Mozambique

Document Sample
Mozambique Powered By Docstoc
					                            Task Force on Country Level
                            Coherence and Coordination




               Mozambique

Country survey on water sector coordination

      Overview assessment and in-depth dialogue




                                                          1
Introduction ..........................................................................................................................3
Water sector in Mozambique ................................................................................................4
  Water resources and use .......................................................................................................... 4
     Water resources ................................................................................................................... 4
     Water use ............................................................................................................................ 4
  Water management, policies and legislation ............................................................................. 4
     Institutions .......................................................................................................................... 4
     Water management .............................................................................................................. 5
     Policies and legislation ......................................................................................................... 6
        National Water Policy ...................................................................................................... 6
        National Water Management Strategy .............................................................................. 7
        Rural Water and Sanitation Strategic Plan ........................................................................ 7
Donor community in Mozambique ......................................................................................8
  Bilateral and Multilateral donors .............................................................................................. 8
  Donor community involved in the water sector ....................................................................... 9
The United Nations in Mozambique ................................................................................. 10
  UN agencies involved in the water sector .............................................................................. 12
     UNDP............................................................................................................................... 12
     FAO .................................................................................................................................. 12
     IFAD ................................................................................................................................ 13
     UNICEF ........................................................................................................................... 13
     UNEP ............................................................................................................................... 14
     UNESCO .......................................................................................................................... 14
     World Bank ....................................................................................................................... 15
        Mozambique Country Water Resources Assistance Strategy .......................................... 15
        Country Partnership Strategy ......................................................................................... 16
     WHO ................................................................................................................................ 16
     UN-Habitat ....................................................................................................................... 16
MDG 7 and Water in Mozambique .................................................................................... 17
     Ensure environmental sustainability in Mozambique ......................................................... 17
'One-UN' pilot initiative..................................................................................................... 18
Joint coordination mechanisms in the water sector ........................................................... 19
  Country mechanisms and joint programmes/strategies (Water-centred) ................................ 19
     GAS .................................................................................................................................. 19
     WASH Emergency Cluster ................................................................................................ 19
     SWAP ............................................................................................................................... 19
     WSP .................................................................................................................................. 20
     PASR................................................................................................................................. 20
  Other country mechanisms and joint programmes/strategies (with water components) ........ 21
     PROAGRI ........................................................................................................................ 21
     PARPA ............................................................................................................................. 22
     UNDAF ............................................................................................................................ 22
     NAPA ............................................................................................................................... 23
  International Coordination mechanisms ................................................................................ 24
     African Ministers' Council on Water (AMCOW) ............................................................... 24
Findings from country visit in Mozambique ...................................................................... 25
  Objectives of the visit ............................................................................................................ 25
  Approach adopted during the mission ................................................................................... 25
  Remarks on coordination mechanisms, a perspective from country actors ............................ 26


                                                                                                                                            2
    Performance of the coordination mechanisms ................................................................... 26
    Gaps and overlapping ........................................................................................................ 26
  The role of UN-Water in Mozambique.................................................................................. 28
    Way forward ...................................................................................................................... 28
Annex 1 - National Water Policy ......................................................................................... 30
Annex 2 - National Water Management Strategy ............................................................... 30
Annex 3 - Rural Water and Sanitation Strategic Plan ......................................................... 30
Annex 4 - Mozambique Country Donor Atlas (2007-2010) ................................................. 30
Annex 5 - Mozambique Country Water Resources Assistance Strategy ............................ 30
Annex 6 - Mozambique Country Partnership Strategy ...................................................... 30
Annex 7 - ONE-UN Mozambique ..................................................................................... 30
Annex 8 - GAS ToR ............................................................................................................. 30
Annex 9 - Code of Conduct - Rural Water SWAP ............................................................... 30
Annex 10 - MoU for PASR Common Fund......................................................................... 30
Annex 11 - Joint Programme Adaptation to Climate Change............................................. 30
Annex 12 – PARPA .............................................................................................................. 30
Annex 13 - United Nations Development Assistance Framework - 2007-2009 .................. 30




Introduction
This survey report has been prepared combining a desktop overview assessment report and the
fact findings from a country visit which was held on January 2009.
The objective of this report was to undertake a comprehensive survey of the water sector in the
country. Specifically, the survey aims at describing how the sector is coordinated among the
different development actors (UN agencies, Donors and others) in support to the Government.
This assessment is also to allow identifying constraints, opportunities, gaps, good examples and
weaknesses in stakeholders’ coordination.
The country visit has allowed to establish a more in-depth dialogue with the principal actors in
the sector as well as to solicit their views on how the sector coordination could be improved and
how UN-Water could play a role in promoting this process.
A number of key documents in relation to the Water sector coordination are included in this
report.




                                                                                                                                       3
Water sector in Mozambique

Water resources and use

Water resources
Mozambique has 104 identified river basins that drain the central African highland plateau into
the Indian Ocean. The majority of the rivers have a highly seasonal, torrential flow regime, with
high waters during 3-4 months and low flows for the remainder of the year, corresponding to the
distinct wet and dry seasons.
Groundwater potential is considerable and lies in the alluvial formations of the various rivers.
Well yields in the Zambezi and Incomati basins are up to 70 000 m3/day.
In Mozambique, 97.3 km3 of surface water and 17 km3 of groundwater are produced annually.
Considering an overlap between surface water and groundwater of 14 km3/yr, the total internal
renewable water resources are 100.3 km3/yr. In addition, 116.8 km3 of surface water enter the
country annually, of which 66 percent from the Zambezi River and thus total actual renewable
water resources become 217.1 km3/yr.
The two main lakes are Lake Niassa (Lake Malawi) and Lake Chirua (Lake Chilwa), both of
which are shared with Malawi. The total surface area of Lake Niassa is 30 800 km2, of which 21
percent belong to Mozambique. Lake Chirua has an average total area of 750 km2 of which no
more than 29 km2 are within Mozambique. In addition to the two main lakes, there are more
than 1 300 small lakes, 20 of which have an area of between 10 and 100 km2.
The total capacity of 27 dams with a height of 10 m or more is estimated at 64.5 km3. This refers
mostly to the useful reservoir capacity. The Cahora Bassa dam on the Zambezi River is the
largest hydroelectric plant in southern Africa with an installed capacity of 2 060 MW and a useful
storage capacity of 39.2 km3. In 1971, 583 small dams (of which 90 percent were for irrigation or
livestock watering) were registered, with a total volume of 60 million m3. It is believed that most
of them were destroyed during the war.


Water use
Water use estimates for the year 2000 indicate a total water withdrawal of 635 million m3. The
main consumer of water is agriculture, accounting for 550 million m3 (87 percent), followed by
the domestic sector using 70 million m3 (11 percent) and industry consuming 15 million m3 (2
percent).
The main source of water in Mozambique is surface water. However, groundwater is utilized on a
large scale in a number of urban centres for drinking water supply. Handpump-mounted
boreholes and shallow wells are used throughout the country as the main source of drinking
water in rural areas.


Water management, policies and legislation

Institutions
The National Directorate for Agricultural Hydraulics (DNHA) within the Ministry of Agriculture
and Rural Development (MADER) is the coordinating authority for activities relating to


                                                                                                 4
irrigation and drainage. It performs studies, executes agricultural hydraulics projects and supports
smallholder irrigation development. Inside the DNHA, the Programa nacional de irrigacao de
pequena escala (PRONIPE) was specifically created for small-scale irrigation.
The Fund for Agricultural Hydraulics Development (FDHA) is in charge of promoting, fostering
and funding the hydro-agricultural works or other activities related to irrigated agricultural
development.
The National Water Directorate (DNA) within the Ministry of Public Works and Housing
(MOPH) is in charge of policy making and implementation, overall planning and management of
the country’s water resources and the provision of water supply and sanitation services. Its
objectives are to ensure the proper utilization of ground- and surface water resources. In the
DNA, a liaison office of international rivers was established. The Regional Water Administrations
(ARAs) are basin authorities responsible for water development and management. They have
administrative, organizational and financial autonomy but report to the DNA. The ARAs are also
in charge of collecting hydrological information. DNA is organized in different Departments
dealing with specific water-related issues: Rural Water (DAR), Urban Water (DAU), Sanitation
(DAS), Water Resources Management (DGRH), Planning (GCP), etc.
The National Water Council (CNA) was created in 1991 as a consultative body to the Council of
Ministers. In general, however, the CNA has not been very effective and coordination between
agencies involved in water resources management has been a constant source of concern.
Figure shows the institutional structure of the Water sector in Mozambique. Agricultural water
related issues are dealt in close collaboration with the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural
Development (MADER).


Water management
At the national level, water management is the responsibility of the National Water Directorate
(DNA), while at the regional level the five Regional Water Administrations (ARAs) are
responsible. They control the irrigation systems and collect water fees. The only ARA fully
operational by 2000 was ARA-Sul (South), while a second one, ARA-Centro, is under formation.
ARA-Sul is in charge of the southern part of the country up to the Save River, where most
problems of water management exist. In areas not yet covered by an ARA, the Provincial
Directorates of Public Works and Housing are the authority responsible for water resources
management in the province.
The territorial responsibility of the five ARAs is as follows:
       ARA South, which includes all the basins south of the Save, and the Save River basin
        itself.
       ARA Centre, which covers all the basins between the Save and Zambezi basins.
       ARA Zambezi, which corresponds to the Zambezi basin.
       ARA Centre-North, which covers the Zambezi basin as far as the Lurio River, including
        the Lurio basin.
       ARA North, which covers all the basins north of the Lurio basin.




                                                                                                  5
                                     Council of Ministers


          Water National Council




                            MOPH
                                                                      Provincial
                                                                     Governments
       Water Technical
           Council


                             DNA


                                                              Water Department
             ARAs



                                                Consultative Council



                     DNA Departments




     DAR         GOH        DGRH         GRI          DAU             DES   DRH       GPC


                                  Figure 1: Water sector structure


Policies and legislation
The 1991 Water Law is based on a river basin approach towards water management. According
to this law, water and hydraulic structures of public interest are State property. By law, the
Ministry of Public Works and Housing is responsible for water management. Furthermore, the
social, economic and environmental impact of hydraulic works has to be assessed before their
implementation.


National Water Policy
The National Water Policy was issued in 1995, listing nine principal policies with the main aim
being to guarantee the attainment of a sustainable water supply and sanitation. It is a


                                                                                                  6
comprehensive policy strategy that encompasses all water-related aspects from supply and
sanitation, IWRM, efficiency use, disaster mitigation and environment. The Policy has the aim to
achieve the following medium (2015) and long-term (2025) objectives:
    Halve the population without access to drinkable water by 2015
    Improve sanitation services as essential basis to prevent water-borne diseases, for
      enhancing livelihoods and environment conservation
    Improve water efficiency for economic development
    Improve water use for environment conservation
    Reduce vulnerability to droughts and floods
    Promote conflict resolution and regional integration through IWRM
The National Water Policy full document is available in annex 1.


National Water Management Strategy
The main objective of the National Water Management Strategy is the effective implementation
of the National Water Policy.
The Strategy encompasses all aspects of water resources, including surface water and
groundwater, water quality and ecosystems protection, IWRM, legal, institutional and regulatory
framework, transboundary river basin management, disaster assessment and management,
capacity development.
The Strategy was launched in 2007. An inter-sectoral, multidisciplinary Working Group (GTA)
was established by the National Water Council for coordination and supervisions of the strategy
implementation. The GTA is composed by technical officers from different ministries, NGOs,
water users associations, academic institutions and private sector.
The National Water Management Strategy full document is available in annex 2.


Rural Water and Sanitation Strategic Plan
Under the DNA responsibility, the Rural Water and Sanitation Strategic Plan (2006-2015) was
launched in 2007 with the following objectives:
    Improve quality and national coverage of rural water supply and sanitation services
    Promote Rural Sanitation into the National Agenda
    Broaden the range of technology options and institutional management models
    Promote decentralization of institutional responsibilities
The Rural Water and Sanitation Strategic Plan full document is available in annex 3.




                                                                                               7
Donor community in Mozambique

Bilateral and Multilateral donors

   •   African Development Bank (AfDB)
   •   Austria
   •   Belgium
   •   Canada
   •   Denmark
   •   European Commission (EC)
   •   Finland
   •   Flanders
   •   France
   •   Germany
   •   Ireland
   •   Italy
   •   Japan
   •   Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC)
   •   Netherlands
   •   Norway
   •   Portugal
   •   Spain
   •   Sweden
   •   Switzerland
   •   United Kingdom (UK)
   •   USA (USAID)
   •   FAO
   •   GLOBAL FUND




                                                8
Donor community involved in the water sector

                                          Water sector                            MDGs
                                                                               contribution to
      Donor                                                 Water Resources
                       Water supply         Sanitation                         MDG& - Target
                                                             Management
                                                                                     10
ADB                          x                  x                  x                  x
BELGIUM                                                            x                  x
CANADA                       x                  x                                     x
DENMARK                                                                               x
EC                           x                  x                  x                  x
FAO                                                                x                  x
Finland                                                                               x
Flanders                                                                              x
FRANCE                       x                                                        x
GERMANY                                                                               x
ITALY                        x                  x                                     x
JAPAN                                                              x                  x
MCC                          x                  x                                     x
NETHERLANDS                  x                  x                                     x
PORTUGAL                     x                  x                                     x
SWEDEN                       x                  x                  x                  x
SWITZERLAND                                                                           x
UK                           x                  x                                     x
SPAIN                                                                                 x
UNICEF                                          x                                     x
USAID                        x                  x                                     x
UNFPA                                                                                 x
WorldBank                    x                  x                  x                  x
UNHCR                        x                  x                                     x
UNICEF                                          x                                     x
WHO                                                                                   x

A detailed overview of the Donor assistance forecast 2007-2010 is reported in annex 4.




                                                                                             9
The United Nations in Mozambique
The UN country team works to support national development efforts, respond to emergencies
and ensure peace and security.
The UN system in Mozambique supports the Government through a formalized UN
Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF), a plan that outlines the activities and modalities
by which the UN assists in the achievement of development goals prioritized by the
Government. As detailed in the current UNDAF (2007-2009), the UN is expediting the
implementation of the UN Reforms, a variety Joint Programming modalities and the Paris
Declaration on Aid Effectiveness.
The UN is a multi-sectoral organization. By relying on the strengths of the agencies, the UN is
equipped to deliver high quality services in a wide variety of areas. This multi-sectoral approach
allows for the UN to provide both upstream and downstream services as well as operating on an
emergency or on a long-term basis.
The UN system action in Mozambique encompasses different spheres:
   •   Advocacy for UN core values, including human rights, gender equality, human security
       and the Millennium Development Goals.
   •   Normative and technical advisory services, setting standards and ensuring quality control,
       in addition to providing technical advice according to the agencies´ respective mandates.
   •   Strengthening of national capacity at both central and decentralised levels, particularly
       strengthening Government capacity to deliver the additional resources channelled from
       DBS through the State Budget.
   •   Support to national scale-up of evidence-based programmes.
   •   Implementation Services. The UN can be sub-contracted to implement services on behalf
       of the Government, as seen in other regions, such as Latin America.
   •   Support to national humanitarian response in sudden onset emergencies.
   •   Bringing the voice of civil society to the table. The UN can play a strategic role in
       ensuring that the voice of civil society is heard. In so doing, it would also ensure that
       provinces, districts and communities are given similar opportunities and access to make
       their voices heard and to influence central government policy.
   •   Building partnerships between all stakeholders. Given its impartiality, the UN is an ideal
       mediator and facilitator to foster partnerships.
The UNDAF 2007-2009 was developed on the basis of these areas of comparative advantages.
The United Nations in Mozambique is composed of a team of Agencies, Funds and
Programmes, under the leadership and coordination of the UN Resident Coordinator. The team
works together to more effectively respond to national development and humanitarian challenges
of Mozambique.
Here is the list of UN bodies:




UN Agency                                                  Website


                                                                                               10
FAO      Food and Agriculture Organization http://www.fao.org/world/mozambique/in
                                               dex.html
IFAD     International Fund for Agricultural   http://www.ifad.org/english/operations/pf
         Development                           /moz/index.htm
ILO      International Labour Organization     www.ilo.org
UNAIDS   Joint United Nations Programme        http://www.unaids.org/en/CountryRespons
         on HIV/AIDS                           es/Countries/mozambique.asp
UNCTAD   United Nations Conference on          http://www.unctad.org/Templates/Startpag
         Trade and Development                 e.asp?intItemID=2068&lang=1
UNDP     United Nations Development            http://www.undp.org.mz/
         Programme
UNEP     United Nations Environment            http://www.unep.org/home/unep-
         Programme                             world.asp?map=roa
UNESCO   United Nations Educational,           http://portal.unesco.org/geography/en/ev.
         Scientific and Cultural               php-
                                               URL_ID=2353&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&
         Organization                          URL_SECTION=201.html
UNFPA    United Nations Population Fund        www.unfpa.org
UNHCR    United Nations High                   http://www.unhcr.org/country/moz.html
         Commissioner for Refugees
UNIC     United Nations Information            http://www.unic.org/
         Centres
UNICEF   United Nations Children’s Fund        http://www.unicef.org/mozambique/
UNICRI   United Nations Interregional          http://www.unicri.it/
         Crime and Justice Research
         Institute
UNIDO    United Nations Industrial             http://www.unido.org/index.php?id=28
         Development Organization
UNIFEM   United Nations Development            www.unifem.org
         Fund for Women
UNV      United Nations Volunteers             http://www.unv.org/what-we-
                                               do/countries/mozambique.html
WB       The World Bank                        www.worldbank.org/mozambique
WFP      World Food Programme                  http://www.wfp.org/country_brief/indexco
                                               untry.asp?country=508




                                                                                      11
UN agencies involved in the water sector

UNDP
UNDP is involved in the water sector in Mozambique, more specifically in the water
management area. One of the focus are of UNDP is Energy and environment for sustainable development
area and deals directly with MDG 7 issues. The following initiatives deal directly or indirectly
with sector water-related issues:
    •   GEF funded Small Grants Programme (SGP)
SGP aims to deliver global environmental benefits in the GEF Focal Areas of biodiversity
conservation, climate change mitigation, protection of international waters, prevention of land
degradation (primarily desertification and deforestation), and elimination of persistent organic
pollutants through community-based approaches. SGP embodies the very essence of sustainable
development by providing financial and technical support directly to NGOs and CBOs in
developing countries for activities that conserve and restore the environment while enhancing
people's well-being and livelihoods of local communities. It demonstrates that community action
can maintain the fine balance between human needs and environmental imperatives.

Funded by the Global Environment Facility (GEF) as a corporate programme, SGP is
implemented by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) on behalf of the GEF
partnership, and is executed by the United Nations Office for Project Services (UNOPS).
    •   Strengthening Local Risk Management and Mainstreaming Disaster Risk Reduction
The overall goal of the Programme is to strengthen national capacities at all level to reduce the
risk of disasters and mitigate their impacts on the vulnerable populations in the country.
Considering the current flood situation, it will also strengthen the early recovery process and
provide some technical assistance to develop an appropriate and timely recovery plan.

FAO
FAO has a long-standing history in Mozambique responding to aspects developed at global,
regional and national levels. Its National Medium Term Priority Framework 2008-2012 is a
poverty reduction and food security oriented package of integrated projects and programme-
based activities that can be set within two broad groups: Supporting the mainstreaming of global
goals and principles into national policies and programmes (PARPA.), and other normative
activities; Responding to the specific needs of the country (national programmes and activities to
implement them) with a focus on capacity building and introducing, testing and piloting new
approaches.
Based on the global FAO mandate and the food security needs of Mozambique, FAO in
Mozambique different projects in operation, providing technical assistance in the Water
Management area. Through the Irrigation programme there are different initiatives on-going and
in pipeline:
Current initiatives:
    •   Rehabilitation of small scale irrigation schemes
    •   Improvement of water scheme management
    •   Improvement of water harvesting and management in framework of Special Programme
        for Food Security



                                                                                                12
Potential Support Interventions:
Potential areas that may be considered for future assistance to enhance the efficiency and
effectiveness of irrigation could include measures to:
   •   Consolidate the National Irrigation Policy and Strategy through broad stakeholder
       consultation/participation and support its implementation and to integrate the irrigation
       policy into the national water policy and master plan;
   •   Draw on the experience gained during the pilot-phase of the Special Programme for
       Food Security to extend the introduction of simple, small-scale irrigation techniques and
       to build national capacities for the production and maintenance of the related irrigation
       system;
   •   Draw on the experience gained during the pilot-phase of the Special Programme for
       Food Security to extend the rehabilitation of irrigation schemes, preferably with full
       participation from the private sector; and
   •   Rehabilitate small-scale irrigation schemes by drawing on the water and crop management
       capacities of local associations and communities.


IFAD
IFAD in Mozambique doesn’t specifically deals with the water sector.
However, investments water-related infrastructures can be directly addressed in projects related
to the agriculture related services strategic area. IFAD action therefore encompasses the water
supply and management areas.


UNICEF
UNICEF has been working in Mozambique since 1975. The 2007-2009 Country Programme of
Cooperation between the Government of Mozambique and UNICEF aims to reduce disparities
in the well-being of children by ensuring that vulnerable children in the most disadvantaged
families and communities progressively realise their rights to survival, development, protection
and participation.
The programme supports national efforts in child health and nutrition; basic education; water,
sanitation and hygiene; child protection; and social policy, advocacy and communication.
Interventions to support children and women affected by AIDS cut across all aspects of the
programme. Specifically UNICEF deals with the Water sector through the WASH programme.
The water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) programme addresses low coverage levels, poor
service delivery and weak sustainability of water and sanitation facilities, and supports national
efforts to reduce the incidence of diseases such as diarrhoea and cholera.
The key results are:
   •   National level policies, strategies, and plans prioritise vulnerable groups to reduce
       disparities in access to water and sanitation and hygiene;
   •   Decentralised planning, monitoring, evaluation and management procedures for drinking
       water and sanitation in targeted provinces are operationalised;




                                                                                               13
    •   At least one million new users, prioritising vulnerable groups, have access to and use safe
        water and appropriate sanitation and improved hygiene practices in targeted districts,
        particularly during emergencies;
    •   At least 80 per cent of primary schools in targeted districts have water and sanitation
        services and hygiene education programmes



UNEP
UNEP doesn’t have a permanent office in Mozambique, but it implements different projects in
the country. Water is not specifically addressed at country level. It is however addressed in
regional inititiaves through the suppot of the African Ministers Council on Water (AMCOW). A
detailed session on AMCOW is reported below. UNEP addresses water through the following
strategy:
    •   UNEP’s Water Policy and Strategy for Africa
Some of the major gaps in the water sector that has been identified in Africa include technical
capacity for managing industrial waste water; use of non-conventional water resources, in
particular rainwater harvesting; harmonizing legal and regulatory frameworks which apply to
water resources; and data collection and management. Information communication technology
(ICT) was the most fundamental technological need identified in the country assessments. In
order to address these shortcomings, the implementation of the Water Policy and Strategy of
UNEP emphasizes development of strategic partnerships, particularly with the governments,
relevant organisations, United Nations agencies (in the context of UN reform), development
partners, civil society, and private sector.
As part of the implementation of the UNEP’s Water Policy and Strategy the Regional Office for
Africa (ROA) is carrying out the following activities:
    •   Providing technical support and guidance for the mainstreaming of the Rivers and Lakes
        Basin Organisations and development of a collaborative framework into the AMCOW
        process as an integral part of its Work Programme.
    •   Participating in the UN inter-agency collaboration in the water sector (UN-Water/Africa)
        in the context of the Implementation of AMCOW Work Programme;
    •   Participating in international, cross-boarder and trans-boundary debates/joint meetings
        [e.g. Inter-Basin Water Transfer under the aegis of Economic Commission for Africa;
    •   Overseeing , in the interim, the implementation and monitoring of the AMCOW Work
        Programme under the overall supervision of AMCOW President Office;
    •   Collaboration with UNEP Collaborating Centre on Water and Environment (UCC) to
        support the development of IWRM roadmaps in selected African countries


UNESCO
Mozambique hosts a National UNESCO Office in Maputo. Water is addressed through the
Culture and Sciences Programmes:
The theme 'Water and Culture' highlights the fact that there are as many ways of viewing, using,
and celebrating water as there are cultural traditions across the world. Sacred, water is at the heart
of many religions and is used in different rites and ceremonies. Fascinating and ephemeral, water



                                                                                                   14
has been represented in art for centuries - in music, dance, painting, literature, and cinema - and it
is an essential factor in many scientific endeavors as well.
Two regional initiatives specifically address water:
    •   SA FRIEND: Southern African Flow Regimes from International Experimental and
        Network Data (http://www.ru.ac.za/static/institutes/iwr//friend/?request=institutes/iwr/friend)
The Southern Africa FRIEND project is a contribution to the International FRIEND
programme which is part of the UNESCO IHP (International Hydrological Programme), in
which the central objective is hydrology and water resources for sustainable development
    •   SIMDAS: Sustainable Integrated Management and Development of the Arid and Semi-
        Arid Region of Southern Africa Programme (http://www.harare.unesco.org/simdas/index.htm)


World Bank
The World Bank focuses its attention on fighting poverty in the developing world across the
regions, from Asia, to Africa, from Latin America, Europe to Middle-East. In Mozambique, the
World Bank activities span from investment lending and non-lending activities, including
technical assistance and knowledge transfer, to all major development sectors mentioned above,
with an overall disbursement averaging $150-200 million a year, and about a $billion of
committed funds.
World Bank is the leader of two relevant national assistance, jointly with the Government and
other development partners:
    •   Mozambique Country Water Resources Assistance Strategy
    •   Country Partnership Strategy

Mozambique Country Water Resources Assistance Strategy
The World Bank and the National Directorate of Water, in representation of the Government
of Mozambique, the World Bank Water Resources Assistance Strategy for Mozambique, for the
period 2008-2011.
Co-chaired with the Minister of Public Works and Housing, who stayed until the end of the
event, the launch was attended by about 100 participants drawn from Government officials,
members of civil society, academia, and journalists.
The main objective of the strategy is to assist the Government of Mozambique in prioritizing
water resources interventions based on an analysis of Mozambique’s changing socio-economic
circumstances, and the areas of possible World Bank engagement over the next 3-5 years.
This priority assistance strategy is supposed to be implemented in close partnership with
international donors active in the Mozambique water sector. Despite recent encouraging
economic growth rates, Mozambique remains dependent upon foreign assistance for much of
its annual budget. Half of Mozambique’s budget expenditures are financed through
development assistance, and, since 1992, Mozambique has received increasing support from a
number of foreign bilateral and multilateral donors such as World Bank, AfDB, IMF, EU,
SIDA, SDC, DANIDA, the Netherlands, Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC, USA) etc..
About 90% of the sector investment budget is financed by donors. At present, the most active
donors in the sector are SIDA (a five year technical assistance program in the Pungue basin will



                                                                                                    15
be launched this year), The Netherlands, African Development Bank, EU and Swiss
Development Cooperation, and the Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC, USA).
See annex 5 for further details.


Country Partnership Strategy
A new operational strategy for the World Bank Group's support to Mozambique has been
endorsed by the board of the World Bank Group and will cover the period July 2007 to June
2011. The overall goal of the Country Partnership Strategy is to empower citizens and
institutions so they can promote growth and benefit more broadly from it. The strategy reflects
a collaborative approach between the World Bank Group, Government, and development
partners to support the country’s development.
The strategy encompasses three pillars, that are also aligned with the country’s own
development strategy, or PARPA II (the Portuguese acronym for Second Action Plan for the
Reduction of Absolute Poverty), namely: (1) Increased Accountability and Public Voice; (2)
Equitable Access to Key Services; and (3) Equitable and Broad-based Growth.
The Water sector is specifically addressed in the strategy.
See annex 6 for further details


WHO
WHO has been working in Mozambique since 1976, under the Special Agreement on
Cooperation between WHO and the Government of Mozambique.
The mission of the WHO Country Office in Mozambique is "to support the development of an
efficient and equitable health system in order to achieve the health-related Millennium
Development Goals (MDGs) in strong partnership with all UN Agencies, international and
national health partners." WHO mission falls in the Delivering as One approach as
recommended by UN Reform. The overall goal of Delivering as One in Mozambique, one of
the eight pilot countries for UN reform is to ensure the delivery of concrete results in support
of the national development objectives and priorities by a more coherent, better coordinated,
funded and managed UN. WHO implements and financially supports different projects in
Mozambique in the area of Water supply and Sanitation.


UN-Habitat
UN-Habitat is involved in post-disaster and reconstruction initiatives related to human
settlements and slum upgrading, addressing the needs of urban, semi-urban and rural
communities.




                                                                                              16
MDG 7 and Water in Mozambique

Millennium Development Goal 7: Ensure environmental sustainability.
Target 7c: Reduce by half the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking
water
7.7       Proportion of population using an improved drinking water source
7.8       Proportion of population using an improved sanitation facility Both WHO and
          UNICEF are the two agencies more involved in the achievement of this target


Ensure environmental sustainability in Mozambique
Ensuring Environmental Sustainability: Status and Trends
The context of extreme poverty puts strong pressures on natural resources, since these represent
the main source of subsistence for the majority of households. Moreover, uncontrolled urban
expansion tends to harm biodiversity, the quality of soils and water, which are essential for
human life. It is thus fundamental to improve the environmental management of natural
resources in Mozambique. According to official data, it is estimated that there are 80 million
hectares of land, of which 2 percent are inland waters, 13 percent national parks and 21 percent
are covered by forest. As a proxy for energy efficiency, gross domestic product (GDP) per unit of
energy was, on average, 2.8 USD per kilowatt in the period 1999-2001. There is no information
available for carbon dioxide emissions, although around 80 percent of the energy consumed in
the country comes from woody biomass, which is a solid fuel.


Main Water-related Challenges
      •   Soil degradation. Deforestation, erosion, loss of fertility and salinisation are mainly a
          consequence of inadequate mining and farming practices, construction in inappropriate
          (and coastal) zones, pollution and natural processes. The country is cyclically affected by
          floods (and droughts), which are aggravated by the ways in which land is used in
          hydrographic basins.
      •   Pollution. An increase in the pollution levels can impact the management of natural
          resources (by increasing the quantity of waste while affecting the quality of resources),
          biodiversity, and may increase the risk of diseases. Water and air pollution are mainly
          caused by industrial residues and gases, agriculture pesticides and fertilisers, dumping sites
          and latrines.
      •   Water supply and sanitation. Inadequate water supplies and sanitation facilities (e.g. lack
          of drinkable safe water and deficient sewerage systems), particularly in densely populated
          areas, continue to pose serious health risks to the population.
      •   Lack of data and qualified staff. The environmental management system is hindered by
          the lack of statistical information on environmental indicators, particularly those that
          would facilitate the evaluation of progress in the implementation of the goal. The lack of
          qualified human resources and technical means limit the Government’s actions for
          effective monitoring and evaluation.




                                                                                                     17
Supportive Environment
Government environmental policy is geared to the fight against absolute poverty through the
promotion of sustainable development. In this connection, it is envisaged that the use of natural
resources has to fulfil the basic needs of the people and development of the nation in equilibrium
with economic growth, technology development, environmental protection and social equity.
Moreover, the Government acknowledges the need for strengthening the capacity of institutions
in relation to legal and environmental issues and the inclusive participation of citizens in this area,
particularly in the sensitisation of communities and the involvement of traditional and
community leaders in the implementation of sustainable development strategies.
Priorities for Development Assistance
    •   Improve coordination between Governmental and non-Governmental institutions with a
        mandate relating to natural resources, land and urban planning.
    •   Harmonise governance policies and environmental strategies with the PARPA II under
        formulation, taking into consideration the MDG timeframe, targets and indicators.
    •   Strengthen the institutional capacity of the Government, at the national and sub-national
        levels, to undertake activities and issues related to the implementation, monitoring and
        evaluation of environmental laws.
    •   Identify and undertake actions to minimise the negative impacts that absolute poverty
        and other human activities have on the environment.
    •   Promote environmental sustainability through activities that can enhance employment
        and income generation.
    •   Establish a baseline, both at national and provincial levels, to enable concrete assessment
        of progress towards the MDGs and the national targets.
    •   Identify solutions for poor quality of information and absence of data, both at the sector
        and at the central level.
    •   The problems in compiling information on the targets and indicators of the goal are clear
        evidence that the Government needs significant support in the short-run to recover
        possible delays in achieving the MDGs.


'One-UN' pilot initiative
The overall goal of the One UN Initiative in Mozambique is to improve programme delivery and
results through a more coherent, better coordinated, funded and managed UN. This overall goal
will guide all decisions taken by the UNCT to move this agenda forward.
A detailed description of the initiative can be found in annex 7.




                                                                                                    18
Joint coordination mechanisms in the water sector

Country mechanisms and joint programmes/strategies (Water-centred)

GAS
The Sub-sectoral Group of Water and Sanitation (GAS) is a mechanism coordinated by the
National Directorate of Water (DNA) and acts as consultative forum to provide technical
support to the Government in addressing national water and sanitation issues in order to meet
MDG7 targets and PARPA goals.
GAS meets on a monthly basis, and is constituted by technical officers from Government
(central and local) and other development partners, including UN partners and Donors. Here
follows GAS includes members from:
Government:
DNA (Sanitation Department, Rural Water Department, Urban Water Department, Planning
Department), Ministry of Health (Environmental Health Department), Water Regulation Council
Donors:
The Netherlands, JICA, CIDA, Ireland, Austrian Development Cooperation, EC
UN:
UNICEF, UN-Habitat, WSP/WB
NGO: WaterAid, CARE
Relevant documentation on the GAS TORs can be found in annex 8.


WASH Emergency Cluster
The Wash Emergency cluster is a mechanism lead by UNICEF under the coordination of DNA
comprising of both national and international organisations and NGOs (e.g. OXFAM, MSF,
Action Aid, etc.) operating across the country. The aim of the cluster is to address and promptly
respond to water-related emergency situation at country level.
Under UNICEF leadership, the cluster holds weekly meetings in Maputo, to coordinate info and
update WWW (who does what where) matrix. Regular Cluster meetings are organized at district
level, under UNICEF / DNA leadership, to coordinate activities and feed back to Maputo. At
field level, WASH Cluster merged with the Health Cluster and operated in close partnership with
the Logistics Cluster and Programme Communication (social mobilisation activities).


SWAP
The Mozambican government and its partners signed in 2008 the second round of the Code of
Conduct with the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) and the Canadian International
Development Agency (CIDA) for the establishment of a Sector Wide Approach Programming
(SWAp) for water supply. Several projects in water supply and sanitation, budgeted at US$ 40
million (EUR 27.7 million) will be funded by the African Development Bank for a five year
period, starting in 2009. He added that in parallel with these, there is also another five year
project, in the southern province of Inhambane, estimated to cost US$ 10 million (EUR 7
million), an agreement for which should be signed soon with the Dutch government.


                                                                                                19
The SWAP is not operational yet, but Code of Conduct has been signed by all partners and
places the role of leading and directing the Water Sector in Mozambique with the DNA on behalf
of the Ministry of Public Works (MOPH) and Government of Mozambique and is applicable for
all water institutions subordinate to MOPH.
Relevant documentation on the Code of Conduct can be found in annex 9.


WSP
The Water and Sanitation Program (WSP), is a multi-donor trust funded program administered
by the World Bank, comprising a field-based network of over 70 professionals based in four
regional teams (Africa, East Asia, Latin America, and South Asia) managed from a small
headquarters team in Washington, DC. The WSP-Africa regional team (WSP-AF) has its HQ in
Nairobi, with sub-regional hubs in Maputo and Dakar, and an expanding number of country
offices.
The Program's mission is to help poor people gain sustained access to water supply and
sanitation (WSS) services. WSP works in partnership with country client governments, external
support agencies, and other leading support agencies to improve various institutional,
technological and service delivery options, and to promote large-scale programs to extend service
delivery to the poor. It also identifies and analyzes key sector problems, identifies solutions,
documents and shares lessons from the field, and disseminates information at local, national,
regional, and global level.


PASR
The National Rural Water Supply & Sanitation Programme “PASR – Programa de Agua e
Saneamento Rural” is based on two policy frameworks, the PARPA, respectively, the Strategic
Plan for the Rural Water and Sanitation, and the Action Plan for the Reduction of Absolute
Poverty.
The overall goal of PASR is to contribute to the satisfaction of basic human needs, improve well-
being and fight against rural poverty through increased use and access to water supply and
sanitation services. PASR’s specific programmatic objective is the achievement of MDG targets
of 70% coverage in rural water supply and 50% in rural sanitation by 2015 through these
implementation strategies:
   -       Improving the quality and increase the coverage and sustainability of rural water
           supply services.
   -       Promoting rural sanitation in the national agenda at all levels, and particularly at the
           district level.
   -       Expanding technological options and institutional management models for RWSS.
   -       Decentralising resources, functions and competencies to enhance demand-responsive,
           service provision.
   -       Linking planning and funding with the decentralisation process
The joint Programme is represented by the MOPH, the Ministry of Planning and Development,
the Ministry of Finance and Contributing Partners such as Austrian Development Cooperation,
CIDA, the Dutch Ministry for Development Cooperation, Swiss Development Cooperation,
DIFD, UNICEF and other partners.
Relevant documentation can be found in annex 10.


                                                                                                20
Joint Programme on Environmental Mainstreaming and Adaptation to Climate Change
This Joint Programme is a joint effort of the Government and the United Nations. Specifically
the programme gathers different governmental bodies, such as the Ministry for coordination of
Environmental Affairs (MICOA), the Ministry of Agriculture (MINAG), the National Disaster
Management Institute (INGC), the National Meteorology Institute (INAM), together with FAO,
UNDP, UNEP, WFP, UNIDO and UN-Habitat.
The Joint Programme aims to achieve five significant objectives through the implementation of
specific activities in some of the most affected and at risk areas, namely along the Limpopo River
Basin and the District of Chicualacuala.
More specifically it aims at:
    -       Inform, sensitize and empower on environment and climate change issues
            Government, civil society and other stakeholders
    -       Strengthen Government capacity to implement existing environmental policies
    -       Mainstream climate proofing methodologies into government development plans,
            UN/Donors’ programming and local stakeholders’ activities and investments
    -       Enhance community coping mechanisms to climate change
    -       Diversify community livelihoods’ options
The programme addresses crises and the related implications at the macro level, through the
mainstreaming of environmental concerns into existing government policies through substantive
capacity building; dissemination of technical knowledge for more efficient water collection,
consumption and use; propagation of mechanisms for adaptation to climate change. The
problem will be addressed at the micro level, by evaluating the potential and sustainability of
existing and future boreholes and the rehabilitation of small, selected dams and irrigation
schemes. It will identify, design and implement rain water harvesting techniques that will enable
the most vulnerable areas and population to have greater access to water, which will subsequently
result in the increase of more sustainable and productive livelihoods.
Relevant documentation can be found in annex 11.


Other country mechanisms and joint programmes/strategies (with water
components)

PROAGRI
PROAGRI is a mechanism coordinated by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development
(MADER) with its Cooperating Partners, which includes Austria, Canada (CIDA), Denmark,
European Commission, FAO, Finland, France (AFD), Germany (GTZ), IFAD, Ireland AID,
Italy, Japan (JICA), the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden (SIDA), Switzerland, United
Kingdom (DFID), United States (USAID), the World Bank and other organizations from private
sector and civil society.
ProAgri started in 1999, with the aim to bring together over 70 donor-funded projects into the
MADER that effectively delivers agricultural services to Mozambican farmers. Before ProAgri,
most agricultural services were delivered through donor funded projects and the ministry's role
was somewhat marginal. MADER now is strengthening its ability to coordinate the delivery of
services either by direct provision of services in primary areas or increasingly by outsourcing to
the private sector or nongovernmental organization (NGO) partners.


                                                                                                21
Water-related issues are addressed from an agricultural perspective, with particular focus on
irrigation.


PARPA
The National Action Plan for the Reduction of Absolute Poverty (PARPA II), 2006-2009, is
intended to operationalise the objectives of the Five-Year Plan. The PARPA II sets out the
country’s medium term strategy to promote growth and reduce poverty, as defined through the
three pillars of: 1) Governance; 2) Human Capital; and 3) Economic Development. The PARPA
II was prepared by the Government of Mozambique involving civil society and development
partners, including the United Nations, the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund
(IMF).
The UN family participated actively in the development of the PARPA II in order to ensure full
integration of the UN planning and programming framework into the overall national
development agenda. In an attempt to include the local perspective, hasten decentralisation and
improve the monitoring systems of the PARPA II, special attention was paid to the provincial
priorities of civil society arising from provincial Poverty Observatories. The PARPA II is
operationalised through annual Economic and Social Plans and the annual State Budget.
The PARPA focuses particularly on the areas of: Education; Health; Water and sanitation;
HIV/AIDS; Social action; and Housing. The PARPA outlines the national objectives in each of
these areas, complementing the priorities outlined in sectoral strategies, including the Education
Sector Strategic Plan, the Health Sector Strategic Plan, the National Water Policy, the National
Strategy on Food and Nutrition Security and the National Action Plan on OVC.
The Plan can be found in annex 12.


UNDAF
The third generation of United Nations Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF) for
Mozambique for 2007 to 2009 is a common strategic framework for the operational activities of
the UN system in Mozambique. It summarises how the UN family in Mozambique intends to
support the Government of Mozambique in achieving the national objectives as identified in
Mozambique’s second Action Plan for the Reduction of Absolute Poverty (Plano de Acção para
a Redução da Probreza Absoluta - PARPA II, 2006-2009).
The PARPA II describes the macroeconomic, structural and social policies to be implemented in
Mozambique with the ultimate aim of eradicating poverty and is an operationalization of the
Government’s Five Year Plan (2005-2009), adopted in May 2005. These in turn reflect priorities
of regional initiatives, such as the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) and
global targets such as the Millennium Development Goals.
In regard to the water sector, In line with national and international priorities, the UN will seek to
support national efforts Access to safe drinking water and sanitation. Specific actions of the UN
in support of national objectives in these areas is on strengthening capacity at national and sub-
national levels for improved service delivery in the areas of water/sanitation, with a focus on
support for sustainable integrated models that can provide evidence for national scale-up;
Supporting the establishment of efficient and sustainable systems of planning, monitoring and
evaluation at national and sub-national levels, in the education, health, nutrition, water and
sanitation and social protection sectors.
UNDAF Outcome 2



                                                                                                   22
Increased access to and use of quality basic services and social protection for the most
disadvantaged populations, particularly children, youth and women, to reduce their vulnerability
by 2009.




Figure 2: UNDAF Outcome 2


The UN will use existing co-ordination mechanisms in the water sector to support the
implementation of the National Water Policy and ensure that UNDAF results are met.
The UNDAF full document is available in annex 13.


NAPA
National Adaptation Programmes of Action (NAPAs) provide a process for Least Developed
Countries (LDCs) to identify priority activities that respond to their urgent and immediate needs
to adapt to climate change – those for which further delay would increase vulnerability and/or
costs at a later stage.
An important area for the recent UNDP water governance strategy is to promote and support
water adaptation to climate change in ongoing water and climate reform work in developing
countries. Within this framework UNDP Water Governance Facility is mandated to coordinate
and author World Water Development Report 3 part on “Responding to a changing world: What
are the options?” Climate change and various response options at hand and to be developed for
the water sector to adapt to new climate realities are thus important to bring to the forefront.
UNDP WGF therefore took the initiative of an analytic study of Water Resources in the
Planning Process as expressed in National Adaptation Programmes of Action, NAPAs, under
UNFCCC, and Climate Change Adaptation in the process aiming for National Water
Strategies/IWRM Plans. The study aims at “advancing the implementation of UNDP strategic
priorities and ways in which the UNDP strategy on climate change adaptation and water
governance can be promoted; providing inputs to produce World Water Development Report
(WWDR) chapter response options to changing climatic conditions.”



                                                                                              23
NAPA in Mozambique is still in progress. The draft NAPA contains an explicit link to the
national PRSP, the PARPA, the agricultural development plan PROAGRI, and the national five
year development program and appears to be well in line with the political and strategic
objectives as well as the more important national development frameworks. However, in more
concrete terms, practical considerations about mainstreaming and issues related to the
implementation of NAPA are somewhat lacking. A section in the NAPA that specifically deals
with these issues would be useful.


International Coordination mechanisms

African Ministers' Council on Water (AMCOW)
Mozambique is a member of African Ministers' Council on Water (AMCOW).
AMCOW is a coordination mechanism that was established in 2002 to mobilize political and
technical support in order to address issues, such as access to safe water and sanitation,
protection of groundwater and integrated water resources management.
In view of the increasing critical situation in many parts of Africa several regional initiatives have
been taken to insure a coordinated effort to protect and use the freshwater resources of the
continent in a sustainable manner.        Of these initiatives one of the most significant in terms of
water protection is the AMCOW. More than 80 of Africa’s river and lake basins are shared by
two or more countries and many countries depend on water flowing from outside their national
boundaries. An extensive number of river basin commissions formed by riparian countries to
Africa’s major rivers and deltas are the most important tools being used to jointly manage
transboundary waters resources.
AMCOW was formed to primarily promote cooperation, security, social and economic
development and poverty eradication of member states through the management of water
resources and provision of water supply services. It was inspired by African Union’s economic
goals and political integration aimed at providing strategic oversight of the management of water
on the continent. The Mission of AMCOW is to provide political leadership, policy direction
and advocacy in the provision, use and management of water resources for sustainable social and
economic development and maintenance of African ecosystems within an equitable regional
representation on all its bodies.
The main challenge for the water sector in Africa is four-fold: meeting the basic needs in terms of
domestic water supply and sanitation; supporting secure food supply, protecting ecosystems and
managing risks; promoting water governance through sharing water resources; ensuring
knowledge base and valuing and allocating water.
UNEP hosts and manages the AMCOW Trust Fund, which it launched with a contribution of
US $ 100,000 in February 2005. The European Union provided US $ 3.3 Million (EURO 2.6
Million) to support implementation of AMCOW’s Triennial Work Programme, 2007 - 2009.
African government members of AMCOW have committed to contribute, collectively, at least
USD 530,000 annually to the Trust Fund to facilitate the implementation of the Work
Programme. See website: http://www.amcow.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=frontpage&Itemid=1




                                                                                                   24
Findings from country visit in Mozambique

Objectives of the visit
The objectives of the visit were:
   i.       to introduce and disseminate UN-Water’s purposes;
  ii.       discuss how the country teams are coordinating with bi-lateral donors and other IFI's;
 iii.       learn what the country teams feel could strengthen the existing coordination mechanisms
            or if new modalities would be needed;
 iv.        solicit views on what the role and benefit of UN-Water could be at national level.


Approach adopted during the mission
The country visit was conducted on 26-30 January 2009.
This mission was planned in detail and sufficiently in advance. A focal point UN-Water partner
organization (UNICEF) was identified in order to facilitate the work from a logistic and
organizational viewpoint. The role of UNICEF has been crucially important to support the
overall mission and facilitate the meetings with the different actors including Government,
Donor community, UN agencies and NGOs.
As regards to the previous country visits (Tanzania, Albania) conducted for the Task Force, most
of the meetings were participatory dialogues rather than “extractive” interviews. This approach
was preferred in order to solicit views and ideas through brainstorming rather than direct
questions through a structured questionnaire.
Multilateral meetings were preferred to bilateral ones to induce and facilitate the exchange of
views among the participants on different issues related to the coordination of the Water Sector.
This allowed to initiate a real dialogue among country actors and to facilitate their engagement in
the process.
The organizations and institutions that participated to the meetings were the following:
        -      UN agencies:
                  UNICEF, FAO, WHO, UN-Habitat, WB, UNDP
        -      Government:
                  National Directorate of Water (DNA) - Sanitation Department (DES), Rural
                   Water Department (DAR), Urban Water Department (DAU), Planning
                   Department (GPC), Water Resources Management Department (DGRH),
                   National Information System (SINAS)
                  Water Regulation Council
                  Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MADER)– Department of
                   Hydraulic Engineering, National Directorate of Agricultural Services (DNSA)
        -      Donors and bilateral implementing agencies:
                  World Sanitation Programme (WSP-WB), Royal Netherlands Embassy, UK
                   (DfID), Swiss Development Cooperation, France (MCC), Canada (CIDA), Italian




                                                                                                     25
                Cooperation, Austrian Cooperation, Sweden (SIDA), Japan (JICA), European
                Commission
    -       NGOs:
               International Relief & Developemnt (IRD), Samaritan’s Purse, Oxfam, World
                Vision


Remarks on coordination mechanisms, a perspective from country actors
Water is clearly a critical issue in the country it is extensively addressed through different country
policies, strategies and plans. Water sector has become a priority in the agenda of many
development partners, from donors, bilateral implementing agencies, United Nations and NGOs


Performance of the coordination mechanisms
There are several coordination mechanisms in place in the water sector that gather UN agencies,
Donors, NGOs under Government leadership. These mechanisms are mainly in place at central
level.
There are key governmental policy documents that specifically address water issues, such as: i) the
National Water Policy, ii) the National Water Management Strategy, iii) Rural Water and
Sanitation Strategic Plan, iv) the Mozambique Country Water Resources Assistance Strategy
(jointly with the World Bank).
Moreover there is series of key strategies and plans having strong water components, such as: i)
the National Action Plan for the Reduction of Absolute Poverty (PARPA), ii) the National
Adaptation Programmes of Action (NAPAs), iii) the the World Bank Country Partnership
Strategy, iv) and the UNDAF.
Particularly, Government and development partners are putting much effort in harmonizing and
improve coordinated action in the areas of Water Supply and Sanitation (WSS). Indeed, several
mechanisms in WSS area are in place, e.g. GAS, SWAp and the Emergency cluster which
addresses WSS issues in relation to natural disasters. There is a general perception from the
different country actors that these mechanisms are effective and are working well in coordination
with Donors and NGOs under the leadership of the Government.
In the area of Water Management there has been an effort to improve the coordination through a
joint UN Programme focusing on Environment and Climate Change, with a strong water
resource management component (under FAO lead). The programme, gathering six UN agencies
(FAO, UNEP, UN-Habitat, UNIDO, UNDP, WFP), together with the Government, addresses
water management related aspects, particularly rainwater harvesting, to cope and adapt to climate
change in specific areas affected by droughts.


Gaps and overlapping
Although water is a priority in the Government’s and other partners’ agendas, there is a general
agreement that the UN and other partners actions in the entire water sector is rather fragmented
whereby water sub-sectors, such as WSS, Agricultural Water Management (AWM), Integrated
Water Resources Management (IWRM), seems to be considered separate spheres. Actors
involved in the different areas do not have interagency mechanisms to share information and
knowledge to coordinate their action. There is, therefore, room for strengthening the
coordination in the sector



                                                                                                   26
Specifically, most of the actors pointed out that more effort should be made to enhance the
coordination in and harmonize the action the Water Management sub-sector. Particular emphasis
has been given to the transboundary river basin issues where the UN has comparative advantage.
The country hosts several transboundary basins (e.g. Zambezi, Limpopo) whose resources are
shared with the neighbouring countries.
Different development partners, Government, UN Country Team (UNCT), Donor community
and NGOs have different perspective and give emphasis to different needs, but they all recognize
the need for strengthening the coordination, and showed their willingness to contribute to a
general harmonization in the sector.
UN partners highlighted that coordination of the UNCT has to be improved for many aspects
including a more formal inter-agency mechanism to exchange information and knowledge, on
agencies’ priorities, programs and activities. Moreover, it was emphasized that coordination
should be also enhanced for targeted fund raising activities in the water sector
There was a clear consensus from the Donors community that there is much fragmentation and
overlapping in responsibilities and ranges actions among the UNCT in the water sector. There
should be an effort for simplification in responsibilities among UN partners in the sub-sectors
(WSS, AWM, River basin management, emergencies, etc). Specific UN agencies should take a
leading role the different areas of the sector.
DNA also emphasized that more effort should be made to enhance coordination for the
development of water-related indicators and a general harmonization monitoring process. DNA
also pointed out that there is a lack of coordinated support form partners at local level. Water-
related activities in the different Provinces are particularly scattered and not harmonized; partners
tend to operate even more independently than at central level.
NGOs claimed that there should be the room for a larger participation of the NGOs group in
coordination mechanisms.




                                                                                                  27
The role of UN-Water in Mozambique
The strong initial scepticism from most of the crucial development partners was a clear sign that
there was a very limited knowledge and understanding of the purposes and activities of UN-
Water, and, more specifically, of the Task Force on Country-Level Coherence and Coordination.
There was a negative preconception on the utility of the mechanism as it was initially perceived as
the usual “top-down” mechanism without targeting and addressing the real needs of the country.
In particular, despite recommendations from the previous missions in Tanzania and Albania, the
use of the structured questionnaire to solicit the different view from the actors was not at all well
received. There was also a clear signal from many actors that there was not a clear idea on how
this initiative could support the UNCT as it was perceived as mechanism bringing extra-work
with no clear benefits. Some discussions brought up a clear perception of a general mistrust on
the capacity of the UN, as system, to improve harmonization and synergy and deliver a
coordinated action.
Nevertheless, there seemed to have been a significant progress in visions and opinions at the end
of the mission after the round of discussions, the brainstorming and bilateral interviews. The
presentation of the key findings during the final wrap up was well appreciated by most of the
actors despite the initial strong scepticism. They perceived the benefits of this exercise and
particularly appreciated the possibility to brainstorm and exchanging views and ideas on water-
related issues.
Thanks to the willingness and leading initiative of some key UN players, it emerged a clear
commitment to strengthen the coordination in the sector, by creating more formal mechanisms
to facilitate the discussion and exchange of knowledge and information on water-related issues
among the UN agencies and other partners in order to provide a more effective and coordinated
response to the Government’s needs.
On the other hand, there is a clear need, arising from fact findings of the three different missions
(Tanzania, Albania and Mozambique), that UN-Water should invest more time and resources to
link up with the country-level contexts and to disseminate promote the initiative and its outputs
at country level in a more effective manner.
There is not a clear understanding and shared idea on how UN-Water could benefit the country
and support the UNCT in improving the coordination in its action within the water sector. There
seemed to be a general agreement that UN-Water could benefit the country if physically present
(e.g. through a representation in the Resident Coordinator office) and therefore playing a
strategic role i) to facilitate dialogue and exchange of knowledge among partners in the sector and
with UN-Water at global level, ii) to advocate for raising the awareness at global level on national
water-related issues and iii) to provide the UNCT with targeted technical assistance.
Finally, one of the main conclusion arising form the three different missions, is that it still
appears unclear whether and how UN-Water could benefit the countries and how an overall
strategy could be defined that could fit all the countries.


Way forward
The approach adopted during this mission resulted to be very effective in this country. As
mentioned above, the mission was prepared well in advance and this allowed avoiding frictions
and misunderstanding, as it happened in the previous Task Force country visits. It is
recommended to carry out this exercise in other countries using a similar approach for
comparison.




                                                                                                  28
Nevertheless, more effort should be made by this Task Force and the UN-Water members with a
country presence to disseminate information well in advance to their country offices (or through
UNDG or RC) on the mission goals and provide background info on UN-Water and more
specifically on this Task Force.
As further step, this UN-Water Task Force will then continue the in-depth analysis of country
level coordination mechanisms and their relevance from a water sector perspective. More country
visits will be carried out in further ONE-UN countries and other countries in order to gain a
deeper country level perspective of the potential role of UN-Water, particularly on what could be
the added value from UN-Water to the country context.
Finally, the Task Force will design, develop and finalize, based on the in-depth surveys in selected
countries, a strategy focusing on the potentials for improved country- level coordination, on how
experiences could be scaled up and what impact the UN System (through UN-Water and other
mechanisms) could have on the efforts to improve coordination in relation to water resources
management, water supply and sanitation. This task will require extensive consultations with the
Task Force members in particular and UN-Water members in general. The strategy should form
the basis for the further identification of practical measures to strengthening inter-agency work
and cooperation at country level.




                                                                                                 29
Annex 1 - National Water Policy
Annex 2 - National Water Management Strategy
Annex 3 - Rural Water and Sanitation Strategic Plan
Annex 4 - Mozambique Country Donor Atlas (2007-2010)
Annex 5 - Mozambique Country Water Resources Assistance Strategy
Annex 6 - Mozambique Country Partnership Strategy
Annex 7 - ONE-UN Mozambique
Annex 8 - GAS ToR
Annex 9 - Code of Conduct - Rural Water SWAP
Annex 10 - MoU for PASR Common Fund
Annex 11 - Joint Programme Adaptation to Climate Change
Annex 12 – PARPA
Annex 13 -United Nations Development Assistance Framework - 2007-2009




                                                                    30