name-Date Method)
MLA Style Guidelines
  APA: American Psychological
   Association
  Widely used in Social Sciences
APA Style
  Uses parenthetical citations like MLA
   style, but instead of listing author and
   page, APA lists author and date of
   publication
  This practice covers print-based or
   electronic sources
APA Style
  Often in behavioural and social sciences
   reference is made to an entire
   argument or evidence presented, so
   page number is not always necessary
  Example:
        There are many remarkable parallels
         between the way artists and scientists look
         at the world around us (Shlain, 1991).
APA Style
     the same rules apply to quoting in
  All
   APA as in MLA:
    Mention the name of the author as you
     introduce the quotation
    If you state the name of the author as
     you introduce the quotation, the citation
     will consist of date of publication only
APA Style
  If you refer to a particular part of the
   source, or if you quote directly from it,
   you do need to supply relevant page
   number(s)
  Example:
        As Leonard Shlain (1991) reminds us,
         “Space, time, and light are of profound
         interest to both the physicist and the artist”
         (p. 28).
APA Style
  If there are more than one author, use
   an ampersand rather than “and” to
   separate the names
  Example:
        Although it is true that “the religious and
         secular customs of the community
         sometimes helped women who had been
         assaulted or harassed, nothing could
         lessen the impact of war on the
         countryside and its inhabitants” (Anderson
         & Zinsser, 1988, 1: pp. 115-116).
APA Style
    Also note in the above example that:
        Author’s name and date are separated by a
         comma
        Date and page number are separated by a
         comma
        The abbreviations “p.” and “pp.” are used for
         “page” and “pages”
        Both page numbers are given in their entirety
         (“pp. 115-116”)
        “1: pp. 115-116” means that the quotation is
         taken from volume one of the set
APA Style
  If a work has two authors, list both names
   every time you refer to the source
  If a work has three, four, or five authors,
   list all names the first time you refer to the
   source, and then only the first and “et al.”
   (not italicized or underlined) thereafter
  If a work has six or more authors, list only
   the first name and “et al.” each time,
   including the first
APA Style
  When naming the author in your text
   but not quoting directly from the
   source, put the year of publication in
   parentheses immediately after the
   author name
  Example:
        John Helliwell (2002) provides an incisive
         analysis of the effects of globalization.
APA Style
  Online sources will follow most of the
   conventions of print sources (as
   detailed above)
  Exception:
        If an online source has no page numbers,
         identify the paragraph or section number
         instead
APA Style
    Exceptions (cont’d):
      If page, paragraph, and section numbers
       are not used, identify the section by its
       heading and count the paragraphs
       following the heading to assign a number
       to the paragraph containing the material
       that you are citing
      Use the abbreviation “para.” for
       “paragraph”
APA Style
  For every source that you cite in your
   essay, you must include an entry at the
   end of your paper in a “Works Cited”
  Please consult your writing guide for
   proper MLA Works Cited style guidelines
  Note that Works Cited information is
   always double spaced (as is your essay)

				
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posted:4/12/2011
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