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					             sports coach UK
       Coaching Essentials Workshop
               Tutor Notes
      An Introduction to the
 FUNdamentals of Movement (MS2)
                    Second edition, February 2009

    This tutor pack is only to be used by sports coach UK tutors,
accredited to deliver this workshop. Should you be unsure as to your
 accreditation status, please contact the sports coach UK Workshop
                            Booking Centre.
                                                      The National Coaching Foundation, 2009


This pack is copyright under the Berne Convention. All rights are reserved. Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of private study, research,
 criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a
   retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, electrical, chemical, mechanical, optical, photocopying, recording or
         otherwise, without the prior permission of the copyright owner. Enquiries should be addressed to Coachwise Business Solutions.

                     sports coach UK is the brand name of the National Coaching Foundation and has been since April 2001.

                                                               Author: Craig Handford
                                                          Project lead officer: John Parsons
                                                         Coachwise editor: Joanne Chapman



                                                                                           Produced on behalf of sports coach UK by:




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            sports coach UK will ensure that it has professional and ethical values and that all its practices are inclusive and equitable.
Workshop Overview                                                             The table overleaf outlines a suggested route through the workshop.
This workshop has been designed to provide a professional                     This is not prescriptive and you are advised to adjust the structure,
development opportunity for coaches and teachers qualified to at least        timing allocations and focus in accordance with:
Level 2 of the UK Coaching Certificate (UKCC). It can be run as a
stand-alone workshop, or as part of a multi-skills club induction                your own experiences
session, with the MS3 ‘Multi-skill Club’ workshop used subsequently. It          the needs of the group.
also forms the prerequisite for a series of specific workshops that
detail the FUNdamentals of Agility, Balance and Coordination (ABC) as         Points to Note
part of Long-term Athlete Development (LTAD).
                                                                                 A one-page workshop overview has been included. It is intended to
Outcomes of the Workshop                                                          provide you, at a glance, with the order in which outcomes may be
                                                                                  reached, the key points that should be raised and timings.
This practical workshop is designed to help delegates integrate ABCs
effectively into their coaching sessions. It will give them the                  These tutor notes have been written to provide you with a number
opportunity to develop and share ideas with others, and pick up new               of methods of delivery. These include tasks, demonstrations,
ideas for their own delivery.                                                     discussion and review. In some sections, extension activities are
                                                                                  provided, should you have time or wish to develop a particular
At the end of the workshop, delegates will be able to:                            topic further. It is your choice which combination of methods
                                                                                  you use to meet the workshop outcomes.
   identify a number of generic principles related to ABCs that
    underlie both FUNdamental and sport-specific movement skills                 The workshop delivery is supported by laminates and posters
   observe movement and identify the characteristics of safe and                 designed for display and as a visual reference for discussion and
    efficient movement                                                            review. Candidate notes are provided and follow the structure of
   interpret how issues of child maturation impact on the                        the tutor notes, but with space for personal comments.
    development and delivery of FUNdamental movement skills
   demonstrate the ability to effectively apply the FUNdamental                 Remember: it is important that you achieve the outcomes of this
    concepts to their existing coaching groups                                    workshop. You do not have to use the proposed method to the
   identify ways they can use the FUNdamental concepts to enrich                 letter – it is only a guide. The flip chart, prompts and notes
    and enhance their coaching delivery.                                          should be used to help you explain and impart information,
                                                                                  in order for you to achieve your outcomes.
Tutors are recommended to:

   bear in mind the practical nature of the workshop
   involve delegates in the practical aspects of the workshop
   refer delegates to any supporting handouts for additional
    information where necessary.


sports coach UK Coaching Essentials Workshop – Tutor Notes                1                An Introduction to the FUNdamentals of Movement (MS2)
   Be aware of the next stage of development and education for the
    delegates through further workshops and support. Additional           Notes:
    workshops include:

    -   FUNdamentals of Balance
    -   FUNdamentals of Coordination
    -   FUNdamentals of Agility
    -   Multi-skill Clubs in Practice
    -   Multi-skills Inclusion
    -   How to Coach Children in Sport
    -   Coaching Children and Young People
    -   An Introduction to Long-term Athlete Development.

Further details are available on the sports coach UK website at
www.sportscoachuk.org




sports coach UK Coaching Essentials Workshop – Tutor Notes            2            An Introduction to the FUNdamentals of Movement (MS2)
                          Introduction to the FUNdamentals of Movement Workshop Overview
                        Section                                           Outcome                                    Time

                         ONE               By the end of this section coaches should be able to:
                     Introduction           identify the workshop aims                                          10 minutes
                                            relate to other group members

                                            explain why FUNdamentals are important in terms of LTAD
                         TWO                establish the relationship between FUNdamental movement skills
               Position and Define the       and the FUNdamentals of movement                                    15 minutes
                  FUNdamentals of           identify the elements of quality coaching as they relate to
                      Movement               developing FUNdamentals

                        THREE               identify the key components of balance in both static and
                Introduce and Develop        dynamic contexts
                                                                                                                 40 minutes
                 ‘Low-order’ Balance        recognise generic issues related to balance and readiness to move
                      Principles
                                            explain some of the basic components of efficient coordination
                        FOUR                 with particular reference to FUNdamental movement skills
                Introduce and Develop       identify the key progressions in the development of inter-limb
               ‘Low-order’ Coordination      coordination and be able to apply them to a range of activities,    60 minutes
                      Principles             including the use of sports equipment
                                            define how the body produces force, applying key generic
                                             principles to developmental stages of explosive movements
                         FIVE
                                              explain how performers manage the use of force against the
                Introduce and Develop
                                               ground when accelerating, stopping and changing direction         40 minutes
                  ‘Low-order’ Agility
                                               quickly/effectively
                      Principles
                                            explain why movement skills should be introduced in-line with the
                                             developmental age of the child
                        SIX
                                            undertake an individual action plan (IAP) and discuss ways in       15 minutes
                      Summary
                                             which FUNdamental concepts can be applied to enhance and
                                             enrich coaching practice.




sports coach UK Coaching Essentials Workshop – Tutor Notes            3          An Introduction to the FUNdamentals of Movement (MS2)
                                         Section One: Introduction (10 mins)
By the end of this section, delegates will be able to:
    identify the workshop aims
    relate to other group members.
    Time       Outcome                  Content Overview                            Delivery Ideas and notes                Resources

10 mins     Identify the      Introductions
            workshop aims
                              Health and safety procedures (eg fire        Welcome the group, introduce yourself,
                              exits, fire alarm procedure) and             introduce delegates to each other and
                              domestic arrangements (eg toilets,           provide relevant information about
                              refreshments and turning mobiles off).       the venue.
            Relate to other
            group             Explanation that the workshop will           Task: As an ice-breaker, ask delegates to
            members           enable delegates to:                         introduce themselves to the person sitting
                               gain an understanding of the key           next to them and spend one minute each
                                concepts, principles and approaches        describing their expectations of the
                                of the FUNdamentals of                     workshop. What are they hoping to get from
                                Movement (FoM)                             the next three hours?
                               gain knowledge through
                                experiential learning of what A, B         Use a flip chart to record responses and link
                                and C mean in a practical sense            these to the outcomes of the workshop.
                               relate the above to their existing         Write any feedback given on to the flip chart,
                                practice and begin to use practices        which should be left up to revisit at the end
                                to emphasise ABC’s and use FABB            of the session.
                                (Feet, Arms, Body and Brain) as a
                                tool for observation and coaching,
                                which will then, perhaps, enable
                                them to share and devise new and
                                appropriate activities




sports coach UK Coaching Essentials Workshop – Tutor Notes             4          An Introduction to the FUNdamentals of Movement (MS2)
                            discuss ways in which they can
                             apply the FoM principles to try
                             and improve their coaching
                             practice, by improving their ability
                             to support and challenge their
                             athletes more effectively
                            discuss the learning of terminology
                             and possible language to be used
                             by a variety of client groups
                            evaluate key delivery of FoM in peer
                             groups, with tutor support
                            explore ways of keeping children
                             active in a fun and inclusive
                             environment.




sports coach UK Coaching Essentials Workshop – Tutor Notes          5   An Introduction to the FUNdamentals of Movement (MS2)
           Section Two: Position and Define the FUNdamentals of Movement (15 mins)
By the end of this section, delegates will be able to:
    explain why FUNdamentals are important in terms of LTAD
    establish the relationship between FUNdamental movement skills and the FUNdamentals of movement
    identify the elements of quality coaching as they relate to developing FUNdamentals.
    Time       Outcome                    Content Overview                        Delivery Ideas and notes                 Resources
            Explain why
15 mins                         Explanation as to why FUNdamentals       Discussion: Ask delegates to consider why      Preparing for a
            FUNdamentals
                                are important in terms of LTAD.          work in the area of FUNdamentals is so         Life in Sport,
            are important in
                                                                         important. Try to guide discussion towards:    LTAD leaflet
            terms of LTAD       Investigation of the group’s previous
                                knowledge and experience in this area.      physical literacy and the links to
                                                                             self-confidence, childhood participation
                                Explanation that sports coach UK
                                                                             and obesity
                                works closely with all of the UK’s
                                governing bodies of sports to ensure        physical literacy as a foundation for
                                consistency. Link to developing              sporting achievement in those who
                                coaches and national initiatives aimed       have talent.
                                at enhancing physical literacy (eg
                                                                         Discussion: Ask delegates to offer what
                                multi-skill, TOPs, Youth Sport Trust
                                                                         they consider FUNdamentals to mean. What
            Establish the       (YST), multi-skill clubs, national
                                                                         things come to mind when the word is
            relationship        curriculum).
                                                                         mentioned? Write all responses on flip-chart
            between
                                Establishment of the relationship        paper, separating answers into two groups
            FUNdamental
                                between FUNdamental movement skills      representing the FUNdamentals of
            movement skills
                                and the FUNdamentals of movement.        Movement (ABCs) and FUNdamental
            and the
                                                                         movement skills (run, throw catch, jump
            FUNdamentals        Explanation of the ABC structure:
                                                                         etc). Ask delegates to draw out distinctions
            of movement
                                                                         between the two (ie movement patterns
                                Agility                                  that provide a foundation for future [sport-
                                Balance                                  specific] skills versus the generic concepts
                                Coordination                             that underpin all good movement, sport-
                                                                         specific or otherwise).




sports coach UK Coaching Essentials Workshop – Tutor Notes           6         An Introduction to the FUNdamentals of Movement (MS2)
                             Explanation of the DEALER structure:         Refer to laminates that describes the ABC         Agility, Balance
                                                                          structure to delegates. Use the laminate          and Coordination
                             Definition
                                                                          posted on the facility wall as a reference to     laminates
                             Experience
                                                                          reinforce the FoM.
                             Activities
                             Language                                     Highlight that the workshop is designed to
                             Evaluation                                   explore the generic FUNdamentals of
          Identify the
                             Respond.                                     movement applied to all sports/activities, but
          elements of
                                                                          that it will also look at FUNdamental
          quality coaching
                                                                          movement skills.
          as they relate
                             Identification of the elements of quality
          to developing                                                   Introduce the Candidate Notes to the              Candidate Notes
                             coaching and how they relate to
          FUNdamentals.                                                   delegates and use it to describe the basic
                             developing FUNdamentals.
                                                                          workshop structure, giving a clear indication
                                                                          that the course is practical. Point out that
                             Determination of the link between
                                                                          they can record notes on the specific
                             quality coaching and the processes of
                                                                          activities of the workshop in this, and that it
                             effective observation, evaluation
                                                                          is theirs to take away.
                             and intervention.
                                                                          Introduce Figure 1:Child Development              Figure 1: Child
                             Emphasis that adapting activities if a                                                         Development
                                                                          Graph (laminate posted on the facility wall
                             child is failing, could be used as an                                                          Graph laminate/
                                                                          and on page 4 of the Candidate Notes).
                             intervention.                                                                                  Figure 1 on page
                                                                          Discuss how the graph will be explained           4 of the
                             Exploration of the link to the                                                                 Candidate Notes
                                                                          through experiential learning throughout the
                             philosophy of LTAD and providing
                                                                          course, before it is revisited in the summary
                             practices that are developmentally
                                                                          section.
                             appropriate to share and discuss
                             with delegates.
                                                                          State to delegates that this is a child-centred
                                                                          approach where differentiation is utilised to
                             Identification that this is not always
                                                                          meet the needs of individuals.
                             age-group related, and that early
                             movers, late movers and individual
                             rates of maturation should also be
                             taken into account.




sports coach UK Coaching Essentials Workshop – Tutor Notes            7         An Introduction to the FUNdamentals of Movement (MS2)
             Section Three: Introduce and Develop ‘Low-order’ Balance Principles
                                                           (40 mins)
 By the end of this section, delegates will be able to:
 identify key components of balance in both static and dynamic contexts
 recognise generic issues related to balance and readiness to move.

  Time        Outcome            Content Overview                      Delivery Ideas and notes                          Resources
           Identify key
20 mins                      The introduction of balance   Define balance to delegates as ‘a state in which a       Balance laminate
           components of
                             as the foundation to safe,    body or object remains reasonably steady and             and page
           balance in both
                             efficient and effective       stable’. Ask delegates to discuss this statement and     6 of the Candidate
           static and
                             movement; making sure         what it means.                                           Notes
           dynamic
                             relationships are
           contexts
                             established with other
                             sections of the workshop.
                             1. The lower the Centre       Task: Ask delegates to take up a start position for a    Activity 1: Height of
                                of Gravity (CoG), the      sport they play or know well. Encourage delegates to     the Centre of
                                greater the stability.     pick out the similarities (eg low CoG, wide base) and    Gravity (CoG) on
                                                           differences (eg front to back, side to side) between     page 8 of the
                                                           sports and comment on the reasons for similarities       Candidate Notes
                                                           and differences. Note: this is the first example of
                                                           generic concepts that run across sports.


                             2. Balance is achieved        Task: Ask delegates to take up the front to back         Activity 2: Centre
                                when the CoG is over       balance position and ask them to note the position       and Base on page 9
                                the supporting base.       of their centre (roughly the belly button) in relation   of the Candidate
                                                           to the base of support. Note that on this occasion       Notes
                                                           the base is defined by two points of contact. Also
                                                           note that perfect balance is defined when the centre
                                                           is directly positioned over the centre of the base.
                                                           Now, ask them to move to a position where they are
                                                           balancing on one foot and note what the centre does
                                                           to retain balance.

sports coach UK Coaching Essentials Workshop – Tutor Notes         8         An Introduction to the FUNdamentals of Movement (MS2)
                                                         In a similar way, ask delegates to take up a ‘press
                                                         up’ four-point position, again noting the location of
                                                         the centre. Ask them to lift a limb from the floor and
                                                         note what happens to the centre to ensure balance
                                                         is maintained. Ask them to try moving a different
                                                         limb then continuously exchange limbs.
                           3. The further the CoG        Task: Ask delegates to take up the side-to-side          Activity 3: Losing
                              from the centre of the     balance position and begin to move the centre from       Balance on page 9 of
                              supporting base the        side to side. Encourage them to take it to the           the Candidate Notes
                              less stable the body       extreme point where balance is lost. What is the
                              becomes.                   relationship between the centre and the base at this
                                                         moment? Returning to the same balanced position,
                                                         ask delegates to explore movement of the centre in
                                                         the front-to-back direction.
                                                         The rapid loss of balance here compared to sideways
                                                         movement of the centre suggests that good balance
                                                         should be judged relative to the direction of
                                                         movement. Ask delegates to repeat the task using a
                                                         front-to-back balance position. Do the same ideas
                                                         apply?

                                                         Review: Summarise the three principles covered           Figure 2: Base of
                                                         and direct delegates to the Figure 2: Base of            Support laminate
                                                         Support laminate (posted on the facility wall),
                                                         indicating the relationship between the base of
                                                         support and the centre of gravity.


20 mins   Recognise        Application of coaching       Task: In small groups (4–5), ask delegates to
          generic issues   pedagogy, differentiation     develop a series of activities or games that can be
          related to       and practical progressions    used to introduce and develop one or a number of
          balance and      (eg static to dynamic,        the principles of balance that have been discussed.
          readiness to     changing surfaces,            Consider how activities might be progressed or
          move             self/pairs/group activity,    regressed, depending on the ability of performers,
                           introduction of objects and   and encourage groups to consider changing the


sports coach UK Coaching Essentials Workshop – Tutor Notes       9          An Introduction to the FUNdamentals of Movement (MS2)
                           challenges to visual           surface (eg to a beam or a balance cushion). Also
                           systems).                      consider activities to suit one person, a pair working
                                                          together and/or a small group.


                           Introduction to the notion     Discussion: Gather feedback from each of the             Figure 1: Child
                           of the activity continuum      groups. Challenge observers to establish where           Development Graph
                           and having activities set at   specific balance principles are occurring. Highlight     laminate
                           the appropriate level with     examples developed by the groups that represent
                           principles kept the same.      progression/regression and make links to the Figure
                                                          1: Child Development laminate.
                           Discussion of the
                           observation, recognition of
                                                             Discuss the application of balance principles to
                           quality movement and
                                                              their own coaching environments.
                           explanation of the FABB
                                                             Discuss the language used by tutors and
                           structure:
                                                              participants and the appropriate language that
                                                              might be used for a variety of ages, abilities,
                           Feet                                                                                    FABB laminate
                                                              backgrounds, etc.
                           Arms
                           Body
                                                          Remind delegates that they may write any thoughts
                           Brain
                                                          in their work booklets.
                           The learning of terminology
                           and possible language to be
                           used by a variety of client
                           groups, and evaluation of
                           the key delivery of FoM in
                           peer groups with tutor
                           support.




sports coach UK Coaching Essentials Workshop – Tutor Notes        10         An Introduction to the FUNdamentals of Movement (MS2)
  Section Four: Introduce and Develop ‘Low-order’ Coordination Principles (60 mins)
By the end of this section, delegates will be able to:
 explain some of the basic components of efficient coordination with particular reference to FUNdamental movement skills
 identify the key progressions in the development of inter-limb coordination and be able to apply them to a range of activities,
  including the use of sports equipment
 define how the body produces force, applying key generic principles to developmental stages of explosive movements.
 Time          Outcome              Content Overview                         Delivery Ideas and notes                     Resources
           Explain some of
10 mins                        Example: striking – there is     Define coordination to delegates as the skilful and     Page 6 of the
           the basic
                               the coordination of the body     balanced movement of the body and its parts at the      Candidate Notes/
           components of
                               parts to produce the force of    same time. Introduce two broad forms of                 Coordination
           efficient
                               the strike (eg forehand), but    coordination:                                           laminate
           coordination
                               this action must be
           with particular                                         internal to produce an action
                               coordinated (timed) with an
           reference to
                               approaching ball.                   coordination of an action with an external event.
           FUNdamental
           movement skills                                      Explain that in this workshop we will be focusing on
                                                                the first form.

           Identify the key    1. The synchronisation of        Task: In pairs, with one person lying on their back     Activity 1:
           progressions in        limbs to function together    in a prone position, explore the number of ways         Organising Limbs
           the development        is closely linked to mental   limbs can coordinate with one another. Encourage        on page 10 of
           of inter-limb          organisational abilities      delegates to think about a sequence of progression      the Candidate
           coordination and       and should be considered      where the mental effort for organisation increases.     Notes
           be able to apply       along a continuum from        Lead delegates through the developmental sequence
           them to a range        simple to complex.            (ie unilateral, bilateral simultaneous and bilateral
           of activities,         Crossing the body midline     alternate) and explain this can be applied to both
           including the          is a key coordination         arms and legs. At this point, introduce the idea of
           use of sports          milestone.                    body axes running vertically and horizontally, and
           equipment                                            raise the issue of crossing the body midline as a key
                                                                coordination milestone.




sports coach UK Coaching Essentials Workshop – Tutor Notes          11         An Introduction to the FUNdamentals of Movement (MS2)
                            Mental organisation of           Demonstration: Explain to delegates that crossing
                            movement is easier when          the body midline is perhaps most obvious when a
                            coordination respects the        racquet is used. Show examples of:
                            body axis. Cross-axis
                                                                a feed to the forehand
                            organisation presents more of
                            a challenge mentally.               a feed to the backhand with a backhand
                                                                 response
                                                                a feed to the backhand but with a ‘run around’
                                                                 forehand response
                                                                a feed to the backhand and an exchange of
                                                                 hands for a forehand response.
                                                             Review: Summarise the key points so far by using         Figure 3:
                                                             the Figure 3: Inter-limb Coordination laminate           Inter-limb
                                                             (posted on the facility wall), highlighting inter-limb   Coordination
                                                             coordination. Ask delegates to think about how           laminate
                                                             these ideas relate to the FUNdamental movement
                                                             skills (walk, run, jump, hop, leap, skip, etc).
                                                             Task: In small groups (4–5), develop a series of
                            The application of the
                                                             activities or games for either the lower body or
                            principles to demonstrate
                                                             upper body that can be used to introduce and
                            progressions in activities for
20 mins   Define how the                                     develop the various forms of coordination in the
                            players/performers. Here, the
          body produces                                      sequence. Consider activities that evaluate limbs
                            tutor can either refer to
          force, applying                                    crossing the midline and develop opportunities to
                            his/her tutor resource or
          key generic                                        suit one person, a pair working together, and a
                            devise their own activities.
          principles to                                      small group.
          developmental
                                                             Discussion: Gather feedback from each of the
          stages of
                                                             groups. Challenge observers to identify where
          explosive
                                                             activities are working with each of the different
          movements
                                                             types of coordination. Highlight examples developed
                                                             by the groups that represent progression/regression.




sports coach UK Coaching Essentials Workshop – Tutor Notes       12         An Introduction to the FUNdamentals of Movement (MS2)
10 mins                     2. The speed of a ball, body     Task: In pairs, ask delegates to observe each other      Activity 2:
                               or implement, is              demonstrating the extremes of what you consider to       Generating Force
                               determined by the speed       be an immature and mature throwing pattern. For a        on page 11 of
                               of the last part of the       better idea of an immature pattern, try throwing         the Candidate
                               body at the time of           with your non-dominant hand.                             Notes
                               contact or release.           Discussion: What are the characteristic differences
                               Therefore, the build up of    of the two extremes? Or, what does a mature
                               force or transfer of          pattern include that an immature one does not? Why
                               momentum along a chain        does this lead to more effective/efficient throwing?
                               from one body segment
                               to the next is critical.
                                                             Direct discussion towards looking for a whole-body
                            Identification that mechanical   action: rotation, arm from behind with lag, step in,
                            principles are involved in       full extension and follow through. Note that this
                            producing force, using           allows the thrower to engage the large/powerful
                            multiple body segments (ie       muscle groups and transfer that force to the
                            summation of forces and          ball/implement.
                            transfer of momentum             Refer back to the idea of coordination milestones
                            [kinematic chain]).              and re-emphasise rotation, limb extension and step
                            Each body part should be         as three key points in the development of throwing,
                            moved at the instant the         striking and kicking. Point out that the production of
                            previous segment begins to       force is about the unfolding of a (kinematic) chain to
                            slow down, with larger,          produce high velocity at the end point. Make the link
                            slower body parts moving         to jumping here.
                            first, and smaller, lighter      Task: In small groups (4–5), devise an activity or       Activity 3:
20 mins
                            parts moving later and faster.   game that will help encourage the development of         Generating Force
                                                             rotation. Focus on the separation of shoulders and       on page 11 of
                                                             hips, fixing one and rotating the other around it.       the Candidate
                                                             Consider activities to suit one person, a pair working   Notes
                                                             together and a small group. What methods can you
                            Sit to isolate hips, link arms   use to guarantee that the shoulders/hips are
                            with a partner/use the wall to   isolated?
                            isolate shoulders.




sports coach UK Coaching Essentials Workshop – Tutor Notes       13         An Introduction to the FUNdamentals of Movement (MS2)
                                                             Discussion: Gather feedback from each of the
                                                             groups. Challenge observers to evaluate the validity
                                                             of the activities, in particular the complete isolation
                                                             of either hips or shoulders. Do the activities deliver
                                                             what they claim to?
                                                             Extension: If time permits or further explanation is
                                                             required, consider exploring backswing and follow
                                                             through.
                                                             Task: In pairs, kneeling and facing each other, ask
                            3. A longer lever arm and        delegates to attempt to throw or roll a ball
                               length of time over which     underhand to their partner. Try throwing the ball
                               force is applied leads to     from a position level with the hips without any
                               greater speed at the end      backswing. Now try throwing with backswing but
                               point. Backswing, full        without any follow through, stopping the motion
                               extension of the limbs at     of the arm at a point level with the hips. Which of
                               release/contact and           the methods seems to produce most speed or
                               complete follow through       force at ball release? Backswing plus follow through
                               facilitates this effect, as   as force is applied for a longer time and over
                               do artificial extensions to   greater distance.
                               the limb.
                                                             Allow delegates, in groups, to demonstrate the            Candidate Notes
                                                             movement patterns required for their sport,
                                                             supporting them as they evaluate the key delivery of
                                                             FoM. Advise them to write any information down in
                                                             their Candidate Notes.

                            Exploration of terminology to    Encourage delegates to take notes and review the
                            be learned and possible          section.
                            language to be used by a
                            variety of client groups.




sports coach UK Coaching Essentials Workshop – Tutor Notes       14         An Introduction to the FUNdamentals of Movement (MS2)
        Section Five: Introduce and Develop ‘Low -order’ Agility Principles (40 mins)
By the end of this section, delegates will be able to:
 explain how performers manage the use of force against the ground when accelerating, stopping and changing direction
   quickly/effectively.


 Time        Outcome              Content Overview                         Delivery Ideas and notes                        Resources

10 mins    Explain how      1. A force acting against a        Define agility as a combination of balance and           Page 7 of the
           performers          surface has an equal force      coordination. Explain that, in essence, agility is       Candidate Notes
           manage the          acting in the opposite          balance and coordination on the move at speed. At        /Agility laminate
           use of force        direction (starting).           this stage, note also the physical demands of agility
           against the                                         (ie strength, speed and range of movement).
           ground when      Many sports require the mover      Task: In pairs, choose one person to move and the
           accelerating,    to mobilise the body quickly.      other to observe/coach. From an upright standing         Page 12 of the
           stopping and     This may be facilitated by         position, ask delegates to observe the mover as they     Candidate Notes
           changing         creating a point of instability.   receive a cue to move forward quickly from a static
           direction        However, this is only useful       start. Consider which parts of the body move first, in
           quickly/         when the direction of              what direction and how they use the floor and centre
           effectively      movement is certain (eg            of mass to overcome the body’s weight. Repeat the
                            starting positions on the edge     exercise, this time allowing the mover to make some
                            of balance).                       adjustments to aid a rapid start. Observe the
                                                               changes the mover makes.


10 mins                     2. The greater the time,           Task: In pairs, one as the observer/coach and the        Activity 2:
                               distance and area over          other as the active member get delegates to perform      Stopping on
                               which force is dispersed,       a single-leg squat with a jump on the spot, and try      page 13 of the
                               the less force received by      to change legs and control the landing. Try a            Candidate Notes
                               the body on impact              horizontal jump (two feet) or a lateral hop. What
                               (stopping).                     characterises successful performance in this task?
                                                               How do the better performers manage the forces of
                            The landing is ‘cushioned’ by      impact with the floor to ensure they don’t lose
                            progressively flexing the ankle,   balance?
                            knee and hip, providing time

sports coach UK Coaching Essentials Workshop – Tutor Notes         15                An Introduction to the FUNdamentals of Movement
(MS2)
                           and distance for the force to        Link back to the key relationship in balance, centre
                           disperse.                            and base, etc. This principle aids in maintaining
                           These activities require a           balance when bringing the body to a stop, by
                           degree of basic leg strength         ensuring the centre of mass is maintained inside a
                           and so are a useful diagnostic       very narrow base of support.
                           tool for evaluating and              Task: Explore how these ideas can be applied to
                           improving this function, as well     movement in a horizontal direction stopping
                           as identifying left- and right-leg   forward–backward or side-to-side movement,
                           imbalances, and the ability of       retaining balance and then changing direction to
                           an individual to manage their        move the other way. Observe the relationship
                           own body weight. In this             between the centre and the base of support, and the
                           regard, the absence of any           strategies learners employ to maximise stability and
                           knee flexion may be as a result      turn around:
                           of either coordinative ability
                           and/or insufficient strength.           Widening the base of support creates space for
                                                                    the centre to continue slowing without travelling
                                                                    outside the base.
                                                                   Leaning in the opposite direction places the
                                                                    centre closer to the edge of the base, creating
                                                                    instability in the direction of the new movement.

10 mins                                                         Task: In small groups (4–5), devise some games or
                                                                activities that will provide opportunities for
                                                                individuals to explore the principles associated with
                                                                effective stopping, starting and change of direction.
                                                                Think about how you might actively encourage the
                                                                learner to remain balanced.
                                                                Extension Gather feedback from each of the
                                                                groups. Challenge observers to evaluate the validity
                                                                of the activities. Do the activities deliver what they
                                                                claim to?

                           3. A change in the momentum          Task: In small groups, nominate half the delegates       Activity 3:
10 mins                       of a body or object in motion     as movers, while the other half observe them             Accelerate and
                              requires a change in the          perform rhythmic movement in and out of a line of        Change Direction
                              force applied and/or the time     evenly spaced cones. Ask observers to identify those     on page 13 of
sports coach UK Coaching Essentials Workshop – Tutor Notes          16                An Introduction to the FUNdamentals of Movement
(MS2)
                               over which it is applied (ie   individuals who demonstrate efficient movement and      the Candidate
                               impulse). The greater the      good rhythm, noting the differences/similarities with   Notes
                               force and/or time the force is other movers, and the ways in which force is used
                               applied, the greater the       against the floor. Does everyone move with the
                               change in momentum             same preferred rhythm?
                               (acceleration).
                                                              Task: Reduce the space between the cones at one
                                                              end of the line, repeat the exercise moving along the
                           Exploration of the principles
                                                              line in one direction and then back in the opposite.
                           associated with the
                                                              How do changes in the spacing impact on the
                           management of contact forces
                                                              momentum and overall timing of the movement. Pay
                           and the ground (eg ground
                                                              particular attention to the point at which the cones
                           reaction, impulse, acceleration,
                                                              get closer/further apart. How does the use of force
                           deceleration), methods of
                                                              against the floor change to accommodate the
                           qualitative observation and
                                                              change in spatial constraints?
                           analysis of movement.
                                                              Extension: If time permits, exchange performer and
                                                              observer groups and repeat. Determine whether a
                                                              use of music is at all possible.
                           Reiteration of terminology to
                           be learned and possible            In groups, ask the delegates to discuss the language    Candidate Notes
                           language to be used by a           used during the workshop and the appropriate
                           variety of client groups.          language that might be used for a variety of ages,
                                                              abilities, backgrounds, etc. Get delegates to feed
                                                              back to the whole group thereafter.

                                                             Encourage delegates to take notes and review the
                                                             section.




sports coach UK Coaching Essentials Workshop – Tutor Notes       17                An Introduction to the FUNdamentals of Movement
(MS2)
                                           Section Six: Summary (15 mins)
By the end of this section, delegates will be able to:
 explain why movement skills should be introduced in-line with the developmental age of the child
    undertake an individual action plan (IAP) and discuss ways in which FUNdamental concepts can be applied to enhance and enrich
     coaching practice.

    Time        Outcome              Content Overview                         Delivery Ideas and notes                       Resources

15 mins     Explain why                                          Run through the original outcomes and any other
            movement skills                                      personal needs that were discussed.
            should be
            introduced in-                                       With delegates:
            line with the                                           talk through the activities used to meet each
            developmental                                            outcome
            age of the child                                         or
                                                                    ask the group to state which activities they did to
                                                                     meet each outcome.

                                The exploration by children of   Revisit the Child Development Graph and either:           Figure 1: Child
                                these ideas in fun games-           talk through the activities used to meet each         Development
                                based settings, without              outcome                                               Graph laminate/
                                needing to know the science.         or                                                    Figure 1 on page
                                                                    ask the group to state which activities they did      4 of the
                                                                     to meet each outcome.                                 Candidate Notes

            Undertake an        Discussion of how to begin an    Ask delegates to turn to the person next to them          Action Plan on
            individual action   IAP. You could incorporate       and identify one/two action(s) they will take away        Page 14 of the
            plan (IAP) and      the following questions:         from this workshop/put into their IAP, recording any      Candidate Notes
            discuss ways in                                      information on page 14 of the Candidate Notes.
                                   How will their short-term,
            which
                                    mid-term and long-term
            FUNdamental                                          Invite feedback and signpost to other continuing
                                    coaching be affected?
            concepts can be                                      professional development opportunities within LTAD.
                                   How good an observer
            applied to
sports coach UK Coaching Essentials Workshop – Tutor Notes           18                 An Introduction to the FUNdamentals of Movement
(MS2)
          enhance and           are they?                    Ensure all delegates complete the workshop         Evaluation form
          enrich coaching      How do they coach            evaluation form before they leave.
          practice              children – are there
                                different ways they could
                                learn/try?




sports coach UK Coaching Essentials Workshop – Tutor Notes       19               An Introduction to the FUNdamentals of Movement
(MS2)
Glossary of Terms

A                                       Agility

Axis                                    An imaginary point around which a body or body parts may move/rotate

B                                       Balance

Bilateral                               The coordination of the same two limbs either side of a vertical axis

C                                       Coordination

CDO                                     Coach Development Officer

Contralateral                           The coordination of the arm and leg on opposite sides of the vertical axis

Differentiation                         The process of applying learning, appropriate to the stage of development of the learner,
                                        particularly in group-learning environments

FUNdamentals of Movement (FoM)          Principles that underpin both generic and sport-specific movement skills (ie ABCs)

FUNdamental Movement Skills             Basic movement skills that include walking, running, jumping, throwing, catching, striking,
                                        kicking, skipping, hopping

IAP                                     Individual Action Plan

Impulse                                 The product of force applied over time

Inertia                                 The resistance of an object to change in motion which is proportional to its mass

Inter-limb Coordination                 The coordination of two limbs that function together

Kinematic Chain                         A linkage of body parts involved in transferring forces/motion from one body segment to the
                                        next

LTAD                                    Long-term Athlete Development

sports coach UK Coaching Essentials Workshop – Tutor Notes       20              An Introduction to the FUNdamentals of Movement
(MS2)
Summation of Forces                     The progressive build up of forces as limb segments are recruited to the kinematic chain

Transfer of Momentum                    The transfer of the amount of motion possessed by a moving object

YST                                     Youth Sport Trust




sports coach UK Coaching Essentials Workshop – Tutor Notes     21               An Introduction to the FUNdamentals of Movement
(MS2)