Income Disparity in America - PowerPoint

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					Social/Economic Indicators:
Comparing Brown Era Racial
    Disparities to Today
   Kirwan Institute for the Study of Race & Ethnicity
               The Ohio State University
                      April 2004
                  Benchmarks of
              Social/Economic Health
► Education
► Housing
► Poverty
► Employment
► Income
► Crime
► Health
► Other      contemporary concerns
Note: Not all data for this presentation match perfectly with the Brown decision in
1954, due to data availability and comparability problems some data from later
than 1954 were used
Education: Educational Attainment
            Educational Attainment
                       for African
► Educational attainment
 Americans has increased considerably since
 1950.
   The proportion of the population with a high
    school degree increased by 300% during this
    time, the proportion of the population with a 4-
    year college degree increased by almost 500%
► Disparity  between African American and
 White educational attainment has declined
 but is still prevalent
   Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, U.S. Census of Population, 1960, Vol. 1,
   part 1; Current Population Reports, Series P-20 and unpublished data; and 1960 Census Monograph,
   “Education of the American Population,” by John K. Folger and Charles B. Nam. From U.S. Dept. of
   Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Digest of Education Statistics 2002
Education: High School Dropout Rate
Education: College Entrance Rate
Education: H.S. Dropout and College
         Enrollment Rates
► High School dropout rates for African Americans
  have decreased substantially in the last thirty
  years, dropping from 33.5% in 1974 to 17% in
  2002
   H.S. dropout rates still remain 50% higher than the
    white dropout rate in 2002 of 11%
► College enrollment rates have increased from 36%
  in 1960 to 57.7% in 2002 for African Americans
  (an increase of 66%)
   College enrollment rates for Whites increased by 45%
    during this forty-four year time period
   Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics and Post Secondary Education
   Opportunity at: http://www.postsecondary.org
   Note: Data from 1960 for all non-white races, no individual African American data collected
Housing: Home Ownership
                     Home Ownership
► The proportion of African Americans renting
  has decreased by 17% since 1950, but the
  proportion of White’s renting has decreased
  by 33% during this same time period
► In 2000, the proportion of African American
  households that had obtained home
  ownership was 65% lower than the
  proportion of white households that had
  obtained homeownership
   Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2000 Census and
    Statistical Abstract 1955
   Note: Data from 1950 for all non-white races, no individual African American data collected
Poverty: Poverty Rates
Poverty: Child Poverty by Race

          Child Poverty 1955 to 1995
          Source: Changing America: Indicators of Social and
          Economic Well-Being by Race and Hispanic Origin
          (1997), By the Council of Economic Advisors for
          President Clinton
                Poverty Trends
► African American poverty rates have declined by
  approximately 60% since 1959, White poverty
  rates declined by approximately 50% during this
  time
   Disparity persists: African American individual and
    family poverty rates are currently twice the rate of
    Whites
► The number of African American children in
  poverty have declined substantially since 1960
   Disparity persists: African American child poverty rates
    were approximately double the rate of white child
    poverty in the 1990’s
  Employment: Unemployment by Race
Unemployment by Race 1950 to 1997
Source: Changing America: Indicators of Social and
Economic Well-Being by Race and Hispanic Origin
(1997), By the Council of Economic Advisors for
President Clinton
              Employment Disparity
► Unemployment    rates have varied considerably
  over time as the U.S. Economy has cycled.
    Generally African American unemployment has been
     approximately twice as high as white unemployment
     throughout this time
► In 2003, unemployment disparity remains for
  African Americans and Hispanics
    The African American unemployment rate was 11.6%
     for men in 2003, and 10.2% for women
    These figures are double the unemployment rates for
     white men (5.6%) and women (4.8%) in 2003

 Sources: Changing America: Indicators of Social and Economic Well-Being by Race and
 Hispanic Origin (1997), By the Council of Economic Advisors for President Clinton and
 current data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics
Income: Personal Income Growth (2001 $’s)
Income: Family Income Growth (2001 $’s)
                     Income Growth
► Incomeshave more than doubled for African
 American men, women and families since the
 1950’s
   Disparity in income has actually grown since 1954, the
    median African American family income in 1954 was
    55% of the white median, in 2002 this figure had grown
    to 62%
► Althoughincome disparity has closed, a
 tremendous disparity in net assets between
 African Americans and Whites is evident in recent
 Census Data
   In 2000, the median assets ($7,500) for African
    American households was 9.5% of the median assets
    for non-Hispanic whites ($79,000)
   Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract and Net Worth Report
Health: Age Adjusted Mortality Rate
         Health: Life Expectancy by Race
Life Expectancy by Race 1930 to 1995
Source: Changing America: Indicators of Social and
Economic Well-Being by Race and Hispanic Origin
(1997), By the Council of Economic Advisors for
President Clinton
                                         Health
          rates have declined for both African
► Mortality
  Americans and Whites since 1954
    Disparity persists: In 2002, mortality rates for African
     American men were 27% higher than mortality rates for
     White men, mortality rates are 14% higher for African
     American women than White women
► Average  life expectancy for African American men
  and women have increased since 1950, but still
  remain lower than the White mortality rates
  Sources: Changing America: Indicators of Social and Economic Well-Being by Race and
  Hispanic Origin (1997), By the Council of Economic Advisors for President Clinton and
  mortality data from the U.S. Census Bureau statistical abstract



 Note: Data from 1954 for mortality all non-white races, no individual African American data collected
Crime: Homicide Victimization Rate
Crime: Prison Admissions by Race

 Prisons Admissions by Race 1930 to 1995
 Source: Changing America: Indicators of
 Social and Economic Well-Being by Race
 and Hispanic Origin (1997), By the Council
 of Economic Advisors for President Clinton
                                    Crime

► Victimization  rates for homicide have
  declined 27% for African Americans but are
  still 7 times the rate of White homicide
  victimization
► The number of incarcerated African
  Americans has increased 800% since the
  1950’s, the number of incarcerated African
  Americans surpassed the number of Whites
  incarcerated in the late 1980’s
 Sources: Changing America: Indicators of Social and Economic Well-Being by Race and
 Hispanic Origin (1997), By the Council of Economic Advisors for President Clinton and
 current data from the Bureau of Justice Statistics
    Other Contemporary Trends
► Persistent      Residential Segregation
   Residential segregation has decreased slightly in all metropolitan
    areas, but a high degree of segregation still exists in most
    metropolitan areas (particularly in the Northeast and Midwest)
      ► Source:   Lewis Mumford Center (2004)
► School   District Segregation
   Research has shown increasing levels of segregation for America’s
    school districts, which is manifested at the regional level
      ► Source:Harvard Civil Rights Project “A Multiracial Society with
        Segregated Schools Are We Losing the Dream?” (2003)
► People   of Color Living in Concentrated Poverty
   In 2000, more than 2/3’s of people living in concentrated urban
    poverty were African American or Hispanic
   In 1999, half of poor rural African Americans and Native Americans
    are found in concentrated poverty rural areas, 1/3 of all poor rural
    Hispanics are found in areas of high poverty.
      ► Source:   USDA, Economic Research Services, Brookings Institute
School Segregation Today: Segregation and Student Poverty
School Segregation Today: Segregation and Student Performance
         School Segregation Today

► Urban sprawl   and regional government
  fragmentation have worked to re-segregate
  urban school districts
► What is the link between today’s segregated
  urban schools and student poverty or
  student performance?


 Sources: Dissimilarity Index Data from Lewis Mumford Center, School District Data from
 National Center for Education Statistics
                Summary
► Data  suggest improvements since 1954 vary
  based on the indicator, education and
  poverty has improved but economic and
  crime indicators have not improved as much
► Despite improvements across multiple
  indicators, significant racial disparities in
  education, poverty, economic health,
  income, health, crime still exist
   Social Construction of Disparity
► Disparities are symptoms of structural racism.
► Simply recognizing disparities is not enough, we
  need to examine our assumptions surrounding
  them.
► Disparities in the early 20th century were
  attributed by genetic differences. Today they are
  attributed to “defects in culture”. Is there any
  difference in these viewpoints?
► Inequality is built into the system. Disparities are
  not a sign that the current system isn’t working,
  they are a sign that it is working exactly as it is
  supposed to.
 Source: American Apartheid: Douglas S. Massey & Nancy A Denton
  Social Construction of Disparity
► Over  the course of the last century, racism leaped
  from being inscribed in our laws to being inscribed
  in our spatial arrangements.
► Wealth reproduces opportunity. The present
  arrangement will continue to increasingly
  perpetuate disparities if left unchecked.
► The damages of structural racism are wreaking
  havoc on the economy, health, psychology, and
  the quality of life and education of our society and
  its members.
         Social Construction of Disparity
    ► Disparities exist on many levels: individual, group,
      neighborhood, city, metropolitan area and nation.
    ► Regardless of educational, occupational, and
      demographic characteristics, wealth is racially disparate.
    ► Middle class blacks possess fifteen cents for every dollar
      of wealth held by middle-class whites.
    ► The average white Americans’ median net worth is
      twelve times that of black Americans.
    ► It is twice as difficult for blacks to obtain a mortgage as
      it is for whites with comparable incomes.
    ► It is three times as difficult for blacks to gain
      employment in the service sector as whites.
Racial Healing: Confronting the Fear Between Blacks and Whites: Douglas S. Massey & Nancy A Denton
Face to Face: The Changing State of Racism in America: J Waller
How Brown Influenced Subsequent Civil
        Rights Jurisprudence
► What   is segregation?
   de jure
    ►   legally imposed segregation
   de facto
    ►segregation  (especially in schools) that happens in
      fact although not required by law.
How Brown Influenced Subsequent Civil
        Rights Jurisprudence

► What   is segregation?
   In regard to schools, segregation pertains to
    situations in which a disproportionate number of
    white students or students of color attend a
    school or school system.
How Brown Influenced Subsequent Civil
        Rights Jurisprudence

► Segregation can  also be defined from
 emotional, psychological, mental, physical,
 legal and social perspectives.
   Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. defined segregation
    as a twin evil that gives a sense of inferiority to
    “Blacks,” and a sense of superiority to “Whites.”
    He posits that segregation creates a distorted
    psychological self that in turn distorts
    democracy
               What is Desegregation?
►   Desegregation refers to efforts at remedying racial imbalances. It
    traditionally means removing formal legal barriers, or simply placing
    students of different races in proximity to each other. Efforts are often
    limited to moving and mixing racial populations to end racial isolation.
    As it has played out in most of America’s educational settings,
    desegregation requires students of the non-dominant group (most
    often nonwhite) to assimilate into the school and culture created for
    and controlled by the dominant group (most often white). Structures
    are not altered to meet the needs of the new and different
    students.[1]
[1] Ware, L. and M. Ware 1996. “Plessy’s Legacy: Desegregating the Eurocentric
    Curriculum.” Georgia State University Law Review 12. Fix cite and find page.
                What is Integration?
►   “The word segregation represents a system that is
    prohibitive; it denies the Negro equal access to
    schools, parks, restaurants, libraries and the like.
    Desegregation is eliminative and negative, for it
    simply removes these legal and social
    prohibitions. Integration is creative, and is
    therefore more profound and far-reaching than
    desegregation. Integration is the positive
    acceptance of desegregation and the welcomed
    participation of Negroes in the total range of human
    activities. Integration is genuine intergroup,
    interpersonal doing. Desegregation then, rightly is
    only a short-range goal. Integration is the ultimate
    goal of our national community.”
Quote by Dr. Martin Luther King from The Ethical Demands for Integration

				
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