The MUSCULAR SYSTEM

					THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM
By: Jenn Bone, Louis Vullo, and Jimmy Romanelli
Introduction
   One of the most amazing things about the human
    body is the range of movement and mobility it has.
    This day to day activity is accomplished by our
    muscles through the ability of converting chemical
    energy into mechanical energy, energy of
    movement.
Introduction
   Muscles help move food from one organ to another,
    and carry out our physical movement. There are
    three different kinds of muscles in our body:
    cardiac, smooth, and skeletal.
The muscular System Video
Muscle Types : Cardiac
   Cardiac muscles are found only in the heart. They
    are controlled by the lower section of the brain
    called the medulla oblungata.
   Think about how horrible it would be to have to
    consciously tell your heart to beat, with the
    consequence of forgetting being death. But luckily
    enough, the medulla oblongata does all that for us.

    This is a picture of the
    medulla oblongata
Muscle Types : Cardiac
   Your heart cells come in long strips, each containing
    a single nucleus, one of the key factors in
    determining which of the three classes any
    particular muscle is. Its main function is to propel
    blood into circulation.
   Contraction of the cardiac tissue is caused by an
    impulse sent from the medulla oblongata to the SA
    nerve located at the right atrium.

                      This is a picture of the right
                      atrium.
Muscles Types: Smooth
   Your smooth muscles, like your cardiovascular
    muscles, are involuntary. They make up your internal
    organs, such as your stomach, throat, and small
    intestine and all the others, except your heart.
   Unlike cardiovascular muscles, smooth muscles are
    generally spherical, as most other human cells are,
    and each contains one nucleus
Muscle Types: Skeletal
   The skeletal muscles are the only voluntary muscles
    of your body, and make up what we call the
    muscular system. They are all the muscles that move
    you bones and show external movement.
   Unlike either of the other two classes, skeletal
    muscles contain multiple nuclei because of its large
    size, being in strips up to a couple of feet long.
     The Muscular System
   Usually, when we think of muscular system we often
    only remember the skeletal muscles because they
    make up what is recognized as the muscular system.
   The muscular system, composed of over 600
    muscles, come in a variety of shapes and forms.
    Diffrences between each muscle are recognized by
    location, function, structure, and the way they are
    contracted.
Muscle-Bone interactions
   A lever is a rigid bar on which a given load is
    moved with supporting help from a fulcrum.
    A fulcrum is a fixed-point on which the lever can
    move in different ways or angles.
   The whole muscular system interacts in this kind of
    way with the skeletal system. Your joints ussualy are
    the fulcrum on which you move the lever or bone.
Muscle-Bone interactions
   Skeletal muscles can be broken down into groups
    based upon the type of movement they portray. The
    movement of the muscle is based upon the type of
    joint in which the muscle works.
   Skeletal muscles can't expand, or make themselves
    longer, but they can contract, or make themselves
    shorter, so they generally work in pairs.
Muscle-Bone interactions
    One contracts, and in doing so stretches the other,
    and reverses its effects on the joint. These effects
    can be broken down into groups of their own.
Flexors
   Flexors bend at the joint, decreasing the interior
    angle of the join. The humorous, or bicep, is a flexor
    of the elbow joint, bringing the fist towards the
    shoulder.
   If a flexor appears in either the wrist or ankle joints,
    it becomes a plantarflexor.
Extendors

   Opposites of flexors, extensors unbend at the joint,
    increasing the interior angle. The humorous, or
    tricep, is an extensor of the elbow joint, taking the
    fist farther away from the shoulder.
   If an extensor is found in the wrist or ankle joints, it
    becomes a dorsiflexor.
Abductors

   Abductors take away from the body, like lifting the
    arm to the side. Abd- means to take away, like
    abduct and abdicate.
   Spreading out your fingers uses abductors, because
    you are taking away your fingers from an
    imaginary line running down your arm.
Adductors,
   Adductors, the opposites of abductors, move toward
    the body.
   Add- means to increase or include.
   By lowing an arm raised to the side, or moving your
    fingers together while keeping them straight, your
    muscles are adducting.
      Tendons and Ligaments
   As fascinating as they are, muscles alone can't do
    the job. At every joint, tendons and ligaments also
    help out.
   When the muscles contract, they pull on the tendons,
    which in turn pull on the muscles, and that causes
    movement.
Tendons and Ligaments
   Muscles wouldn't be very useful alone because they
    don't directly connect to the bone, so even if they
    contract, they wouldn't be moving anything. Instead,
    muscles are connected to tendons, when themselves
    are connected to the bones.
Pictures of Tendons and Ligaments
Tendons and Ligaments
   But without ligaments, that movement wouldn't be
    too useful because it would not be directed
    movement.
   Without ligaments, instead of bones bending or
    rotating about each other when muscles contract,
    they would slide by each other.
   Ligaments are what hold the bones together. They
    connect at the ends of muscles and keep them from
    slipping and sliding, and force them to bend.
Major Skeletal Muscles
   The muscular body is divide into ten diffrent areas
    where muscles can be found: facial, neck, shoulder,
    arm, forearm, thorax, abdomen, hip, pelvis/thigh,
    and leg.
Facial

   In the facial are one finds all the muscles wich move the
    face.
   Orbicularis oculi- are the two muscles that move the eye
    are.
    Frontalis- and Temporalis-are the two muscles which
    move the forehead and sides of your head.
   Zygomaticus- ands Masseter- are the two muscles that
    work in conjunction to move too the jaw and upper lip
    area.
   Orbicularis oris- is the muscle which moves your lips.
Pictures of the Facial
Neck

   The neck area is almost entirely moved by the
    sternohyoid- and Sternocleidomastoid-. These
    muscles allow the neck to move your head left and
    right.
   They work with the platysma muscle to control how
    far you can move your head left and right. What
    allows your head to move up and down is the
    trapezius.
Neck
   The trapezius is so large that it extend down to the
    shoulder and thorax area. The trapezius is a good
    example of how some muscles are named by their
    shape.
Shoulder

   A group of muscles all work together to move the
    whole shoulder area. This group takes into account
    the trapezius-, deltoid-infraspinatus-, teres major-,
    and the rhomboid major.
Shoulder
   The rhomboid major is called so because its shaped
    like the geometric shape of a rhombus. Along with
    the help of the ball and socket joint-hyperlink in
    your shouder, these gruop of muscles allow your
    arm to throw a softball, pick things over your head,
    and give your arms a good strech early in the
    morning.
Arm

   Most known amongst teenage weight lifters is the
    arm area.
   The famous bicep brachii- is the muscle that allows
    you to bring your forearm close to your body and
    form a huge ball of muscle wich catches a lot of
    attention amongst weight lifters.
   The tricep brachii, and brachialis, are the two other
    muscles located in the arm region. These muscles
    allow a person to do push-ups.
Arm Picture
Forearm
   A majority of the muscle in the forearm help control
    a part of the arm. Amongst these is the
    Berachiodialis major-sound, palmaris longus-
    sound, and Flexor carpi radialis-sound. The name
    of the flexor carpi radialis is a good example of
    how muscles are named by their function and
    location. This muscle is named carpi because of the
    bones that it helps move, the carples. Also, the name
    of radialis is made by the bone that its attached to,
    the radius.
Fore arm Pictures
Thorax
   The thorax is the set of muscles which carrying your
    head, arms, stomach, and any other upper body
    areas. These muscles are the trapezius-sound and
    latissimus dorsi-sound. Usually, the majority of the
    muscles of the thorax can be damaged easly is one
    dose not streach before excersice, or lifts a heave
    load.
Abdomen
   The abdominal area consists of the muscles that
    allows you to bend down and move your waist from
    side to side. The interanl oblique-sound and
    external oblique-sound are the muscles that move
    your body from left to right. The Transversus
    abdominus-sound and Rectus abdominus-sound,
    along with the trapezius-sound an latissimus
    dorsi-sound allow you to bend down and grab
    objects
Abdomen Pictures
Hip
   Only two muscles make up the hip area. These are
    the gluteus medius-sound and gluteus maximus-
    sound. Probably the laziest muscles in the whole
    system the gluteus set of muscles are used only to sit
    down on.
Pelvis/Thigh
   An over laping of muscles is what makes this area
    so firm. The pelvis area is ussualy reffered to as the
    upper part of the leg. Muscles like the pectineus,
    and illiopsoas, which help support the upper leg
    area, are known as pelvic muscles.
Pelvis/Thigh
   Thigh muscles are very rich in capillaries and
    support the whole body. The upper thigh muscles
    are abductor longus-sound, Gracilis-sound,
    Sartorius-sound, and Tensor fasciae latea. The lower
    thigh muscles are rectus femoris-sound, vastus
    lateralis-sound and medialis-sound. Located in the
    back of your leg are the hamstrings-sound. These
    muscles help you run, jump, and walk!
Pelvis/Thigh
   Thigh muscles are very rich in capillaries and
    support the whole body. The upper thigh muscles
    are abductor longus, Gracilis, Sartorius-sound, and
    Tensor fasciae latea.
   The lower thigh muscles are rectus femoris, vastus
    lateralis, and medialis. Located in the back of your
    leg are the hamstrings-sound. These muscles help
    you run, jump, and walk!
Pelvis/Thigh Pictures
Leg
   Helping the thigh region support the body is the Leg
    region. These muscles like the Gastrocnemius, soleus,
    porenius longus, and Tibialis anterior, absorb the
    impact when one walks and runs.
   They also give better coordination for moving. the
    thigh region trust the body forward while the leg
    region coordinates where it should be thrusted and
    where it should stand

				
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