rd Test Starts Here by mikesanye

VIEWS: 11 PAGES: 91

									          3rd Test Starts Here
• Service Opps: today (April 6) – 12:15; bag lunch
  discussion on UT recycling in UC 224.
• Upcoming Clean Air Race April 10: jgoverly@utk.edu
• Nashville trip cancelled (we lost again)
• Final Exam – last day of our class (April 27) OR
  assigned day
• Service Opp! Big Dig: Summer Intern with Cumberland
  trail May 16-June 26. Pays $1000.; learn to build &
  maintain wilderness trails, supervise volunteer
  trailworkers
• Contact: Mark Stanfill at 931-456-6259;
  www.cumberlandtrail.org
            Water Pollution
• Water pollution is contamination of water
  by foreign matter that deteriorates the
  quality of the water
• Normally water can cleanse itself via:
  dilution, settling, aerosols, biodegradation
• Water pollution occurs when these four
  are overwhelmed
• Point vs Non-point sources
     Importance: water pollution
• Globally, 2.3 billion people suffer from diseases linked to
  water
• Water borne diseases, also known as “dirty water”
  disease, result from using water contaminated by
  human, animal, or chemical wastes. These diseases
  cause an estimated 12 million deaths a year, 5 million of
  them from diarrheal diseases. Most of the victims are
  children in developing countries.
• According to the World Commission on Water for the
  21st Century, more than half of the World’s major rivers
  are so depleted and polluted that they endanger human
  health and poison surrounding ecosystem.
• In many large cities in the developing world the drinking
  water supply is contaminated. Only half of Southeast
  Asia’s 550 million people have access to safe drinking
  water
                     Name of           Sources                   Health Hazards
                     Pollutant

                   DETERGENT      Washing of clothes.     Depletes the oxygen of water,
                                                          endangering aquatic life.


                   INDUSTRIAL     Waste        products   Toxic substances endangering
                   EFFLUENTS      from factories.         human health.

                   PESTICIDES,    They enter into the     Poisonous substances.
                   INSECTICIDES   water from the soil.

Water pollutants   SEWAGE         Untreated    human      Several kinds of bacteria and
                   WASTE          excreta is washed       virus   cause diseases like
                                  away to lakes, rivers   cholera, typhoid, jaundice, and
                                  etc.                    diarrohea.

                   OIL            Oil tankers which       Oil spread on the surface of the
                                  are traveling through   sea water sticking to the feather
                                  the seas.               of the birds causing death.


                   FERTILIZERS    Washed out of soil      Increase toxicity of the water.
                                  by rain to streams
                                  and rivers.


                   METALLIC       Industries              Cancer, neurological ailments,
                   POLLUTANTS                             lung diseases etc.


                   ORGANIC        Dead plants and         Deoxygenated water, endangers
                   POLLUTANTS     animals in water.       fish life and higher plants.


                   FLUORIDES      Industries              Poisoning effects the dental and
                                                          skeletal fluorosis.

                   BENZENE        Industries.             Causes redness,       burns       and
                                                          blisters on skin.
            Eutrophication
• Eutrophication = literally, too much food
• Occurs when sewage and/or fertilizer
  drains into a water body (esp ponds,
  lakes)
• Causes rapid growth of algae (“blooms”)
• Algae die and decay  uses up oxygen
• Causes fish kill; becomes “scummy”
Aerial view of Lake 227 in 1994. Note the bright green color
caused by algae stimulated by the experimental addition of phosphorus
for the 26th consecutive year. Lake 305 in the background is unfertilized
        Mitigating eutrophication
• What Can I Do?
• Limit your fertilizer use and apply at appropriate times (UMD's
  Home and Garden Information Center)
• "BayScape" your yard (Alliance for the Chesapeake Bay)
• Control runoff and soil erosion (UMD's Home and Garden
  Information Center).
• Start a compost pile and recycle yard waste (UMD's Home and
  Garden Information Center).
• Conserve water and energy (Maryland Department of Natural
  Resources)
• Plant trees (Maryland Department of Natural Resources).
• Maintain your septic system (University of Maryland)
• Drive less
• Be a responsible boater and pump out wastes
 Fixing (restoring) water bodies
• 1) Stop point pollution – factories, pipes (pretty
  easy)
• 2) Stop non-point pollution-very hard; build
  artificial wetlands: retention ponds with lots of
  cat-tails and other vegetation (slow water down,
  trickle into river or lake)
• 3) For ponds: drain and dredge; aerate
• 4) Restock with native fishs and plants
• Lake Erie is recovering; Lake Apopka Fla
• Rivers & creeks can recover quickly if pollution
  stopped and river channel renaturalized
          Water quality testing
• DO (Dissolved Oxygen)
• Nitrates, phosphates
• E. coli (coliform bacteria) – culture kits
• Sediment (turbidity)
• IBI – Index Biotic Integrity: is aquatic diversity
  low? Are a few species superabundant? If yes:
  unhealthy stream
• Indicator species: trout, most clams, stream
  minnows = healthy stream
• many insect larvae, protozoans, exotic species
  (carp, zebra mussel)= unhealthy stream.
         EPA primary regs
• List of Contaminants regulated by EPA:
  Microorganisms | Disinfectants |
  Disinfection Byproducts | Inorganic
  Chemicals | Organic Chemicals |
  Radionuclides
• MCL’s for all of these are tested,
  periodically by law, especially in water
  systems
         EPA secondary regs
• National Secondary Drinking Water Regulations
  (NSDWRs or secondary standards) are non-
  enforceable guidelines regulating contaminants
  that may cause cosmetic effects (such as skin or
  tooth discoloration) or aesthetic effects (such as
  taste, odor, or color) in drinking water. EPA
  recommends secondary standards to water
  systems but does not require systems to comply.
  However, states may choose to adopt them as
  enforceable standards.
Oxidation ditch




                  Clarifier
           Wastewater treatment
• The chemicals used in the waste purification process can also be
  harmful. Used in large quantities, these chemicals – including
  chlorine or chlorine dioxide gas -- can produce environmental
  risks. Storm water run-off might also pose a problem if
  contaminated with waste or other pollutants. The often foul smell of
  sewage treatment plants can generally be attributed to hydrogen
  sulfide, which is toxic and can cause problems ranging from eye
  irritation and nausea to toxic explosions. However, the odor is often
  diluted in the air and is usually of little or no harm.
• Treatment plants can cause contaminated water. Potential
  contaminators are bacteria, nitrates, oxygen-depleting organics, and
  metals. Exposure can occur through drinking such water, direct skin
  contact, digesting fish from contaminated waters, or even swimming
  in such waters. Reactions can range from rashes to hepatitis.
• Trihalomethanes (THM’s) = carcinogenic byproducts of chlorination.
  Solution? Ozonation of water.
               Tap water problems
•   Tap Water Is Full Of Disease-Causing Contaminants - Most municipal
    water flows through lead pipes over 100 years old picking up harmful toxins
    and pollutants before the water treatment plant (which performs very limited
    functions) and also afterwards when the water is on its way to your house.
•   Arsenic - Which has been directly linked to cancer and many other
    diseases, has been found in 85% of our cities' water. Exposure to lead
    found at "alarmingly high levels" in many cities by Consumer Reports, can
    cause learning and behavioral problems in children, lower IQ, high blood
    pressure, and problems to the reproductive and nervous systems.
•   Some other common water contaminants and what they have been linked to
    are: Asbestos (cancer and other diseases), Aluminum (Alzheimer's),
    Benzene (cancer, anemia), Mercury (nervous system and kidney damage),
    Toluene (cancer), herbicides and pesticides such as Endrin (liver, kidney
    and heart damage, respiratory problems and cancer).
•   80% of city water systems were not equipped with filters that meet EPA
    standards. In addition, most cities add the harmful Chlorine and Fluoride to
    water.
              Tap water problems
• A recent Water Quality Association poll showed that 74% of
  Americans consider their tap water contaminated or dangerous.
  80% don't like the taste. And the following annual figures from the
  National Resources Defense Council confirm the shocking problem:
  Every year in the U.S.:
• 900,000 Sick and 900 Dead due to water contamination.
• These figures don't even factor in the thousands of long term
  illnesses and deaths from cancer, kidney and heart disease linked to
  contaminated water.
• If you have your own well water, you're not really better off. In fact,
  most of those on well water have more contaminants per drop than
  those in cities.
• Many are also concerned today by bio-terrorism threat to our water
  supplies as there are 168,000 different public water supplies in the
  U.S., many of which are completely unprotected.
                                                                               Reverse
                                                                    Water      Osmosis
                                     Carbon Filter   Distillation
                                                                    Softener   plus Carbon
                                                                               Filter
                    Aluminum                               X                        X
Tap water filters
                    Arsenic                                X                        X
                    Asbestos                                                        X
                    Cadmium                                X             X          X
                    Chlorine &
                                           X               X                        X
                    THMs
                    Chromium                               X             X          X
                    Copper                                 X                        X
                    Endrin                 X                                        X
                    Fluoride                               X                        X
                    Giardia/Crypto
                                                           X                        X
                    sporidium
                    Hardness                               X             X          X
                    Lead                  X*               X                        X
                    Mercury                                X                        X
                    Nickel                                 X                        X
                    Nitrate                                X                        X
                    Pesticides/Her
                                           X                                        X
                    bicides
                    Radium                                 X             X          X
                    Radon                  X                                        X
                    Toluene                X                                        X
                    Total
                 Bottled water
• Bottled Water May Be Worse - Recognizing the
  problem with tap water, many Americans have turned to
  bottled water. Unfortunately, bottled water is not only
  quite expensive, it is often just as contaminated as your
  tap water.
• According to FDA rules, bottled water is subject to less
  testing and lower standards than our tap water! Even
  disinfection is not a requirement for bottled water! A 4-
  year NRDC scientific study on bottled water, based on
  1000 bottles of 103 brands of water confirmed that
  bottled water is not necessarily cleaner or safer than
  common tap water.
• University of Iowa tested 39 different brands of bottled
  water and found that 75% of them contained chemicals,
  dissolved metals, and traces of arsenic, barium and
  toluene. Their conclusion was "Bottled water is no better
  than tap water and, in some cases, even worse".
Low pressure units typically provide between 24 and 35 gallons per day of water

    They typically filter up to 95% of the material in the water.
            Legal Aspects I
• Riparian law = landowner water rights
• Appropriation law = government water
  rights
• Both often fail to protect downstream
  users
• Example: rule of “prior use” out West: big
  mess (Colorado River)
• Example: private law suits to collect
  damages in your water
           Legal Aspects II
• Clean Water Act 1972: point sources
  largely fixed
• Safe Drinking Water Act 1974: water
  supply regulated
• Unfixed problems: non-point runoff and
  ground water pollution (mostly state laws;
  very weak in TN)
           Announcements
• Exam April 27 or during finals week
• Service opps:
• UT EarthDay April 22: contact Christina at
  cconnall@utk.edu
• April 14 – see Lois Gibbs talk (Love Canal
  story) 7 pm UC auditorium; also 2-4 pm
  workshop on activism in Physics 306
             Air Pollution
• When air composition is altered to the
  point that harm occurs (to human health or
  property)
• Air composition: 78% N, 21% O = 99%
• N2 is an inert (nonreactive) gas
• Remaining 1% includes hundreds of kinds
  of gases and particles (CO2, CH4, dust,
  water vapor); usu measured as ppm, ppb
• All air pollution is in this remaining 1%
    Importance of Air Pollution
• Health: bad air costs US over $150 billion
  per year (medical, lost work days), kills
  over 10,000 people per year (how?who?)
• Most dangerous in US: indoor air pollution
  (stealth problem) is no. 1; also smog is v.
  imp.
• Ecological harm: ozone layer loss, global
  warming, acid rain, smog on plants
• Property harm: erosion of buildings
         Kinds of air pollution
• Lots of human activities increase air pollution
  (anthropogenic sources) – most come from fossil
  fuel combustion
• 1) particulates (unburned ash) – mostly in poor
  nations – in US 99% filtered out by scrubbers in
  smokestacks; causes lung damage
• 2) carbon oxides (CO, CO2) - esp from motor
  vehicles: CO is odorless, colorless gas. CO2 is
  main cause of global warming
   Kinds of air pollution (cont.)
• 3) Sulfur oxides (SOx) – from coal burning,
  H2O + SOx = H2SO4 (sulfuric acid).
• Creates acid rain. pH scale goes from 0-
  14, > 7 = alkaline; < 7 = acidic. Log scale.
  Natural rain is mildly acid (around 6). Acid
  rain < 5.6. Record in Smokies < 1.
• Result: acid lakes impacts trout, acid soils
  kills trees.
Effects of acid rain on          Statue in a makeshift shelter
statue                    to save it from acid rain in Berlin Germany
statue in Germany. The photo on the left was taken in 1908 and the one on the right
was taken in 1969.
      Kinds of air pollution (cont)
•   4) smog = NOx + VOCs + O3 + light
•   NOxVille, Tennessee
•   This is a photochemical reaction.
•   Most damaging air poll to our health
•   Effect: burns lung tissue, eyes
•   Sources? 140,000 cars/trucks on I-40 daily
•   Time of day smog peaks?
                    Bad air rankings
Cities and counties with the worst ozone air pollution, based on U.S.
    Environmental Protection Agency monitoring in 1997-1999, according to "State
    of the Air 2001" report by the American Lung Association released Tuesday.
    Previous year rankings are in brackets.
• Los Angeles, Calif. (1)
• Bakersfield, Calif. (2)
• Fresno, Calif. (3)
• Visalia, Calf. (4)
• Houston, Texas (5)
• Atlanta, Ga. (9)
• Washington, D.C.(7)
• Charlotte, N.C., Rock Hill, S.C. (8)
• Knoxville, Tenn. (12)
• Philadelphia, Pa., Atlantic City, N.J. (13)
• Raleigh, Durham, Chapel Hill, N.C. (17)
• Sacramento, Calif. (10)
• Merced, Calif. (10)
• Dallas, Texas (14)
• New York, N.Y.; (16)
• Nashville, Tenn. (18)
Smog in Seoul Korea
The above photo shows a long line of cars lined up to enter Great
Smoky National Park. Aside from the smog blown in from distant
power plants and urban areas, the exhaust from the cars of an
average of 10,000,000 visitors each year doesn't help the severe air
pollution problem in Great Smoky National Park, either. On 140 days
during the past four years, the National Park Service has had to warn
employees and park visitors that the air in the park was unhealthy
because of high levels of smog
GSMNP same view,
With and w/out smog
     Solutions to air pollution
• Clean Air Act 1970 reduced many sources
  BUT many loopholes remain:
• Grandfathered power plants (TVA)
• Clunker cars (before 1985 esp)
• Trucks & SUVs, Semi-trucks exempt from
  much of it
• Small engines: boats, mowers, leaf blower
• TN phased out mandatory inspections!
         Indoor air pollution
• Overlooked but most harmful. Why: spend
  80% indoors, poll is concentrated
• Main kinds: cig smoke (incl 2nd hand);
  radon, toxic chems from carpet, furniture,
  household chems
• SBS = sick building syndrome
          Global Air Pollution
• Loss of the ozone layer – 20 miles up
  protects life from ultra-violet radiation
• How made? Light + 3O22O3+CFC

 CFC is a catalyst that accelerates the
 return of O3 back to O2
                  CFCs
• CFC = chlorofluorocarbons, invented 1931
• Since then, 36 billion pounds produced in
  US
• Very inert; used as refrigerant (freon),
  cleaning fluid, aerosol propellant (why?)
• So lasts many decades in air w/out
  breaking down
• In 1970’s discovery of “ozone hole” over S.
  Pole
Why ozone hole over S. Pole?
      If we lose the ozone layer:
•   Blindness
•   Skin cancer
•   Fertility loss
•   Plants dies
•   Ocean food chain
•   Eventually cities underground? Matrix
    movie but probably without Neo
               Solutions?
• Montreal Protocol (Treaty) of 1987 to
  phase out CFCs
• Production of alternatives: compressed air,
  HFC’s, HCFC’s etc.
• Very successful (why?)
• Corporate idiocy? DuPont vs Greenpeace
• Remaining problems: continued illegal
  production and use of CFCs
• Takes over 10 yrs to diffuse up to Oz layer
           Global warming
• 4 main anthropogenic greenhouse gases:
  CO2, methane, NOx, CFCs but many more
• Sources of these?
• Normally excess CO2 will go into solution
  oceans but not if too much; also some
  goes to plant biomass (CHO = cellulose)
~ 1 degree C increase in average global temp during this time
      Is global warming real?
• Correlation is not causation – spurious
  correlation esp in time series
• Extrapolation over long time scales does
  not work for complex systems like Earth
• But: lots of experimental evidence for GH
  gas effects on global scale
• Fossil record: GH gases often drive
  climate change
• Precautionary principle
  If Global Warming continues:
• 1) Rise in sea level – inches/century until
  300 foot rise when all ice melts
• EPA study estimates that a one meter (3
  ft) rise inundates 7000 sq mi of dry land,
  50-80% of U.S. wetlands, and costs over
  $100 billion in the United States alone.
• Oceanic island nations are very worried
.
Louisiana is already losing about 25 square
miles of land to coastal erosion each year.
EPA
               Announcements
 - Good news hybrid car purchases up 26% in 03 over 02.
 - Exam April 27 in class OR 12:30pm Tuesday, May 4
• Earthfest volunteers badly needed for Keep Knox
   Beautiful; April 24 at Worlds Fair Park; contact Cortney
   Piper at 521-6957
• Ijams volunteer naturalists for childhood education: Ijams
   is looking for volunteers to lead and/or assist with school
   groups from now through May 21st. If you are interested
   or would like to learn more about this opportunity, please
   email Misty Gladdish at mgladdish@ijams.org or call
   865-577-4717 ext. 12.
• Enjoy Earth Day! UC plaza; great lectures at 3 and 7
   today.
     Readings for Final Exam
• www.scorecard.org (Find Your Community
  on right of screen: our zip 37996 – know
  factoids for test)
• McKinney book Chapters 15-20
• Review for Exam Sunday April 25 7 pm in
  GEOLOGY room 302
  If Global Warming continues:
• 2) Migration of crops and ecosystems
  North
• 3) Loss of mountain ecosystems (why?)
• 4) Increasing aridity in much of central US
• 5) More violent weather
• 6) ocean current changes (Gulf Stream
  slowing or stopping?)
  Solutions to Global Warming
• Technofix: CO2 + CaO CaCO3 (limestone) =
  sequestration
• Plant trees
• Only real solution: reduce fossil
  fuels=alternative energy (wind, solar etc):
  gas prices and gas taxes to promote
• Kyoto Treaty to phase out fossil fuels –
  derailed by US: Congress and Pres.
• Reasons given: hurt our economy, other
  nations won’t enforce, buying credits from
  poor nations?
             Solid Waste
Waste = anything society does not use
• US=most wasteful society in world history
• Since 1945 US used more resources than
  the entire world before 1945. Why? Rich
  resources; no ethic or incentive to
  conserve
• Concept of Conspicuous Consumption:
  bar gets raised all the time; no real
  correlation between wealth and happiness
          US waste factoids
• 1 ton household waste per person/year (=
  5 pounds per day); this is increasing each
  year (has doubled in last 20 yr)
• Add industrial & Agric waste=another 10
  tons per person per yr
• Reason: high consumption combined with
  little recycling
            Household waste
•   Paper = 40%
•   Food/yard = 25%
•   Plastic = 10%
•   Glass = 10%
•   Metals = 10%
•   Rest = 5%
•   SO: 95% could be recycled
•   In actuality only 20% is recycled
                                 2) Recycle




1) Source reduction               Waste stream
                                                              3) Incineration
                                                              4) Landfill



        4 ways to deal with waste. 1=best; 4=worst based on
        cost and envir impact
                 Landfills
• Sanitary landfill: liners, garbage is layered
• Most common method: 60% of US
  garbage
• Problems: water pollution (leachate),
  space usage (some states have no space
  left; TN has 50 years or so, we import it);
  fossilize waste (slow decomposition)
• Knox: Chestnut Ridge gets 10 tons/day
• Urban ore mining
              Incineration
• High temp combustion in a kiln
• Benefits over landfill: reduces waste
  volume by 90%, detoxifies much waste;
  cogeneration of heat
• Problems: some air pollution (small; deps
  on what is burning); substantial toxic ash
  residue
• Most communities vote against them
  NIMBY
              Recycling
• US recycles about 20% of waste stream;
  Europe and Japan over 35%
• Recycling rates varies drastically among
  materials
• Metals v. high: Aluminum 60%
• Nationwide, the recycling rate for glass
  containers is 30%.
• Plastic among least recycled; less than
  20%
           Recycling tires
• Generation: Approximately 3.8 million
  tons of rubber tires (or 257 million
  scrap tires- about 1 tire per person in
  the United States) were generated in
  1995. Percent: Tires made up about 1.8
  percent of the MSW stream in 1995.
  Recovery: In 1995, approximately 17.5
  percent of scrap tires were recycled,
  excluding retreads and tires combusted
  for energy
                   Aluminum
• In America, 1,500 aluminum cans are recycled every
  second. In 1999, Americans used 120 billion
  aluminum cans. We recycled 60% of aluminum cans
  in 1999. Making cans from recycled aluminum cuts
  related air pollution (for example, sulfur dioxides,
  which create acid rain) by 95%.
• Americans throw away enough aluminum every
  three months to rebuild our entire commercial air
  fleet. A quarter of all aluminum goes into packaging.
• About 70% of all metal used just once and is
  discarded. The remaining 30% is recycled. After 5
  cycles, one-fourth of 1% of the metal remains in
  circulation
                Paper
• By Recycling 1 ton of paper you save:
  · 17 trees
  · 6953 gallons of water
  · 463 gallons of oil
  · 587 pounds of air pollution
  · 3.06 cubic yards of landfill space
  · 4077 Kilowatt hours of energy
                        Glass
• A ton of glass produced from raw materials created 384
  pounds of mining waste. Using 50% recycled glass cuts
  it by about 75%.
  · We get 27.8 pounds of air pollution for every ton of new
  glass produced.
  · Recycling glass reduces that pollution by 14-20%.
  · Recycling glass saves 25-32% of the energy used to
  make glass. About 75% of America's glass is used for
  packaging. As late as 1947, virtually 100% of all
  beverage bottles were returnable. Germany recycles
  almost 40% of its glass vs 8% US.
• States with bottle deposit laws have 35-40% less litter by
  volume.
                             Recycled paper = $20/ton




  Notebook paper
  manufacturer


                                Why recycling is not
                                working too well


Paper from trees = $15/ton
                                Tax subsidies to
                                logging companies
            Source reduction
• Also called precycling, pollution prevention pays
• Using resources more efficiently: eliminate bulky
  packaging, and other “throwaway” items (point
  of purchase marketing) = 1/3 of all household
  waste
• Miniaturizing things – trend has been for
  opposite: upsizing. Why? Was Freud right?
• Waste produced at EACH step of manufacturing
  and retail process: mine, smelt, assembly,
  transportation; LCA = Life Cycle Analysis
  Encouraging waste reduction
• Pay as you Throw: used a lot in Oregon,
  WA, CA – garbage bills are charged by the
  bag.
• Bottle bill – cuts litter by 35-40%
• Packaging laws to reduce the waste
       Environmental Ethics
• Aldo Leopold: “right” = that which
  promotes environmental health; “wrong” =
  that which does not
• Sustainability = meeting today’s needs
  w/out harming future generations = “right”
• Popular culture: “right” that which is best
  for humans (only)
• Ignores other species, future generations
              Making Changes
• Doing vs talking!
• Direct action: Edward Abbey, The Monkeywrench Gang
• Personal lifestyle change: Thoreau, Walden
• Political action: trying to implement policy changes (gas
  taxes, etc)
• Difficult: most people hate change; US history of
  isolationism
• Changes need to be pushed. Politicians tend to focus on
  cosmetic changes that require little work: ethanol for
  Knoxville’s air pollution, lower speed limit instead of real
  mass transit, sprawl controls, vehicle inspections
• Political system designed to be slow (checks &
  balances)
    Economic Incentives to solve
      environmental problems
• Legal solutions only work where there are
  a few envir violators, such as factories
• Reason: cost of enforcement too high
• Problem: most current envir problems
  involve many violators – litter, cars (global
  warming, smog), overconsumption
• Also, political systems designed to be slow
• So: need economic incentives to promote
  envir sustainable behaviors
       Economic incentives I
• 1) Stop giving money to encourage envir
  harmful behaviors (dirty subsidies) – tax
  dollars to oil companies, logging, mining,
  urban sprawl (we build roads, schools)
• Promote altern fuels, recycling, downtown
  renewal (hybrid cars and wind power would
  incr even faster)
• Companies getting these have been VERY
  successful with public relation campaigns to
  keep them (ex: coal is good; treehuggers are
  extremists)
• Focus on ideology, fringe science
      Economic incentives II
• 2) Start taxing those behaviors more
  (green taxes): gas tax, bottle bill, higher
  fines on polluters
• People hate taxes but these would
  reduce other taxes (such as income
  tax); $$ go toward mass transit, hybrid
  cars, other sustainable activities (now
  most gas tax goes…where?)
      Jobs and Sustainability
• Sustainability = more jobs (CA has biggest
  economy of any state, and also strictest
  env laws)
• Examples: waste disposal for a small town
  – landfill 50 jobs, incineration 250 jobs,
  recycling 500 jobs
• Wind/solar vs oil for energy
• Logging vs recreation – 2 x more money
  per acre
Paying true environmental costs
• Green taxes make the consumer pay the
  true cost of the product
• Free market works ok if consumer pays
  “true costs”: examples – does cheap gas
  include global warming? Smog?
• True env costs are often hidden (can’t see
  global warming; been to a factory farm?)
• True env costs WILL be paid by someone:
  WHO?
 Paying envir costs to poor nations
• Not foreign aid
• Gene patents for profit-making species
• Higher prices for rainforest products,
  minerals etc
• Microloans to sustainable businesses
• Ecotourism, fair trade products, shade
  grown coffee, sustainable harvesting of
  rainforest
• US could play an active role; does it now?
          Environmental Law
• All major federal and state envir laws were
  passed in the 1970’s.
• Since then, US public has generally become
  less interested in major laws
• In part: a big backlash by people and companies
  affected by these laws (developers, road
  builders, farmers you name it)
• TVA and the snail darter
• Decreasing emph on science, facts
        Environmental Law
• Clean env is NOT a constitutional right
  (Sierra Club & Supreme Court)
• Even if laws were strengthened:
  enforcement problem (Mexico has strict
  env laws, no real enforcement)
• 2005 budget – 7% cut for EPA, same for
  TDEC; since 1995 EPA & TDEC down by
  15-20%
• 99% of envir violators not penalized
              Environmental politics
Which one of these 6 groups is only one where the
majority of people votes to weaken environmental
                   regulations?

• Women 20-35            • Men 20-35
• Women 35-55            • Men 35-55
• Women over 55          • Men over 55
Which region of US is the only one to consistently
    vote against environmental regulations?
•   And has most pollution and sprawl?:
•   Western US
•   Central
•   SW
•   SE
•   NE
         How to NOT solve the
          environmental crisis
• And guarantee an overpopulated polluted world
  depleted in resources governed by a few rich
  people and many poor people:
• 1) be an ideologue – decide arguments on basis
  of abstract ideology
• 2) ignore facts – focus on people’s character or
  select facts to fit your goals
• 3) be materialistic – make wealth accumulation
  the main goal of life
• 4) be short-sighted – focus only on the here and
  now; give no thought to the future

								
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