UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN - LA CROSSE NAME____________________________________
Department of Economics
Eco 336001 - Women in the U.S. Economy
Donna Anderson, Ph.D.
February 11, 2010 Quiz I 11:00 class
35 points 1 hour
Answer the questions 1 – 14 on the scantron sheet. Answer the other questions on the quiz.
Your answers will be evaluated based on whether you answered the question and the quality of the
Each question is worth 1 point unless otherwise noted.
1) The wage differential by sex in the U.S. is approximately:
2) The labor force participation rate of women is:
a) The percentage of all females of working age (aged 16 and over) who are employed in the labor force.
b) The percentage of all females of working age (aged 16 and over) who are either employed or
3) The labor force participation rate of women in the United States is about _______ while for men it is about
a) 60 percent ; 65 percent
b) 59 percent ; 74 percent
c) 40 percent ; 80 percent
d) 50 percent ; 50 percent
4) The unemployment rate of blacks in the United States is approximately:
a) ½ that of whites.
b) The same as whites.
c) Twice that of whites.
5) The unemployment rate of women in the U.S. is:
a) About the same as that of men.
b) Higher than that of men.
c) Lower than that of men.
6) Karen is not working because the wage rate she is offered is ridiculously low and has given up looking for a
better paying job. She would be considered:
c) Not in the labor force.
7) Ben is on a two week vacation from his job at IBM. He would be considered:
c) Not in the labor force
8) When was the 19th Amendment granting the right to vote to women added to the U.S Constitution?
9) The percentage of women in Congress (House and Senate) is approximately:
10) The number of African-Americans in the U.S. Senate is:
11) The monthly unemployment rate is calculated:
a) Based on the number of persons filing claims for unemployment insurance each month.
b) By counting every unemployed person in the U.S. each month.
c) Based on a monthly survey of a sample of U.S. residents.
12) Which of the following statements is true concerning the Supreme Court case Goesaert v. Cleary, 1948, in
which a Michigan statute barred women from serving as bartenders except if they were the wives or
daughters of the male bar owner?
a) The Court ruled that the statute was unconstitutional.
b) The law was challenged on the grounds that the statute didn’t meet the intermediate/Craig judicial test.
c) The Court ruled there was not a rational relationship between the law and government’s objective.
d) None of the above.
13) The Equal Pay Act:
a) prohibits unequal compensation between men and women doing the same work at a company.
b) prohibits unequal treatment between men and women in all aspects of work at a company, including
c) prohibits unequal compensation for workers doing the same work based on sex, race, and ethnicity at a
d) prohibits unequal treatment in all aspects of work at a company based on sex, race and ethnicity.
14) Which view would support a government policy mandating that employers provide relatively long paid
maternity leaves of one year?
15) In Griggs v. Duke Power Co., 1971, the court ruled that the burden of proof was placed on an employer.
Explain what this means in discrimination cases and what must be shown. (3)
Once a plaintiff provides evidence that a certain employment policy or requirement has a disparate impact on a
protected class of workers (sex, race, ethnicity, color, religion, age, disability), the burden is placed on
the employer to prove that the requirement is necessary for successful performance of the employee on
the job. In the Griggs case, Duke Power could not show that having a high school diploma was
necessary to work in a non Labor department.
Disparate Impact: The adverse effect of a practice or standard that is neutral and non-discriminatory in its
intention but, nevertheless, disproportionately affects individuals having a disability or belonging to a particular
group based on their age, ethnicity, race, or sex.
16) If society were unbiased and equal, what would be the number/percentage of African Americans in the U.S.
Congress? Explain using specific actual numbers. (3)
The percentage of African Americans in the US Congress should be closer to the percentage of African
Americans in the total US population if our Congress is to be truly representative. This percentage is about
*You must have the percentage of African Americans in the total US population.
17) Why is the Equal Pay Act limited as an anti-discrimination tool? (2)
The EPA is limited because the jobs in question must be equal in every way: working conditions, job title, job
responsibilities, job requirements, etc. An employer can escape compliance with the EPA by giving
men and women doing the same job different job titles, or slightly different responsibilities, or hire a
sexually segregated workforce where women are not working in the same jobs as men, so employers do
not have to pay them the same.
18) Provide the concerns assimilationists have about the anti-assimilationist ideal. (2)
Assimiliationists, who advocate a gender blind and race blind society, are concerned that the anti
assimilationist’s ideal that differences should be recognized and celebrated, would encourage more rather than
less discrimination given that “different” has often meant “inferior”. Emphasizing differences can mean sliding
down the slippery slope towards discrimination.
19) Briefly explain the legal significance of Reed v. Reed, 1971 Supreme Court case dealing with an Idaho law
dictating who should be an executor of an estate. (3)
Reed v Reed was the first time the Supreme Court ruled in favor of the plaintiff claiming a violation of her 14 th
amendment rights based on sex discrimination. Further, it recognized that administrative ease (cost and time
savings) was not a legitimate government objective in sex discrimination cases.
20) Explain the legal standard (test) and how it was applied in determining the ruling in Bradwell v. Illinois,
1873 dealing with Myra Bradwell’s desire to practice law. (3)
The legal standard was the “reasonable relationship test” in which there must be a reasonable relationship
between a law that discriminates based on sex and a legitimate government relationship. In the Bradwell case,
the legal question was whether the statute that prohibited women from practicing law in Illinois was reasonably
related to a legitimate government objective. The court ruled that protecting women was a legitimate
government objective and was rationally related to the law that prevented women from working in such a rough
and tumble as law.
21) Define “essentialism”. (2)
Assuming not only that everyone in a particular group shares the same characteristics, but also assuming that
the group to which you belong have positive characteristics such as niceness and intelligence.
22) Explain how Phillips v. Martin Marietta, 1971, is an example of “sex-plus” discrimination, making sure you
define “sex-plus” discrimination in your answer. (3)
Sex plus discrimination is discrimination based on sexually identifiable characteristics. In the Phillips case,
Martin Marietta refused to hire her because she was a mother, stating that mothers, as opposed to fathers, are
less reliable as employees. Martin Marietta stated they did not violate Title VII because they would hire women,
just not mothers. The court ruled against MM because only women can be mothers (being a mother is a
sexually identifiable characteristic) and thus a violation of Title VII.